Discuss the Raven’s Progressive Matrices Test for measuring intelligence.
Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM) is a non-verbal, culture fair group test. It was originally developed by John C.Raven in 1938.
Test description: RPM is constructed for groups ranging from 5-year-olds to the elderly. In each matrix, the subject is asked to identify the missing element from the given options that completes the pattern. There are six to eight options given to choose from. There is no time limit to complete the task. It checks the individual’s eductive and reproductive ability.
Version: The matrices are available in three different forms for participants of different abilities. These matrices are :
Standard Progressive Matrices: This is the original form of the matrices made for average six years old to eight years old. It has five sets(From A to E) of 12 items each (numbered as A1 to A12, B1 to B12…). The items in each set are organized at an increasing difficulty level. The items are presented in black ink on a white background.
Coloured Progressive Matrices: These matrices are used for children aged from 5 to 11 years of age, the elderly and for people who have moderate to severe learning difficulties. They have sets A and B of the Standard Progressive Matrices in coloured format. Additionally, it has another set of 12 items between the sets of A and B. The additional set is referred to as AB. Most of the items have a coloured background to make them visually stimulating for the target group. However, the last few items of Set B are presented in black ink against white background. If the participant performs better than the tester’s expectation then the participant is moved to do the sets C, D and E of the Standard Progressive Matrices.
Advanced Progressive Matrices: These matrices are used for adolescents and adults who show the signs of being above average intelligence. It has 48 items. It is presented as Set I, which has 12 subsets and Set II, which has 36 subsets. Items are presented in black ink on white background. The items in the set are arranged in increasing order of difficulty.
Underlying Factor: RPM measures the two main components of general intelligence, originally identified by Charles Spearman. These are :
- The clear thinking ability, with an ability to make sense of a complete situation called the eductive ability.
- The ability of storing and reproducing learnt information, known as reproductive ability.