Explain the law of independent assortment with a suitable example.
When the two homozygous parents differing in two pairs of contrasting traits are crossed, the inheritance of one pair is independent of the other. In other words, when a dihybrid (or poly hybrid) form gametes, assortment (distribution) of alleles of different traits is independent of their original combinations in the parents. This law of independent assortment can be explained with the help of dihybrid cross and dihybrid ratio. The appearance of new combinations in F2 generation proves the law.
Carry out dihybrid cross for any two characters till F2 generation with the phenotypic and genotypic ratio
A gamete that receives ‘Y’ for colour may receive ‘R’ for shape or ‘r’ for shape. This would result in the formation of YR and Yr types of gametes. Similarly, a gamete that receives ‘y’ for colour may receive ‘R’ or ‘r’ for shape. This would result in the formation of yR and yr types of gametes (Independent assortment).