Explain various types of irrigation systems in India. How can efficiency of applied water be increased in agriculture.
There are various types of irrigation systems in India.
1. Canal system: In this system, man-made canals receive water from different reservoirs or rivers. There are unlined field channels that serve individual fields or a group of fields. Rotation system is followed in canal irrigated areas. This ensures adequate irrigation to all the fields in water shortage.
2. Tanks: These are small storage reservoirs that catch and store the run-off of smaller catchment areas. In the tanks, outflows are controlled as per the availability of water to prevent uneven distribution of water.
3. Wells: They are of two types:
(a) Dug wells: Water is collected from water-bearing strata that slowly accumulates in the pit. Mechanical means are used to collect water from dug wells.
(b) Tube wells: It gets water from deeper strata. Diesel or electrical pumps are used to lift water from tube wells.
4. River lift system: Water is directly drawn from the rivers for supplement irrigation.
5. River valley system: In this system, plants are cultivated in riverine valleys and on the slopes of these valleys.
6. Drip and sprinkler system: Overhead pipes and water sprayers are used in this system. This method is more common in USA, Britain, Europe, and parts of India.
Efficiency of applied water can be increased in agriculture by:
(i) rainwater harvesting and
(ii) watershed management.
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