Explain How Does a Primary Succession Start on a Bare Rock and Reach a Climax Community? - Biology


Explain how does a primary succession start on a bare rock and reach a climax community?



The species of organisms that first invade a bare area are called pioneer species. The pioneer species on a bare rock are usually lichens. Lichens secrete acids which dissolve rocks, thereby leading to weathering and soil formation. This paves the way for small plants which hold the soil. They are succeeded by bigger plants, and ultimately, an entire forest gets established. Forests represent the climax community in this succession.

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2011-2012 (March) Delhi Set 1

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What is ecological succession?

Differentiate between primary and secondary succession provided one example of each.

Give a reason for each the following: 

Climax stage is achieved quickly in secondary succession as compared to primary succession.

Answer the following question.
Compare the pioneer species and climax communities of hydrarch and xerarch succession respectively.

Answer the following question.
List the factors upon which the type of invading pioneer species depends on secondary hydrarch succession. Why is the rate of this succession faster than that of primary succession? 

Lichens taking roots on bare rocks are an example of ______.

All types of ecological succession whether on land or in water always reaches ______.

What is ‘Climax community’?

What are ‘pioneer species’? Give two examples of them.

Explain the following sequence of succession after a forest fire.

Explain the progress of ecological succession in newly formed volcanic island.

In what state is the climax community?

The growth of lichens on the rocks followed by mosses, herbs, shrubs and trees is an example of ______.

____________ succession begins where no living organisms were present before.

Which are the pioneer species in xerarch and hydrarch succession respectively?

Where is secondary succession initiated?

Which of the following is TRUE with respect to ecological succession?

Identify the pioneer organisms that would appear on bare rocks.

Transformation of a region from a pool of water to swamp then to marsh and then to mesic condition is an example of ____________.

The growth of lichens followed by mosses, herbs, shrubs and trees is an example of ____________.

The secondary cell wall of the plant is located:

Which of the following statements is correct for secondary succession?

Climax community is in a state of ______.

Which of the following event does NOT lead into secondary succession?

Lichen is a pioneer in succession:

Primary succession occurs on

During the process of ecological succession the changes that take place in communities are ______.

The sequence of communities of primary succession in water is ______.

In the North East region of India, during the process of jhum cultivation, forests are cleared by burning and left for regrowth after a year of cultivation. How would you explain the regrowth of forest in ecological term?

Among bryophytes, lichens and fern which one is a pioneer species in a xeric succession?

Poaching of tiger is a burning issue in today's world. What implication would this activity have on the functioning of the ecosystem of which the tigers are an integral part?

The biodiversity increases when one moves from the pioneer to the climax stage. What could be the explanation?

What will be the P/R ratio of a climax community and a pioneer community? What explanation could you offer for the changes seen in P/R ratio of a pioneer community and the climax community?

What do you mean by pioneer species?

The second stage of hydrosere is occupied by plants like ______.

Explain the following term with reference to ecological succession.

Seral stages

Which one of the following does not evolve further?


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