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Facts: 'A' Without Z'S Authority, Affixes Z'S Seal to a Document Purporting to Be a Conveyance of an Estate from 'Z' to 'A', with the Intention of Selling the Estate to - Legal Reasoning


The question consists of legal propositions/ principles (hereinafter referred to as 'principle') and facts. These principles have to be applied to the given facts to arrive at the most reasonable conclusion.

Principle: Whoever makes any false document or part of a document with intent to cause damage or injury, to the public or to any person, or to support any claim or title, or to cause any person to part with property, or to enter into any express or implied, contract, or with intent to commit fraud or that fraud may be committed, commits forgery.

Facts: 'A' without Z's authority, affixes Z's seal to a document purporting to be a conveyance of an estate from 'Z' to 'A', with the intention of selling the estate to 'B' and thereby of obtaining from 'B' the purchase- money.


  • 'B' has committed forgery

  • 'Z' has committed forgery

  • 'A' has committed forgery

  • 'A' and 'B' have committed forgery

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'A' has committed forgery


The provisions related to the offense of Forgery are provided under section 463 of the Indian penal code.  In the given case, A is guilty of committing the offense of Forgery, as A without Z's authority, affixes  Z's seal to a document with the intention of selling the estate of Z to B. 

Concept: Criminal Law
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