In the following pairs of halogen compounds, which compound undergoes faster SN1 reaction?
SN1 reaction proceeds via the formation of carbocation. The alkyl halide (I) is 3° while (II) is 2°. Therefore, (I) forms 3° carbocation while (II) forms 2° carbocation. Greater the stability of the carbocation, faster is the rate of SN1 reaction. Since 3° carbocation is more stable than 2° carbocation. (I), i.e. 2−chloro-2-methylpropane, undergoes faster SN1 reaction than (II) i.e., 3-chloropentane.
Reaction in `S_N1` is governed by stability of carbocations
reacts faster due to greater stability of 3º carbocation.