Explain how does nitrogen exhibit anomalous behaviour amongst group 15 elements.
Nitrogen shows anomalous behaviour as follows:-
- Nitrogen is a gas, whereas the other members of the family are solids.
- Nitrogen is diatomic, while the other elements such as phosphorus and arsenic form tetra-atomic molecules (P4, As4).
- Nitrogen forms five types of oxides (N2O, NO, N2O3, N2O4 and N2O5), while the other members form two types of oxides—trioxides and pentoxides.
- Hydrides of nitrogen consist of H-bonding, which is absent in members of other elements.
- Nitrogen does not show penta-covalency because of the absence of d-orbitals, but all other elements show penta-covalency.
- Nitrogen dose not form complexes because of the absence of d-orbitals, while the other elements show complex formation (e.g. [PCl6]-, [AsCl6]-).
- The hydride of nitrogen (NH3) is highly basic in nature, whereas the hydrides of other elements are slightly basic.
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