Critically examine Lord Dalhousie's policy of annexation in Awadh.
The nawabs of Awadh had been loyal to the Company since the beginning. However, the British who were expanding their power in India were eyeing the state of Awadh due to its rich and fertile soil. The conquest of Awadh occurred in stages. The state was first forced to sign the Subsidiary Alliance System in 1801. According to the terms of this alliance, the Nawab had to disband his troops and British troops were stationed in the state. The Nawab had to act on the advice of the British resident. The Nawab became increasingly dependent on the British to maintain law and order within the kingdom. He could no longer assert control over rebellious chiefs and taluqdars. This worsened the law and order situation of the state, and under Lord Dalhousie, the British annexed the state of Awadh in 1858 on the charges of mismanagement. The policy followed by Lord Dalhousie to annex Awadh cannot be justified. No Nawab can maintain internal peace and order in the state if he does not have his troops at his command.