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Explain the Following Terms with Suitable Examples - Anionic Detergents - Chemistry

Explain the following terms with suitable examples - Anionic detergents

Define the following: Anionic detergents

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Solution 1

Anionic detergents

Anionic detergents are of two types:

1.Sodium alkyl sulphates: These detergents are sodium salts of long chain alcohols. They are prepared by first treating these alcohols with concentrated sulphuric acid and then with sodium hydroxide. Examples of these detergents include sodium lauryl sulphate (C11H23CH2OSO3Na+) and sodium stearyl sulphate (C17H35CH2OSO3Na+).

2.Sodium alkylbenzenesulphonates: These detergents are sodium salts of long chain alkylbenzenesulphonic acids. They are prepared by Friedel-Crafts alkylation of benzene with long chain alkyl halides or alkenes. The obtained product is first treated with concentrated sulphuric acid and then with sodium hydroxide. Sodium 4-(1-dodecy) benzenesulphonate (SDS) is an example of anionic detergents.

Solution 2

Anionic detergents are called so because a large part of their molecules are anions. ‘These are of two types:

(a)Sodium alkyl sulphates: For example, sodium lauryl sulphate, C11H23CH2OSO3 Na+.

(b)Sodium alkylbenzenesulphonates.Vor example, sodium 4-(l-dodecyl) benzenesu Iphphonate (SDS).

Concept: Cleansing Agents - Synthetic Detergents
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APPEARS IN

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Textbook
Chapter 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life
Q 21.2 | Page 454
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