Examine any six reasons for the imposition of emergency in India in 1975.
In May 1977, the Janata Party government appointed a Commission of Inquiry headed by Justice J. C. Shah, retired Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of India, to inquire ‘into several aspects of allegations of abuse of authority, excesses and malpractices committed and action taken in the wake of the Emergency proclaimed on 25th June 1975. The Commission examined various kinds of evidence and called scores of witnesses to give testimonies.
Following were the findings of the Shah Commission:
i. The government made extensive use of preventive detention. About one lakh eleven thousand people were arrested under this law. The arrested political workers were not allowed to challenge their arrest through Habeas Corpus.
ii. Newspapers were asked to get prior approval for all material to be published. This is known as press censorship. In other words, severe restrictions were imposed on the press sometimes without legal sanctions.
iii. The General Manager of Delhi Power Supply Corporation was given verbal orders to cut electricity to all newspapers and presses from 2:00 am on 26th June 1975. Electricity was restored 2−3 days later after the censorship apparatus was set up.