Describe the contributions of various archaeologists from 1875 till 1950 in discovering the Harappan civilization. - History

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Long Answer

Describe the contributions of various archaeologists from 1875 till 1950 in discovering the Harappan civilization. 

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Solution

The northern region of the Indian subcontinent was home to the Harappan civilization, also known as the Indus Valley civilization, from 2600 BCE to 1900 BCE. Numerous archaeologists collaborated over several decades to locate it and carry out the excavation that followed. Archaeologists made some significant contributions between 1875 and 1950, including the following:

  1. The first Director-General of the ASI, Alexander Cunningham (1814–1893), is credited with discovering a number of historical sites in the Indian subcontinent. The Harappan civilization was first discovered in 1875 during Cunningham's excavation of the ancient city of Harappa in what is now Pakistan.
  2. After Cunningham, John Marshall (1876-1958) took over as Director-General of the ASI. He brought his experience working in Greece and Crete to the field as the first professional archaeologist in India. In the 1920s and 1930s, he oversaw excavations at several Harappan sites, including Mohenjodaro, one of Harappan culture's most significant and best-preserved towns.
  3. Marshall worked closely with renowned archaeologist R. D. Banerji (1885–1951) on the excavation of Harappan sites. He is credited with discovering the ancient city of Kalibangan, one of the Harappan civilization's most easterly outposts, in contemporary Rajasthan.
  4. After he took over as Director General of the ASI in 1944, R.E.M. Wheeler rectified this problem. Wheeler recognised that it was necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the mound rather than dig mechanically along uniform horizontal lines. Moreover, as an ex-army brigadier, he brought military precision to the practice of archaeology.
Concept: Discovering the Harappan Civilisation
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2022-2023 (March) Delhi Set 1

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(D) John Marshall (iii) Mohenjodaro and
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