Explain the conditions that were viewed as obstacles to the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes during the nineteenth century in Europe.
Following are the conditions that were considered problematic for the economic exchange and growth by the new commercial classes of 19th century Europe:
i) The administrative policies introduced by Napoleon had resulted in a confederation of 39 states in place of the old principalities. Each of these possessed its own currency, weights and measures.
ii) A merchant traveling in 1833 from Hamburg to Nuremburg to sell his goods would have to pass though 11 custom barriers and pay a customs duty of about 5% at each one of them.
iii) Duties were often levied according to the weight or measurement of the goods. As each region had its own system of weights and measures, this involved time consuming calculation.