Describe in brief the changes occurring in the climatic conditions of India while going from south to north.
Very cold winds blowing from the north are obstructed by the Himalayas. Similarly, the South–West Monsoons retreat from the Shiwalik and Himachal ranges of the Himalayas. Because of high temperatures in summers, low-pressure areas develop in Punjab plains and the Thar desert of Rajasthan. This attracts winds coming from the high-pressure region in the Indian Ocean which starts blowing towards the mainland of India. These moisture-laden winds bring rainfall. Because of the obstruction caused by the Eastern and Western Ghats, it rains more in the coastal areas.
Following changes can be seen in the climatic conditions of India while going from south to north
- India has a ‘monsoon’ type of climate. However, there is diversity in the climatic conditions of India. This is due to the latitudinal location (north-south extent) and altitude of the place.
- As the Tropic of Cancer passes through the middle of India, India is considered to be in the tropical region and the average temperatures are higher throughout the year.
- Also, as it divides the country into Temperate Zone in the northern half and tropical Zone in the southern half; the climate in North India is generally cool & dry in winters and very hot in summers while the temperatures are high throughout the year in South India with high humidity due to proximity to the sea.
- Moreover, the state of Kerala receives rainfall from the South-West monsoon winds while Tamil Nadu receives rainfall from the North-East monsoon winds.
- The south-west monsoon winds are obstructed by the Western Ghats; hence the windward side of the region receives Orographic type of rainfall while the leeward side, i.e., the Deccan Plateau receives less rainfall.
- On the other hand, Aravali ranges lie parallel to the direction of the wind and are not high enough to check the rain – bearing winds. This causes low rainfall in parts of Gujarat and Rajasthan.
- In winters, the temperatures drop to - 40° Celsius in Jammu and Kashmir and parts of mountainous regions of Himalayas. This is because these regions are at higher altitudes and above sea level. Also, Orographic type of rainfall occurs due to the natural obstruction of the Himalayas.