Differentiate between the human settlements in Ganga river basin and the Amazon river basin.
State the differences between the settlements by the Amazon river in Brazil and by the river Ganga in India.
Both Ganga and Amazon Rivers are considered to be the lifeline of the respective countries – India and Brazil. Even though both are gigantic rivers of the countries, the nature of human settlements in their banks differ. The concentration of settlement depends upon many important factors like the availability of water, natural resources, climatic conditions and the type of region.
- Ganga river basin in India is the second-largest river basin in the country. Since it is the most fertile land in the country, this region is one of the most densely populated regions.
- But the density is less in the mountainous regions as compared to its plains. The whole fertile land is called the northern plains. It is an important place opted for human settlement because of the fertility of the land.
- Farming and dairying are the important occupations of the people. The main crop grown is paddy and wheat along with maize, millets, and gram.
- Many highly populated cities like Allahabad, Lucknow, and Varanasi is located in its banks. Because of this, the transportation network, communication facilities, and the infrastructure is highly developed in the region.
- But because of the growing population and human interferences, the region is depleting resulting in many problems.
- Amazon River basin is the largest river basin in the world. It has been exploited since the earlier days of human Civilization but has still some of the unexplored parts of the world.
- Since the river system is located near the equatorial region, it is both hot and humid and experiences high rainfall. This has resulted in the growth of dense forests which is home to innumerable flora and fauna.
- People live sparsely in the river basin as most of the area is covered by the dense forests. They cut a few trees and practice shifting cultivation.
- The land is very fertile. The main crop grown is cassava along with tapioca, maize, coffee, and cocoa. They also practice fishing and hunting.
- Because of human interference, the forest cover is depleting and leading to many ecological problems.