Explain the role of tapetum in the formation pollen-grain wall.
Tapetum is the innermost layer of the microsporangium. It provides nourishment to the developing pollen grains. During microsporogenesis, the cells of tapetum produce various enzymes, hormones, amino acids, and other nutritious material required for the development of pollen grains. It also produces the exine layer of the pollen grains, which is composed of the sporopollenin
Tapetum is the innermost layer of the microsporangium. The tapetal cells are multinucleated and polyploid. They nourish the developing pollen grains. These cells contain ubisch bodies that help in the ornamentation of the microspores or pollen grains walls. The outer layer of the pollen grain is called exine and is made up of the sporopollenin secreted by the ubisch bodies of the tapetal cells. This compound provides spiny appearance to the exine of the pollen grains