Derive the expression for the heat produced due to a current 'I' flowing for a time interval 't' through a resistor 'R' having a potential difference 'V' across its ends. With which name is this relation known?
Since a conductor offers resistance to the flow of current, some work must be done by the current continuously to keep itself flowing. When an electric charge, Q moves against a potential difference, V, the amount of work done is given by:
W = Q x V (1)
From the definition of current, we know that:
So,`Q=1xxt` (2) And from Ohm's law, we have:
or `V=IxxR` (2)
Now, substituting Q = I x t and V = I x R in equation (1), we get:
W = I x t x I x R
So, the work done, W = I2 x R x t
Assuming that all the electrical work done is converted into heat energy:
Heat produced = Work done in the above equation
Thus heat produced, H = I2 x R x t joules
This is known as Joule's law of heating.
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