Define plant breeding? Describe the various methods of plant breeding.
Plant breeding is the process of producing new varieties of plants by artificial selection. It is a method of improving the genetic make-up of plants.
Following are the various methods of plant breeding:
- Hybridisation: It is the crossing between two genetically dissimilar plants to produce a new variety of plant.
- Recombinant DNA technology: It is the method of transferring genes from one organism to another to modify the genetic make-up of latter. It gives rise to transgenic plants.
- Polyploidy: It refers to increasing the chromosome number of a plant that leads to increase in the plant production.
- Mutation breeding: Mutations are sudden inheritable variations. They are produced at random through gamma irradiation and a number of other physical and chemical agents called mutagens.
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