Describe the methodology of tissue culture.
Methodology of tissue culture:-
1. Explant culture:
- Explants such as parenchyma tissues or meristems are excised from the plant, sterilised and placed on a solid nutrient medium.
- The cells from the explants absorb nutrients and begin to multiply.
2. Callus formation and its culture:
- The proliferation of cells from the explants because of mitosis forms an unorganised mass of cells called callus.
- All the cells of the callus are identical.
- The addition of growth hormones in proper proportion induces the formation of organs.
- If auxins are more, roots are formed.
- If cytokinins are more, a shoot system is developed.
4. Formation of cells or suspension culture:
- The callus is transferred to a liquid nutrient medium and agitated constantly at 100 to 250 rpm.
- The agitation separates the cells, aerates the mixture and prevents aggregation of cells.
- Callus and suspension cultures help to achieve cell biomass production which can be used for biochemical isolation, regeneration of new plantlets, formation of transgenic plants and protoplast culture.
Concept: Tissue Culture
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