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Solution for What Are Electrophiles and Nucleophiles? Explain with Examples. - CBSE (Science) Class 11 - Chemistry

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What are electrophiles and nucleophiles? Explain with examples.

Solution 1

An electrophile is a reagent that takes away an electron pair. In other words, an electron-seeking reagent is called an electrophile (E+). Electrophiles are electron-deficient and can receive an electron pair.

Carbocations (`CH_3CH_2^+`) and neutral molecules having functional groups such as carbonyl group  are examples of electrophiles.

A nulceophile is a reagent that brings an electron pair. In other words, a nucleus-seeking reagent is called a nulceophile (Nu:).

For example: OH, NC, carbanions (R3C), etc.

Neutral molecules such as H2Ö and ammonia also act as nulceophiles because of the presence of a lone pair.


Solution 2

Electrophiles: The name electrophiles means electron loving. Electrophiles are electron deficient. They may be positive ions or neutral molecules.

Ex: H+, Cl+, Br+, NO2+, R3C+, RN2+, AlCl3, BF3

Nucleophiles: The name nucleophiles means ‘nucleus loving’ and indicates that it attacks the region of low electron density (positive centres) in a substrate molecule. They are electron rich they may be negative ions or neutral molecules.

Ex: Cl Br, CN, OH, RCR2, NH3, RNH2, H2O, ROH etc

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 NCERT Solution for Chemistry Textbook for Class 11 (2016 to Current)
Chapter 12: Organic Chemistry - Some Basic Principles and Techniques
Q: 12 | Page no. 362
Solution What Are Electrophiles and Nucleophiles? Explain with Examples. Concept: Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism - Nucleophiles and Electrophiles.
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