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Describe the Methodology of Tissue Culture. - Biology

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Describe the methodology of tissue culture.

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Solution

Methodology of tissue culture:-

1. Explant culture:

  • Explants such as parenchyma tissues or meristems are excised from the plant, sterilised and placed on a solid nutrient medium.
  • The cells from the explants absorb nutrients and begin to multiply.

2. Callus formation and its culture:

  • The proliferation of cells from the explants because of mitosis forms an unorganised mass of cells called callus.
  • All the cells of the callus are identical.

3. Organogenesis:

  • The addition of growth hormones in proper proportion induces the formation of organs.
  • If auxins are more, roots are formed.
  • If cytokinins are more, a shoot system is developed.

4. Formation of cells or suspension culture:

  • The callus is transferred to a liquid nutrient medium and agitated constantly at 100 to 250 rpm.
  • The agitation separates the cells, aerates the mixture and prevents aggregation of cells.
  • Callus and suspension cultures help to achieve cell biomass production which can be used for biochemical isolation, regeneration of new plantlets, formation of transgenic plants and protoplast culture.
Concept: Tissue Culture
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