Complet the table using 4 yearly moving averge method. - Mathematics and Statistics

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Complete the table using 4 yearly moving average method.

Year Production 4 yearly
moving
total
4 yearly
centered
total
4 yearly centered
moving average
(trend values)
2006 19  
    `square`    
2007 20   `square`
    72    
2008 17   142 17.75
    70    
2009 16   `square` 17
    `square`    
2010 17   133 `square`
    67    
2011 16   `square` `square`
    `square`    
2012 18   140 17.5
    72    
2013 17   147 18.375
    75    
2014 21  
       
2015 19  
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Solution

Year Production 4 yearly
moving
total
4 yearly
centered
total
4 yearly centered
moving average
(trend values)
2006 19  
       
2007 20  
    72    
2008 17   142 17.75
    70    
2009 16   136 17
    66    
2010 17   133 16.625
    67    
2011 16   135 16.875
    68    
2012 18   140 17.5
    72    
2013 17   147 18.375
    75    
2014 21  
       
2015 19  
Concept: Measurement of Secular Trend
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Chapter 2.4: Time Series - Q.5

RELATED QUESTIONS

Fit a trend line to the data in Problem 4 above by the method of least squares. Also, obtain the trend value for the index of industrial production for the year 1987.


The following table shows the production of gasoline in U.S.A. for the years 1962 to 1976.

Year 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
Production
(Million Barrels)
0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 8 9 10

i. Obtain trend values for the above data using 5-yearly moving averages.
ii. Plot the original time series and trend values obtained above on the same graph.


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Which of the following is a major problem for forecasting, especially when using the method of least squares?


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The simplest method of measuring trend of time series is _______


State whether the following is True or False :

Least squares method of finding trend is very simple and does not involve any calculations.


Fit a trend line to the following data by the method of least squares.

Year 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
Production 0 4 9 9 8 5 4 8 10

Solve the following problem :

Following table shows the amount of sugar production (in lac tonnes) for the years 1971 to 1982.

Year 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
Production 1 0 1 2 3 2 3 6 5 1 4 10

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Solve the following problem :

The percentage of girls’ enrollment in total enrollment for years 1960-2005 is shown in the following table.

Year 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005
Percentage 0 3 3 4 4 5 6 8 8 10

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Following table shows the number of traffic fatalities (in a state) resulting from drunken driving for years 1975 to 1983.

Year 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983
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Fit a trend line to the above data by graphical method.


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Fit a trend line to data in Problem 16 by the method of least squares.


Choose the correct alternative:

Moving averages are useful in identifying ______.


The complicated but efficient method of measuring trend of time series is ______


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State whether the following statement is True or False:

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State whether the following statement is True or False: 

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Following table shows the amount of sugar production (in lac tons) for the years 1971 to 1982

Year 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
Production 1 0 1 2 3 2
Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
Production 4 6 5 1 4 10

Fit a trend line by the method of least squares


Obtain trend values for data, using 4-yearly centred moving averages

Year 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976
Production 1 0 1 2 3 2
Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982
Production 4 6 5 1 4 10

Obtain the trend values for the data, using 3-yearly moving averages

Year 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981
Production 0 4 4 2 6 8
Year 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986  
Production 5 9 4 10 10  

Use the method of least squares to fit a trend line to the data given below. Also, obtain the trend value for the year 1975.

Year 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
Production
(million barrels)
0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5
Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976  
Production
(million barrels)
6 8 9 9 8 7 10  

The following table shows the production of gasoline in U.S.A. for the years 1962 to 1976.

Year 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969
Production
(million barrels)
0 0 1 1 2 3 4 5
Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976  
Production
(million barrels)
6 7 8 9 8 9 10  
  1. Obtain trend values for the above data using 5-yearly moving averages.
  2. Plot the original time series and trend values obtained above on the same graph.

Following table shows the all India infant mortality rates (per ‘000) for years 1980 to 2010

Year 1980 1985 1990 1995
IMR 10 7 5 4
Year 2000 2005 2010  
IMR 3 1 0  

Fit a trend line by the method of least squares

Solution: Let us fit equation of trend line for above data.

Let the equation of trend line be y = a + bx   .....(i)

Here n = 7(odd), middle year is `square` and h = 5

Year IMR (y) x x2 x.y
1980 10 – 3 9 – 30
1985 7 – 2 4 – 14
1990 5 – 1 1 – 5
1995 4 0 0 0
2000 3 1 1 3
2005 1 2 4 2
2010 0 3 9 0
Total 30 0 28 – 44

The normal equations are

Σy = na + bΣx

As, Σx = 0, a = `square`

Also, Σxy = aΣx + bΣx2

As, Σx = 0, b =`square`

∴ The equation of trend line is y = `square`


Fit equation of trend line for the data given below.

Year Production (y) x x2 xy
2006 19 – 9 81 – 171
2007 20 – 7 49 – 140
2008 14 – 5 25 – 70
2009 16 – 3 9 – 48
2010 17 – 1 1 – 17
2011 16 1 1 16
2012 18 3 9 54
2013 17 5 25 85
2014 21 7 49 147
2015 19 9 81 171
Total 177 0 330 27

Let the equation of trend line be y = a + bx   .....(i)

Here n = `square` (even), two middle years are `square` and 2011, and h = `square`

The normal equations are Σy = na + bΣx

As Σx = 0, a = `square`

Also, Σxy = aΣx + bΣx2

As Σx = 0, b = `square`

Substitute values of a and b in equation (i) the equation of trend line is `square`

To find trend value for the year 2016, put x = `square` in the above equation.

y = `square`


Following table shows the amount of sugar production (in lakh tonnes) for the years 1931 to 1941:

Year Production Year Production
1931 1 1937 8
1932 0 1938 6
1933 1 1939 5
1934 2 1940 1
1935 3 1941 4
1936 2    

Complete the following activity to fit a trend line by method of least squares:


The following table shows gross capital information (in Crore ₹) for years 1966 to 1975:

Years 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970
Gross Capital information 20 25 25 30 35
Years 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975
Gross Capital information 30 45 40 55 65

Obtain trend values using 5-yearly moving values.


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