Emasculation and bagging are the two important steps carried during artificial hybridization to obtain superior varieties of desired plants. Explain giving reasons, in which types of flowers and at what stages are the two processes carried out.
Emasculation and bagging are carried out in bisexual flowers (possess both stamen and carpels within the same inflorescence).
Emasculation means the removal of anther from the flower buds and this is done before the anther dehisces. Dehiscence results in the release of pollen which may then reach the stigma and lead to the germination of the pollen.
Bagging can be done in both bisexual and unisexual flowers. In the case of bisexual flowers, emasculation is followed by bagging. The emasculated flowers are covered with a bag made up of butter paper to prevent the contamination of its stigma with unwanted pollen.
As the stigma of the bagged flower becomes receptive, the flowers are unbagged and dusted with mature pollen grains from anthers of the male parents. They are again rebagged and the fruits are allowed to redevelop.
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