Define the term 'drift velocity' of charge carriers in a conductor and write its relationship with the current flowing through it.

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#### Solution

In a current-carrying conductor, a charged particle is accelerated by an electric field. It also undergoes frequent collisions with the stationary ions of the wire material. These two effects result in a very slow net motion (drift) of moving charged particles in the direction of the electric force. This motion is described by the drift velocity(*v _{d}*).

The relationship of drift velocity with current is given by \[v_d = \frac{I}{neA}\]

Here:*I* is the current following through the conductor.*n* is the number density of an electron.*A* is the area of the conductor.*e* is the charge of the electron.

Concept: Electric Current

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