Describe the hybridisation in case of PCl5. Why are the axial bonds longer as compared to equatorial bonds? - Chemistry

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Answer in Brief

Describe the hybridisation in case of PCl5. Why are the axial bonds longer as compared to equatorial bonds?

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Solution

The ground state and excited state outer electronic configurations of phosphorus (Z = 15) are:

Phosphorus atom is sp3d hybridized in the excited state. These orbitals are filled by the electron pairs donated by five Cl atoms as:

The five sp3d hybrid orbitals are directed towards the five corners of the trigonal bipyramidals. Hence, the geometry of PCl5 can be represented as:

There are five P–Cl sigma bonds in PCl5. Three P–Cl bonds lie in one plane and make an angle of 120° with each other. These bonds are called equatorial bonds.

The remaining two P–Cl bonds lie above and below the equatorial plane and make an angle of 90° with the plane. These bonds are called axial bonds.

As the axial bond pairs suffer more repulsion from the equatorial bond pairs, axial bonds are slightly longer than equatorial bonds.

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Chapter 4: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure - EXERCISES [Page 135]

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NCERT Chemistry Part 1 and 2 Class 11
Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
EXERCISES | Q 4.38 | Page 135

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