Explain The basis of similarities and differences between metallic and ionic crystals.
The basis of similarities between metallic and ionic crystals is that both these crystal types are held by the electrostatic force of attraction. In metallic crystals, the electrostatic force acts between the positive ions and the electrons. In ionic crystals, it acts between the oppositely-charged ions. Hence, both have high melting points.
The basis of differences between metallic and ionic crystals is that in metallic crystals, the electrons are free to move and so, metallic crystals can conduct electricity. However, in ionic crystals, the ions are not free to move. As a result, they cannot conduct electricity. However, in molten state or in aqueous solution, they do conduct electricity.
Metallic and ionic crystals
(a) There is electrostatic force of attraction in both metallic and ionic crystals.
(b) Both have high melting points.
(c) Bonds are non-directional in both the cases.
(a) Ionic crystals are bad conductors of electricity in solids state as ions are not free to move. They can conduct electricity only in die molten state or in aqueous solution. Metallic crystals are good conductors of electricity in solid state as electrons are free to move.
(b) Ionic bond is strong due to strong electrostatic forces of attraction.
Metallic bond may be strong or weak depending upon the number of valence electrons and the size of the kernels.
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