Examine the two types of Kinship.
Kinship is the most universal and basic of all human relationships and is based on ties of blood, marriage, or adoption.
- Those based on blood that trace descent
- Those based on marriage, adoption, or other connections
Kinship bonds are of different types. They vary from society to society. Some types of kinship are mentioned below.
On the basis of Blood and Marriage relationship kinds are divided into (i) Consanguineous and (ii) Affinal kins.
It is based on blood relations. This type of relationship exists between parents and their children and between the children of the same parents. This kind of kinship refers to a son, daughter, sister, parental uncle, etc. This type of kinship may be actual or supposed. In a polyandrous tribe the actual father of a child is unknown. An adopted child is treated as if it were one's own biologically produced child. Thus blood relationship may be established not only on biological basis but also on the basis of social recognition.
The term 'affinity' means relation by marriage. Thus Affinal kinship refers to the bond established only after marriage. Thus, marriage creates a host of relationships which are called Affinal kinship. The relationship of husband with wife, father-in-law, mother-in-law, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, etc. is of Affinal nature.
On the basis of nearness and distant relationship kins can be divided into three types - 1. Primary kin, 2. Secondary kin, and 3. Tertiary kin.
The persons who are directly and physically close to one another are called primary kin. According to S.C. Dube, there are eight such relations. They include husband-wife, father-son, father-daughter, mother-daughter, mother-son, younger-elder sisters, younger-elder brothers, and brother-sister.
The secondary kins are those persons who are related through primary kin. Persons such as father's father, mother's father brother's daughter, father's sister, sister's husband are some of the secondary kins. The number of secondary kins came to 33 types.
The tertiary kins are those persons who are the primary kin of the secondary kin. The kin of this kind include the husband's brother's wife, wife's brother's wife and the like.
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