Explain with an example, how genes control the characteristics (or traits).
A gene is the section of DNA on a chromosome that codes the formation of a protein controlling a specific characteristic of the organism.
Suppose, a plant progeny possesses gene for the characteristic called 'tallness'. The gene for tallness will give instructions to the plant cells to generate many plant-growth hormones due to which the plant will grow tall. On the other hand, if the plant has the gene for shortness, less plant-growth hormones will be produced, due to which the plant will not grow much and remain a dwarf plant.