Draw the circuit arrangement for studying the output characteristics of n-p-n transistor in CE configuration. Explain how the output characteristics are obtained.
Circuit arrangement for studying the output characteristics of n-p-n transistor in CE configuration
Variation of collector current `I_c` with the collector-emitter voltage `V_(CE)` is called output characteristic.
The output characteristics describe the relationship between output current (`I_c`) and output voltage (`V_(cE)`). First, draw a vertical line and a horizontal line. The vertical line represents the y-axis and the horizontal line represents the x-axis. The output current or collector current (`Ic`) is taken along the y-axis (vertical line) and the output voltage (`V_(cE)`) is taken along the x-axis (horizontal line). To determine the output characteristics, the input current or base current 18 is kept constant at 0 pA and the output voltage `V_(cE)` is increased from zero volts to different voltage levels. For each level of the output voltage, the corresponding output current (Ic) is recorded. A curve is then drawn between output current Ic and output voltage `V_(cE)` at constant input current 18 (0 pA).