Explain with the help of suitable example polar covalent bond.
When two dissimilar atoms having different electronegativities combine to form a covalent bond, the bond pair of electrons is not shared equally. The bond pair shifts towards the nucleus of the atom having greater electronegativity. As a result, electron distribution gets distorted and the electron cloud is displaced towards the electronegative atom.
As a result, the electronegative atom becomes slightly negatively charged while the other atom becomes slightly positively charged. Thus, opposite poles are developed in the molecule and this type of a bond is called a polar covalent bond.
HCl, for example, contains a polar covalent bond. Chlorine atom is more electronegative than hydrogen atom. Hence, the bond pair lies towards chlorine and therefore, it acquires a partial negative charge.
When two atoms with different electronegativity are linked to each other by covalent bond, the shared electron pair will not in the centre because of the difference in electronegativity. For example, in hydrogen flouride molecule, flouride has greater electronegativity than hydrogen. Thus, the shared electron pair is displaced more towards’flourine atom, the later will acquire a partial negative charge (∂–). At the same time hydrogen atom will have a partial positive charge (∂+). Such a covalent bond is known as polar covalent bond or simply polar bond.
It is represented as
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