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Describe the structure of sex chromosomes with the help of labelled diagram. - Biology

Answer in Brief

Describe the structure of sex chromosomes with the help of labelled diagram.

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Solution

Structure of X and Y chromosomes:

  1. The x chromosome is straight, rod-like, and longer than the Y chromosome.
  2. The x chromosome is metacentric, while the Y chromosome is acrocentric.
  3. The x chromosome has a large amount of euchromatin (extended region) and a small amount of heterochromatin (highly condensed region).
  4. Euchromatin has a large amount of DNA material, hence the X chromosome is genetically more active.
  5. The y chromosome has a small amount of euchromatin and a large amount of heterochromatin, hence it is genetically less active or inert.
  6. Both X and Y chromosomes show homologous and non-homologous regions.
  7. Homologous regions show similar genes while non-homologous regions show dissimilar genes.
  8. Crossing over occurs only between homologous regions of X and Y chromosomes.
  9. The non-homologous region of the X chromosome is longer and contains more genes than that of a non-homologous region of the Y chromosome.
  10. X-linked genes are present on the non-homologous region of the X-chromosome while Y-linked genes are present on the non-homologous region of the Y-chromosome.

Concept: Chromosomes
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