Describe the organization of the Congress party as a social and ideological coalition.
By the time of Independence, the Congress was transferred to a rainbow-like social coalition broadly representing India’s diversity in terms of classes and castes, religions and languages and various interests. Many of these groups merged rather than identified with the Congress. In this sense, the Congress was an ideological coalition as well.
The Congress was already a very well-organised party, and by the time the other parties could even think of a strategy, the Congress had already started its campaign. In fact, many parties were formed only around independence or thereafter. Thus, the Congress had the first off the blocks advantage. By the time of Independence, the party had not only spread across the length and breadth of the country but also to the grass root local level.