How would you account for the following?
Transition metals exhibit variable oxidation states.
(i) The variable oxidation states of transition elements are due to the participation of ns and (n−1)d-electrons in bonding. Lower oxidation state is exhibited when ns-electrons take part in bonding. Higher oxidation states are exhibited when (n − 1) d-electrons take part in bonding.
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- General Properties of the Transition Elements (D-block)