Explain with the help of suitable examples the three different ways by which organisms overcome their stressful conditions lasting for short duration.
Three different ways by which an organism overcomes stressful conditions lasting for a short duration are as follows:
1. Migration: The organism temporarily moves from the stressful environment to the more hospitable environment and returns when the period of stress is over. This can be seen in the case of bar-headed geese. These birds breed in Central Asian lakes during summers and migrate to South Asia in winters when the temperature is more hospitable.
2. Hibernation or winter sleep: It is a period of long inactivity in which the organism reduces all its metabolic activities and undergoes a period of long sleep. It is very common in polar animals like polar bear. The organism returns to its normal state once the stressful period is over.
3. Aestivation or summer sleep: It can be seen in organisms that live in hot and arid conditions. To escape the stressful period, the organism undergoes a long period of inactivity by reducing its metabolic activities. It returns to its normal state once the period of stress is over. African lungfishes undergo aestivation.
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