Answer in Brief
Explain the effects of the Second World War on India.
The Second World War brought in large scale destruction by thoughtless use of lethal weapons. The effects of war were as follows:
- Great Loss of Life and property: - Second World War was far more destructive than the first, taking a toll of enormous number of lives and property. One and a half crore soldiers were killed in the battle and a still greater number were crippled. The war expenditure rose to 1517 billion dollars. There was a great loss of public property, as well as destruction of agriculture and industry.
- Financial Effect: -The economy of all the nations was ruined. Inflation price rise, shortage of essential commodities, black marketing caused tremendous trouble to common people. Drought, epidemics, shortage of food, medicine and fuel created havoc (disorder) and made the lives of common people miserable.
- Moral Degradation of Man: -The unprecedented destruction changed the people's perspective towards life, God, religion and women. The death of bread earner in the family made the lives of widows and orphans precarious (insecure).
- The Decline of Imperialism: -The empire s of defeated nations-Italy, Germany and Japan came to be destroyed. However, the imperial foundation of even the victorious nations also became weak. England and France, having suffered major losses in the war, could not retain control over their colonies. India, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, in Asia and Egypt, Sudan Libya in Africa became independent soon after the war.
- The Onset of the cold war: -After the Second World War, the equation of power changed in the world. America emerged as the new superpower and world leader after the decline of the power of England and France. On the other hand, Russia stepped forward as the new leader of communist nations. This started a cold war between the communist nations led by Russia and the democratic and capitalist nations led by America.
Formation of United Nations: -The destruction caused by the Second World War created an overwhelming desire for peace as there was universal awareness about the destructive aspect of war. Therefore, with the aim of resolving international disputes through peaceful regulation, establishing cooperation and promoting coexistence and maintaining world peace United Nations Organization came to be established on 24th October 1945.
Concept: Impact of the World Wars on India
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