Describe the contributions of various archaeologists from 1875 till 1950 in discovering the Harappan civilization. - History

Long Answer

Describe the contributions of various archaeologists from 1875 till 1950 in discovering the Harappan civilization. 



The northern region of the Indian subcontinent was home to the Harappan civilization, also known as the Indus Valley civilization, from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. Numerous archaeologists collaborated over several decades to locate it and carry out the excavation that followed. Archaeologists made some significant contributions between 1875 and 1950, including the following:

  1. The first Director-General of the ASI, Alexander Cunningham (1814–1893), is credited with discovering a number of historical sites in the Indian subcontinent. The Harappan civilization was first discovered in 1875 during Cunningham's excavation of the ancient city of Harappa in what is now Pakistan.
  2. After Cunningham, John Marshall (1876-1958) took over as Director-General of the ASI. He brought his experience working in Greece and Crete to the field as the first professional archaeologist in India. In the 1920s and 1930s, he oversaw excavations at several Harappan sites, including Mohenjodaro, one of Harappan culture's most significant and best-preserved towns.
  3. Marshall worked closely with renowned archaeologist R. D. Banerji (1885–1951) on the excavation of Harappan sites. He is credited with discovering the ancient city of Kalibangan, one of the Harappan civilization's most easterly outposts, in contemporary Rajasthan.
  4. After he took over as Director General of the ASI in 1944, R.E.M. Wheeler rectified this problem. Wheeler recognised that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the mound rather than dig mechanically along uniform horizontal lines. Moreover, as an ex-army brigadier, he brought military precision to the practice of archaeology.
Concept: Discovering the Harappan Civilisation
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2022-2023 (March) Delhi Set 1


Answer in 100-150 words

Look at following figure  and describe what you see. How is the body placed? What are the objects placed near it? Are there any artefacts on the body? Do these indicate the sex of the skeleton?

Where were large granaries found?

The first Director-General of A.S.I. (Archaeological Survey of India) was ______.

Who among the following was the author of book ‘The Story of Indian Archaeology’?

Which one among the following religious practices was seemed to be unfamiliar and unusual with the Harrapan culture?

Consider the following statement(s):

  1. the Harappan civilisation was the development of urban centres.
  2. the most distinctive features of Harappan cities were the carefully planned drainage system.
  3. Harrapan roads and streets were laid out along an approximate “grid” pattern.

Which of the above statement (s) is/are correct about Harappa Civilisation?

Match the following.

Archeologist Role/Contributions
(a) Alexander Cunningham (i) Discovered seals at Harappa
(b) Daya Ram SahiI (ii) First Director General of ASI
(c) John Marshall (iii) Brought a military precision in archaeology
(d) R E M Wheeler (iv) Announced the discovery of a new civilization

The Indus Valley Civilisation flourished around ______.

Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched?

Who was the first Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI)?

Harappa was discovered by ______.

Which of the following statement(s) related to the drainge system of Harappan Civilisation are true?

Arrange the location of the following sites of the Harappan civilisation in correct sequence from East to West.

  1. Banawali
  2. Dholavira
  3. Kalibangan
  4. Mohenjodaro

Match the following.

List I  List II
A. Sir Alexander  1. Brought military precision to Cunningham
the field of Archaeology
B. Dayram  2. First Director-General of Shahni
Archaeological Survey of India
C. R.E.M Wheeler  3. Excavated Harappa
 D. John Marshall  4. First professional archaeologist to work in India

Which of the following were found Harappa?

In which of the following sites was found a jar depicting scene from the story 'cunning fox' from Panchatantra?

Where is Rakhigarhi Located?

Match the following:

(A) S.N. Roy (i) The Mythical Massacre
at Mohenjodaro
(B) G.F. Dales (ii) Ancient India
(C) R.E.M. Wheeler (ii) The Story of Indian
(D) John Marshall (iii) Mohenjodaro and
the Indus


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