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Explain functional units of a computer system. - Information Technology

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Answer in Brief

Explain functional units of a computer system.

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Computer system has following three basic components:

Input unit

As input device is any hardware device that ends data to a computer, allowing you to interacts with and controls it. Data can be in the form of words, symbols, number etc. The function of the input device is to direct commands and data into computer.
For example keyboard, mouse, scanners, digital cameras, joysticks, and microphones.

Central processing unit

After receiving data and commands from the user, a computer system has to process the instructions provided using Central Processing Unit (CPU). It has three elements:
(a) Arithmetic and Logic Unit: An arithmetic logic unit (ALU) is a major component of the-central processing unit of a computer system. It does all processes related to arithmetic and logic operations like add, subtract, multiply etc.
(b) Control Unit: The control unit (CU) is a component of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) that directs the operation of the processor. It tells the computer’s memory, arithmetic and logic unit and input and output devices how to respond to the instructions that have been sent to the processor.
(c) Memory Unit: Memory unit is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. Once the data has been entered using input devices, the system stores the data in the memory unit.

Types of Memory. ‘Primary Memory & Secondary Memory.

  • Primary Memory: It 18 internal memory of the computer also known as main memory’. ‘ It is of two types RAM and ROM
  • RAM (Random Access Memory) 'RAM stands for Random Access Memory also known as read/write memory. Information stored in this memory is lost as the power supply to the computer is switched off; it is also called as “Volatile Memory”.
  • ROM(Read Only Memory) :ROM stands for Read Only Memory. ROM is a permanent Type memory. The contents are not lost as the power supply to the computer is switched off. ROM cannot be overwritten by the compute. It is also called “Non Volatile Memory”.
  • Secondary Memory: It is external memory of the computer which is used to store large amount of data. The secondary storage devices are: Hard disk, Pen drive, CD, DVD etc.

Output Unit

An output device is any device used to send data from a computer to another device or user. Most computer data output that is ‘meant for humans is in the form of audio or video. Thus, most output devices used by humans are in these categories. Examples include monitors, projectors, speakers,

Concept: Computer
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Balbharati Information Technology (IT) 11th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 1 Basics of Information Technology
Exercise | Q 9.2 | Page 19
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