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Explain the process of DNA replication with the help of a schematic diagram. - CBSE (Science) Class 12 - Biology

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Question

Explain the process of DNA replication with the help of a schematic diagram.

Solution

DNA Replication
DNA replication is the phenomenon in which a duplicate copy of DNA is synthesised.

The steps involved in the process of DNA replication are as follows:

  • DNA replication occurs in S-phase of the cell cycle.

  • Enzyme involved: DNA polymerase (DNA dependent DNA polymerase)

  • Replication requires energy.
    Source of energy −Deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (DNTPs)

  • DNTPs have dual purposes: act as substrates as well as provide energy

  • Replication initiates at specific regions in DNA called the origin of replication.

  • DNA polymerase polymerises a large number of nucleotides in a very short time.

  • During the course of replication, two parent strands do not completely open, but a small opening forms in which replication occurs. This small opening forms a replication fork.

  • DNA polymerase can polymerise only in one direction, i.e., 5'→3'.

  • Therefore, replication occurs smoothly in 3'to 5'end of DNA (continuous replication, but occurs discontinuously in 5' to 3'end).

  • The discontinuous fragments so formed are joined by DNA ligase.

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Solution Explain the process of DNA replication with the help of a schematic diagram. Concept: Replication - The Experimental Proof.
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