Case Study. J.K. Rowling - A Journey - The story of Joanne Kathleen Rowling's near magical rise to fame is almost as well known as the characters she creates. - English - Language and Literature

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Answer in Brief

Read the following excerpt from a Case Study. J.K. Rowling - A Journey.

The story of Joanne Kathleen Rowling's near magical rise to fame is almost as well known as the characters she creates.

Rowling was constantly writing and telling stories to her younger sister Dianne. "The first story I ever wrote down was about a rabbit called Rabbit." Rowling said in an interview. "He got measles and was visited by his friends including a giant bee called Miss Bee. And ever since Rabbit and Miss Bee, I have always wanted to be a writer, though I rarely told anyone so.

However, my parents, both of whom come from impoverished backgrounds and neither of whom had been to college, took the view that my overactive imagination was an amusing personal quirk that would never pay a mortgage or secure a pension.

A writer from the age of six, with two unpublished novels in the drawer, she was stuck on a train when Harry walked into her mind fully formed. She spent the next five years constructing the plots of seven books, one for every year of his secondary school life.

Rowling says she started writing the first book, Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone, in Portugal, where she was teaching English.

At first nobody wanted to publish Harry Potter. She was told that plot was too complex. Refusing to compromise, she found a publisher.

In 1997 Rowling received her first royalty cheque. By book three, she had sky rocketed to the top of the publishing world. A row of zeroes appeared on the author's bank balance and her life was turned upside down. Day and night she had journalists knocking on the unanswered door of her flat.

Rowling's quality control has become legendary, as her obsession with accuracy. She's thrilled with Stephen Fry's taped version of the books and outraged that an Italian dust jacket showed Harry minus his glasses. "Don't they understand that the glasses are the clue to his vulnerability."

Annual earnings of J.K. Rowlin from 2010 to 2019

On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer any five of the six questions given below.  (5)

  1. Explain J. K. Rowling's 'near magical rise to fame'.
  2. What reason did the publishers give for rejecting Rowling's book?
  3. What was the drawback of achieving fame?
  4. Why was Rowling outraged with the Italian dust jacket?
  5. Find a word in the last para that means the same as 'insecure/helpless'.
  6. According to the graph, how many years did it take Rowling to become very successful?
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Solution

  1. J.K. Rowling's "near magical rise to fame" refers to her quick and unexpected success.
  2. The publishers rejected Rowling's book because they found the plot too complex.
  3. The drawback of becoming famous is that one loses their freedom and private space.
  4. Rowling was outraged with the Italian dust jacket as they showed Harry Potter without glasses.
  5. 'Vulnerability' means the same as insecure/helpless.
  6. According to the graph, it took Rowling six to seven years to become very successful.
Concept: Unseen Passage Comprehension
  Is there an error in this question or solution?
2021-2022 (April) Outside Delhi Set 1

RELATED QUESTIONS

B1. Choose
Choose the correct alternatives and complete the sentences (2)
(1) The narrator is :
(a) an astronaut
(b) an engineer studying in BITS Pilani
(c) in the team of astronauts.

(2) Armstrong said, 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind which means:
(a) one step on the moon means, many steps on the earth.
(b) he felt like a giant on the moon.
(c) one moon mission had opened up many avenues in science and technology for mankind.

It was late evening of July 20. 1969, when we turned up the hostel radio. I was an engineering student at BITS, Pilani. I still remember the feverish excitement that gripped us from July 16 when Apollo 11. the US space rocket, took off from Cape Kennedy, Florida. Neil Armstrong and his team of astronauts, Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin and Michael Collins, were to land on moon, for the first time in human history. We listened 'with rapt attention when Armstrong declared: "That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind."
His death on Saturday, August 25, is a moment to salute the romance of space science that Apollo 11 unleashed. It has changed forever the way we look at our planet Earth and its satellite, the moon.
Standing on powdery moondust, Armstrong put up his thumb, shut one eye and found his thumb blotting out the Earth. "It suddenly struck me that that tiny pea, pretty and blue, was the Earth” he said later. "I felt very, very small." But behind that humbling realisation stood a giant truth:

The effort to explore the universe united mankind in technology and knowledge. Each moon mission, about 110 till date, provided more confidence to take on bolder projects.

B2. Complete                                                                                                                         (2)
(1) Armstrong describes the earth as ……………
(2) The effort to explore the universe has ………………
(3) Apollo 11 unleashed and changed forever ………………
(4) The author came to know about Apollo 11 mission when he …………..

B3. Solve
Solve the crossword with the clues given below. Refer to the passage for your answers:              (2)

Down :   (1) The area beyond the earth's atmosphere .
             (2) The name of the spacecraft that Armstrong travelled.
Across : (3) A person trained to travel in space.
             (4) Y A natural satellite of the earth.

B4. Begin the sentence
(i) With-For the first time .......and rewrite                                                                               [1]
Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin and Michael Collins were, to land on the moon for the first time.
(ii) Insert 'that' appropriately and rewrite.                                                                               [1]
Armstrong found his thumb blotting out the Earth.

B5. Personal Response
Would you like to be an astronaut? Give reasons.


The natural life span of a domesticated horse is about 25 – 30 years, 10 years down from what it was in the wild. You can tell a horse’s age from the number of teeth he has. They get all their teeth by the age of 5, after which those teeth just get longer. Horses have close to 360 degree all round vision. The only place they cannot see is directly behind or right in front of themselves, which is why it’s dangerous to stand behind a horse. If they later I it also means that they cannot see a jump once they are about four feet from it, and have to rely on memory as to its height and shape! Each of the horse’s two eyes work independently wherever a horse’s ear points is where the horse is looking. A horse is able to sleep standing up as he is able to lock his leg muscles so that he dosen’t fall asleep. Nor do all horses in the same field ever lie down at once – one animal always stands “on look out” duty.

1) What is the life span of a wild horse?
(2) Why do the horse owners cover their horse’s eyes with blinkers?
(3) What prevents a horse from falling while asleep?
(4)
(a) Falls /shorter/ the mane/ on the/ side/ legged.[Rearrange the words to make a meaningful sentence]
(b) Form antonyms by adding a prefix :
(i) able
(ii) direct 
(5)
(a) They get all their teeth by the age of five. [Pick out the prepositions]
(b) If they feel something behind them they may kick. [Rewrite using ‘unless’]
(6) How have horses helped man through the ages?


The hopping kangaroo is a familiar sight in every snapshot relating to Australia. Members of the kangaroo family can be as small as a rat or as big as a man. Kangaroos are found mainly in Australia, Tasmania and New Guinea. Kangaroos, which are big-footed marsupials that evolved in Australia, use their short front legs like arms. The man-sized kangaroos of Australia are capable of speeding up to 88 km/hr for short distances, their means of locomotion being their powerful hind legs, which carry them over the ground in jumps of 9 m or more at a time.
Weighing around 70 kg, they have an average lifespan of around six to eight years and a maximum lifetime of 20 years. When bothered by predators, kangaroos often head for the water, standing submerged to the chest and attempting to drown the attacker by holding him under water. Another defensive technique is to get their back to a tree and kick at their adversary with their clawed hind feet, sometimes with sufficient force to kill a man. Normally shy animals, they alert other kangaroos to danger by beating on the ground with their hind feet. This loud alarm signal carries over a long distance.
The tail is important for kangaroos. It holds them in balance and supports them when they sit or fight against other kangaroos. The kangaroo uses its short legs as arms. With them it scratches itself, cleans its fur and holds branches when it eats leaves. Kangaroos are marsupials and the females carry newborns in a pouch in front of their abdomens. The babies are born small and climb up into safety of the pouch. There, for the next 225 days or so, they eat, sleep and grow. Once they reach full development, they leave the pouch. A young kangaroo that leaves the pouch is called a ‘joey’. To keep from getting too hot, the kangaroos take naps in the afternoon and do most of their grazing at night. But the best stay-cool secret of these creatures is the spit bath! Kangaroos drool and lick saliva all over their faces and bodies to cool down.

On the basis of your reading of the above passage, complete the following sentences with appropriate words/phrases:
(a) When followed by predators, kangaroos submerge ____________ and _________________.

(b) The powerful hind legs help kangaroos to __________________.

(c) Kangaroos are mainly found in Australia and are ____________________.

(d) They use their front legs to ___________________.

(e) Kangaroos warn others of danger by _______________________.

(f) The secret of kangaroos to stay cool is ______________________.

(g) They use their tails to _________________________.

(h) Before becoming ‘joeys’, the young ones stay in the ______________ and ________________.


It is rare to find someone with good technical and communication skills. You can get far ahead of your colleagues if you combine the two early in your career. People will judge, evaluate, promote or block you based on your communication skills. Since habits form by repeating both good and bad forms of communication, learn to observe great communicators and adopt their styles and traits — in written and verbal forms. The art of listening and learning from each and every interaction is another secret recipe. Develop the subconscious habit of listening to yourself as you speak and know when to pause.

Learning what not to say is probably more important than learning what to say. As your career develops, you will realize that the wise speak less. Speak when you have value to add, else refrain. Poorly constructed emails with grammatical errors are acceptable between friends, but they should be seriously avoided while communicating formally with your seniors. Avoid any communication in an emotional state when might say things you will regret later. One unnecessary word uttered at the wrong time or place can ruin a relationship, career or even your life. Such is the power of words. If such a thing happens, you should immediately apologise, else it may haunt you for life.

Another problem to overcome is speaking too fast. Since our minds are working faster than our speech, we are inclined to speak fast. This does not necessarily mean that the person hearing it will get it any faster. On the contrary, it is always the reverse. So slow down and think before you speak. “When I get ready to speak to people,” Abraham Lincoln said, “I spend two-thirds of the time thinking what they want to hear and one-thirds of the time thinking what they want to hear and one-third thinking what I want to say.” Adding humour and wit is also essential. But realize that not all jokes are funny and observe certain boundaries. Never say anything that could offend. Remember you are not a comedian who must offend as many people as you can to be witty.

2.1 Answer the following questions briefly:

(a) Why is it necessary to have good communication skills?

(b) How can communication skills be developed?

(c) What, according to the writer, should be avoided while communicating?

(d) Why should you be careful when you tend to be humorous?

2.2 Choose the most appropriate meanings of the given words from the options provided:

(a) evaluate (para 1)

(i) estimate
(ii) assume
(iii) punish
(iv) evolve

(b) trait (para 1)

(i) treaty
(ii) trail
(iii) quality
(iv) liberty

(c) utter (para 2)

(i) flatter
(ii) speak
(iii) rot
(iv) unique

(d) haunt (para 2)

(i) hunt
(ii) chant
(iii) trouble
(iv) avoid


He holds him with his skinny hand,

“There was a ship,” quoth he.

i. Who does ‘He’ refer to in the above extract?

ii. What do we know about the speaker’s feelings?

iii. Why is his hand called ‘skinny’?


Q1 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

1. Too many parents these days can't say no, As a result, they find themselves raising 'children' who respond greedily to the advertisements aimed right at them. Even getting what they want doesn't satisfy some kids; they only want more. Now, a growing number of psychologists, educators, and parents think it's time to stop the madness and start teaching kids about what's really important: values like hard work, contentment, honesty, and compassion. The struggle to set limits has never been tougher ‒ and the stakes have never been higher. One recent study of adults who were overindulged as children paints a discouraging picture of their future: when given too much too soon, they grow up to be adults who have difficulty coping with life's disappointments. They also have a distorted sense of entitlement that gets in the way of success in the workplace and in relationships.

2. Psychologists say that parents who overindulge their kids set them up to be more vulnerable to future anxiety and depression. Today's parents themselves raised on values of thrift and self-sacrifice, grew up in a culture where no was a household word. Today's kids want much more, partly because there is so much more to want. The oldest members of this generation were born in the late 1980s, just as PCs and video games were making their assault on the family room. They think of MP3 players and flat-screen TV as essential utilities, and they have developed strategies to get them. One survey of teenagers found that when they crave something new, most expect to ask nine times before their parents give in. By every measure, parents are shelling out record amounts. In the heat of this buying blitz, even parents who desperately need to say no find themselves reaching for their credit cards.

3. Today's parents aren't equipped to deal with the problem. Many of them, raised in the 1960s and '70s, swore they'd act differently from their parents and have closer relationships with their own children. Many even wear the same designer clothes as their kids and listen to the same music. And they work more hours; at the end of a long week, it's tempting to buy peace with 'yes' and not mar precious family time with conflict. Anxiety about the future is another factor. How do well-intentioned parents say no to all the sports gear and arts and language lessons they believe will help their kids thrive in an increasingly competitive world? Experts agree: too much love won't spoil a child. Too few limits will.

4. What parents need to find, is a balance between the advantages of an affluent society and the critical life lessons that come from waiting, saving, and working hard to achieve goals. That search for balance has to start early. Children need limits on their behaviour because they feel better and more secure when they live within a secure structure. Older children learn self-control by watching how others, especially parents act. Learning how to overcome challenges is essential to becoming a successful adult. Few parents ask kids to do chores. They think their kids are already overburdened by social and academic pressures. Every individual can be of service to others, and life has meaning beyond one's own immediate happiness. That means parents eager to teach values have to take a long, hard look at their own.

(a) Answer the following:

  1. What values do parents and teachers want children to learn?
  2. What are the results of giving the children too much too soon?
  3. Why do today's children want more?
  4. What is the balance which the parents need to have in today's world?
  5. What is the necessity to set limits for children?

(b) Pick out words from the passage that mean the same as the following:

  1. a feeling of satisfaction (para 1)
  2. valuable (para 3)
  3. important  (para 4)

1. Why does a person become overconfident? The reason lies in over assessment of his capabilities. Sometimes people over assess their competence and jump into situations that are beyond their control.

2. Napoleon Bonaparte who became Emperor of France would say that the word 'impossible' was common only amongst fools. The overconfident Napoleon invaded Russia in the winter of 1812. This proved to be a big disaster.

3. Overconfidence generally leads people into misadventures, endangering their chances in life. It is wisely said that any achievement is a result of two factorsone's personal planning and support from the external world. People, take into account only their planning, generally ignoring external factors. As a result they are unable to foresee future developments. Hence, a great risk of failure.

4. Then there is the question: how can one manage overconfidence? The formula is very simple. Before taking a decision discuss the matter with other informed people with an objective mind and when it is proved that you are about to go off the path, accept reality and say without delay, "I was wrong'.

5. Overconfidence is a flaw characterizing people who lack the virtue of modesty. Modesty makes you a realist; you become a person who is cut down to size. People of this kind become very cautious; before taking an action they assess the whole situation. They adopt a realistic approach.

6. Overconfident people live within their own thoughts. They know themselves but they are unaware of others. Living inside their own cell they are unable to make use of the experiences of others. This kind of habit is highly damaging to all concerned

7. There is a saying that the young man sees the rule and the old man sees the exception, with a slight change, I would like to say that the overconfident person sees the rule and the confident person sees the exception. Overconfident people are always at risk. It is said that taking risk is good but it must be well calculated otherwise it becomes very dangerous.

 

1) Answer the following :(8)

a. Why does a person become overconfident? 

b. What does overconfidence generally lead people into? 

c. How can one manage overconfidence? 

d. What kind of person does 'modesty' make you? 

 

2)Find meanings of the words given below with the help of the options that follow :(4)

a. Misadventure (Para 3) 

   (i) Mishap    (ii) Unlucky    (iii) Unhappy    (iv) Unpleasant

b. Endangering (Para 3) 

   (i) Reckless   (ii) Imperil   (iii) Risky   (iv) Threatening

c. Assess (Para 5) 

   (i) Assemble   (ii) Acquire   (iii) Evaluate   (iv) Accept

d. Objective (Para 4) 

   (i) Obedient   (ii) Servile   (iii) Honest   (iv) Impartial


Read the following passage:

It's Beginning to Bite
 
In these trying times, when buying ordinary food stuff can burn a hole in your pockets, comes the news that can actually help us save some hard cash when we go out to shop the next time. According to a Stanford University study, the first of its kind in the world, there is no evidence to suggest that there are more nutritional benefits from expensive organic food than those grown by conventional methods. The researchers add that there is no difference in protein and fat content between organic and conventional milk and the vitamin count is similar in both types. The only benefit is that organic foods are not contaminated with pesticides but then before you chew on the plate of organic okra with roti made from organic wheat, they are not 100% pesticide free either. In India, organic food has been growing at 20-22% and the export market is valued at Rs. 1,000 crore. Obviously, the study is not good news for that sector and for people who are big on organic food.


In India, eating organic food is more of a style statement than due to health worries because the stuff is expensive. But people who can, do indulge in not only organic vegetables but even organic eggs laid by 'happy hens', who are allowed to roam around freely whereas 'unhappy hens' are kept in coops. Then there are companies that have installed music channels in their cowsheds and the milk from those sheds are sold at a marked up price since it has more nutritional value because the animals are happy thanks to lilting 24×7 music. We don't know yet any farmer using music to improve his crop quality, but then you never know : plants are known to respond to music.

Why such pickiness about food ? These days, the huge number of TV shows and articles that we see and read on food provide bread and butter for the specialist. But instead of decoding food, its sources and what has gone into growing it, isn't it much better to enjoy what's on the plate ?

(Adapted from The Hindustan Times)


Complete the statements given below by choosing the correct options from those that follow:

(a) According to a Stanford University study, organic food in relation to conventional food is________.
  (i) less nutritious
  (ii) more nutritious
  (iii) very conventional
  (iv) as nutritious

(b) The study will not be welcomed by _________.
  (i) farmers of conventional food
  (ii) makers of pesticides
  (iii) all sectors
  (iv) exporters of organic food

(c) We can save some hard cash by _________.
  (i) buying organic food
  (ii) not buying organic food
  (iii) going to the shop
  (iv) not buying food with pesticides

(d) Music channels are installed in the cowshed because the _________.
  (i) cows then give more milk
  (ii) milk is sold at a higher price
  (iii) milk becomes more pure
  (iv) workers becomes happy

(e) In the second paragraph, the author's attitude to the people who eat food sourced from 'happy' animals is that he _________.
  (i) is happy with them
  (ii) is unhappy with them
  (iii) is laughing at them
  (iv) wants crops to be grown similarly

(f) One benefit of organic food is that __________.
  (i) it is fashionable to eat
  (ii) only rich people can afford it
  (iii) it is less contaminated with pesticides
  (iv) even poor people can afford it

(g) The word 'contaminated' means ________.
  (i) adulterated
  (ii) for adults
  (iii) containing
  (iv) not healthy


Read the following passage carefully:

Gandhiji As a Fund Raiser

Gandhiji was an incurable and irrestible fund raiser. He found special relish in getting jewellery from women. Ranibala of Burdwan was ten years old. One day she was playing with Gandhiji. He explained to her that her bangles were too heavy for her delicate little wrists. She removed the bangles and gave them away to Gandhiji.

He used to talk jokingly to small girls and created distaste for ornaments and created a desire in them to part with the jewellery for the sake of the poor. He motivated them to donate their jewellery for social usage.

Kasturbai didn’t appreciate this habit of Gandhiji. Once she stated calmly, ‘You don’t wear jewels, it is easy for you to get around the boys. But what about our daughters-in-law ? They would surely want them.

“Well!” Gandhiji put in mildly, "our children are young and when they grow up they will not surely choose wives who are found of wearing jewellery.” Kasturbai was very upset with the answer.

Gandhiji was determined to keep the jewels to raise community fund. He was of the opinion that a public worker should accept no costly gifts. He believed that he should not own anything costly, whether given or earned. Kasturbai was a female with a desire to adorn. But Gandhiji moved towards renunciation and donated every penny earned in South Africa to the trustees for the service of South African Indians.

2.1 Answer the questions given below:

(a) How did Gandhiji create a distaste for jewellery in Ranibala?
 
(b) What was Kasturbai’s apprehension about their daughters-in-law?
 
(c) What solution did Gandhiji suggest for the problem posed by Kasturbai?
 
(d) How did Gandhiji serve the community?
 
2.2 Find meanings of the words given below from the options that follow:
 
(e) incurable (para 1)
(i) unreliable
(ii) untreatable
(iii) disagreeable
(iv) unbeatable
 
(f) motivated (para 2)
(i) encouraged
(ii) emboldened
(iii) incited
(iv) softened
 
(g) upset (para 4)
(i) puzzled
(ii) furious
(iii) confused
(iv) distressed
 
(h) renunciation (para 5)
(i) giving up
(ii) disagreement
(iii) opposition
(iv) termination

Read the passage given below :

1. When you grow up in a place where it rains five months a year, wise elders help you to get acquainted with the rain early. They teach you that it is ignorant to think that it is the same rain falling every day. Oh no, the rain is always doing different things at different times. There is rain that is gentle, and there is also rain that falls too hard and damages the crops. Hence, the prayer for the sweet rain that helps the crops to grow.

2. The monsoon in the Naga hills goes by the native name, khuthotei (which means the rice-growing season). It lasts from May to early or mid-October. The local residents firmly believe that Durga Puja in October announces the end of rain. After that, one might expect a couple of short winter showers, and the spring showers in March and April. Finally, comes the "big rain" in May; proper rainstorms accompanied by heart-stopping lightning and ear-splitting thunder. I have stood out in storms looking at lightning are across dark skies, a light-and-sound show that can go on for hours.

3. This is the season when people use the word sezuo or süzu to refer to the week-long rains, when clothes don't dry and smell of mould, when fungus forms on the floor and when you can't see the moon or the stars because of the rainclouds. But you learn not to complain. Rain, after all, is the farmer's friend and brings food to the table. Rituals and festivals centre around the agricultural rhythm of life, which is the occupation of about 70 percent of the population.

4. The wise learn to understand its ways. I grew up hearing my grandfather say. "It's very windy this year. We'll get good rain." If the windy season was short and weak, he worried there might not be enough rain for the crops. I learned the interconnectedness of the seasons from childhood, and marvelled at how the wind could bring rain. Another evening, many rainy seasons ago, my paternal aunt observed the new moon and worried, "Its legs are in the air, we're in for some heavy rain." She was right. That week, a storm cut off power lines and brought down trees and bamboos.

5. Eskimos boast of having a hundred names for snow. Norwegians in the north can describe all kinds of snow by an equal amount of names : pudder, powder snow, wet snow, slaps, extra wet snow, tight snowfall, dry snow, and at least 95 more categories of snow. Likewise, in India we have names and names for rain. Some are common, some are passing into history.

6. The rains are also called after flowering plants and people believe that the blossoming of those plants draws out rain. Once the monsoons set in, field work is carried out in earnest and the work of uprooting and transplanting paddy in flooded terrace fields is done. The months of hard labour are June, July and August. In August, as the phrogü plant begins to bloom, a rain will fall. this August rain, also called phrogü, is a sign that the time for cultivation is over. If any new grain seeds are sown, they may not sprout; even if they do sprout, they are not likely to bear grain. The rain acts as a kind of farmer's almanac.

7. The urban population of school-goers and office-goers naturally dislikes the monsoon and its accompanying problems of landslides, muddy streets and periodic infections. For non-farmers, the month of September can be depressing, when the rainfall is incessant and the awareness persists that the monsoons will last out till October. One needs to have the heart of a farmer to remain grateful for the watery days, and be able to observe – from what seems to the inexperienced as a continuous downpour – the many kinds of rain. Some of the commonly known rain-weeks are named after the plants that alternately bloom in August and September. The native belief is that the flowers draw out the rain.
8. Each rain period has a job to fulfil : October rain helps garlic bulbs to form, while kümünyo rain helps the rice bear grain. Without it, the ears of rice cannot form properly. End October is the most beautiful month in the Naga hills, as the fields turn gold and wild sunflowers bloom over the slopes, all heralding the harvest. Prayers go up for protecting the fields from storms, and the rains to retreat because the grain needs to stand in the sun and ripen. The cycle nears completion a few weeks before the harvest, and the rain does retreat so thoroughly from the reaped furrows that the earth quickly turns hard. The months of rain become a distant memory until it starts all over again.

On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, complete the statements given below with the help of options that follow:
a) The rains are called after flowering plants because

(i) heavy rains kill plants.
(ii) flowers grow in the rainy season.
(iii) it is believed that the plants bring the rain.
(iv) flowers grow all the year round.


b) The rain is like a calendar for farmers because

(i) it tells them when to sow and when to harvest.
(ii) it tells them the birthdays of their children.
(iii) each month has a time for plantation.
(iv) different kinds of rain tell different things.


c) People who live in cities don't like rain because

(i) it brings mud and sickness with it.
(ii) they are not bothered about the farmers.
(iii) they don't like the plants that grow during the rain.
(iv) going shopping becomes difficult.


d) People pray asking the rain the retreat because

(i) the fungus and mould need to dry.
(ii) children don't get a chance to play.
(iii) the crops need the sun and heat to ripen.
(iv) they like to pray.


Answer the following questions briefly:
e) Why do the elders want you to understand the rains in the Naga hills?

f) What does Durga Puja mean to the farmers of the Naga hills?

g) What kind of rain is called sezuo?

h) What is the occupation of more than half the population of the Naga hills?

i) How is the heart of the farmer different from that of the city person?

j) When does rain becomes a memory in the minds of the of the Naga hills?

k) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:

(i) flowering (para 6)
(ii) nonstop (para 7)

 Read the passage given below:

1. Every morning Ravi gives his brain an extra boost. We're not talking about drinking strong cups of coffee or playing one of those mind-training video games advertised all over Facebook. "I jump onto my stationary bike and cycle for 45 minutes to work," says Ravi. "When I get to my desk, my brain is at peak activity for a few hours." After his mental focus comes to a halt later in the day, he starts it with another short spell of cycling to be able to run errands.

2. Ride, work, ride, repeat. It's scientifically proven system that describes some unexpected benefits of cycling. In a recent study in the Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, scientists found that people scored higher on tests of memory, reasoning, and planning after 30 minutes of spinning on a stationary bike than they did before they rode the bike. They also completed the tests faster after pedalling.

3. Exercise is like fertilizer for your brain. All those hours spent on exercising your muscles, create rich capillary beds not only in leg and hip muscles, but also in your brain. More blood vessels in your brain and muscles mean more oxygen and nutrients to help them work. When you pedal, you also force more nerve cells to fire. The result: you double or triple the production of these cells – literally building your brain. You also release neurotransmitters (the messengers between your brain cells) so all those cells, new and old, can communicate with each other for better, faster functioning. 'That's a pretty profound benefit to cyclists.

4. This kind of growth is especially important with each passing birthday, because as we age, our brains shrink and those connections weaken. Exercise restores and protects the brain cells. Neuroscientists say, "Adults who exercise display sharper memory skills, higher concentration levels, more fluid thinking, and greater problem-solving ability than those who are sedentary."

5. Cycling also elevates your mood, relieves anxiety, increases stress resistance, and even banishes the blues. "Exercise works in the same way as psychotherapy and antidepressants in the treatment of depression, maybe better," says Dr. Manjari. A recent study analyzing 26 years of research finds that even some exercise – as little as 20 to 30 minutes a day – can prevent depression over the long term.

6. Remember: although it's healthy, exercise itself is a stress, especially when you're just getting started or getting back into riding. When you first begin to exert yourself, your body releases a particular hormone to raise your heart  rate, blood pressure, and blood glucose levels, says Meher Ahluwalia, PhD, a professor of integrative physiology. As you get fitter, it takes a longer, harder ride to trigger that same response.
On the basis of your understanding of the passage, complete the statements given below with the help of the options that follow:

(a) Ravi gets his brain to work at peak level by

(i) drinking three cups of coffee.
(ii) playing games that need brain activity.
(iii) cycling on a stationary bike.
(iv) taking tablets to pump up his brain.


(b) When nerve cells work during exercise then

(i) the body experiences stress.
(ii) the brain is strengthened by multiplying them.
(iii) you start to lose your temper.
(iv) your stationary cycle starts to beep.


Answer the following questions briefly:
(c) How does exercise help the brain?
(d) Why does Ravi do a circuit of 'ride, work, ride'?
(e) What is the work of neurotransmitters?
(f) What benefits other than greater brain activity does one get from cycling?
(g) Why is exercise so important for adults?
(h) How is exercise itself a stress?

(i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
(i) manure (para 3)
(ii) inactive (para 4)

Read the passage given below:

Keeping cities clean is essential for keeping their residents healthy. Our health depends not just on personal hygiene and nutrition, but critically also on how clean we keep our cities and their surroundings. The spread of dengue and chikungunya are intimately linked to the deteriorating state of public health conditions in our cities.

The good news is that waste management to keep cities clean is now getting attention through the Swachh Bharat Mission. However, much of the attention begins and stops with the brooms and the dustbins, extending at most to the collection and transportation of the mixed waste to some distant or not so distant place, preferably out of sight.

The challenge of processing and treating the different streams of solid waste, and safe disposal of the residuals in scientific landfills, has received much less attention in municipal solid waste management than is expected from a health point of view.

One of the problems is that instead of focusing on waste management for health, we have got sidetracked into "waste for energy". If only we were to begin by not mixing the biodegradable component of solid waste (close to 60 percent of the total) in our cities with the dry waste, and instead use this stream of waste for compositing and producing a gas called methane.

City compost from biodegradable waste provides an alternative to farmyard manure (like cow-dung). It provides an opportunity to simultaneously clean up our cities and help improve agricultural productivity and quality of the soil. Organic manure or compost plays a very important role as a supplement to chemical fertilisers in enriching the nutrient-deficient soils. City compost can be the new player in the field.

Benefits of compost on the farm are well-known. The water holding capacity of the soil which uses compost helps with drought-proofing, and the requirement of less water per crop is a welcome feature for a water-stressed future. By making the soil porous, use of compost also makes roots stronger and resistant to pests and decay. Farmers using compost, therefore, need less quantity of pesticides. There is also evidence to suggest that horticulture corps grown with compost have better flavour, size, colour and shelf-life.

City compost has the additional advantage of being weed-free unlike farmyard manure which brings with it the seeds of undigested grasses and requires a substantial additional labour cost for weeding as the crops grow. City compost is also rich in organic carbon, and our soils are short in this.

Farmers clearly recognize the value of city compost. If city waste was composted before making it available to the farmers for applying to the soil, cities would be cleaned up and the fields around them would be much more productive.

Quite apart from cleaning up the cities of biodegradable waste, this would be a major and sustainable contribution to improving the health of our soil without further damage by excessive chemical inputs. What a marvellous change from waste to health!

The good news is that some states are regularly laying plastic roads. Plastic roads will not only withstand future monsoon damage but will also solve a city's problem of disposing of non-recyclable plastic. It is clear that if the mountains of waste from our cities were to be recycled into road construction material, it would tackle the problem of managing waste while freeing up scarce land.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognisable abbreviations wherever necessary (minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply an appropriate title to it.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.


Read the passage given below :

1. To ensure its perpetuity, the ground is well held by the panther both in space and in time. It enjoys a much wider distribution over the globe than its bigger cousins and procreates sufficiently profusely to ensure its continuity for all time to come.

2. There seems to be no particular breeding season of the panther, although its sawing and caterwauling is more frequently heard during winter and summer. The gestation period is about ninety to a hundred days (Whipsnade, ninety-two days). The litter normally consists of four cubs, rarely five. Of these, generally, two survive and not more than one reaches maturity. I have never come across more than two cubs at the heels of the mother. Likewise, graziers in the forest have generally found only two cubs hidden away among rocks, hollows of trees, and other impossible places.
 
3. Panther cubs are generally in evidence in March They are born blind. This is a provision of Nature, against, their drifting away from the place of safety in which they are lodged by their mother, and exposing themselves to the danger of their being devoured by hyenas, jackals, and other predators. They generally open their eyes in about three to four weeks.
 
4. The mother alone rears its cubs in seclusion. It keeps them out of the reach of the impulsive and impatient male. As a matter of fact, the mother separates from the male soon after mating and forgets all about their tumultuous union. The story that the male often looks in to find out how the mother is progressing with her cubs has no foundation except in what we wish it should do at least.
 
5. The mother carries its cubs about by holding them by the scruff of their neck in its mouth. It trains them to stalk and teaches them how to deliver the bite of death to the prey. The cubs learn to treat all and sundry with suspicion at their mother’s heels. Instinctively the cubs seek seclusion, keep to cover and protect their flanks by walking along the edge of the forest.
 
6. I have never had an opportunity to watch mother panther train its cubs. But in Pilibhit forests, I once saw a tigress giving some lessons to its little ones. I was sitting over its kill at Mala. As the sunset, the tigress materialized in the twilight behind my machan. For about an hour, it scanned and surveyed the entire area looking and listening with the gravest concern. It even went to the road where my elephant was awaiting my signal. The mahout spotted it from a distance and drove the elephant away.
 
7. When darkness descended upon the scene and all was well and safe, the tigress called its cubs by emitting a low haa-oon. The cubs, two in number and bigger than a full-grown cat, soon responded. They came trotting up to their mother and hurried straight to the kill in indecent haste. The mother spitted at them so furiously that they doubled back to its heels immediately. Thereafter, the mother and its cubs sat undercover about 50 feet (15 m) away from the kill to watch, wait, look, and listen. After about half an hour’s patient and fidget less vigil the mother seemed to say ‘paid for’. At this signal, the cubs cautiously advanced, covering their flanks, towards the kill. No longer did they make a beeline for it, as they had done before.
 
8. The mother sat watching its cubs eat. and mounted guard on them. She did not partake of the meal.
 
On the basis of your understanding of the above passage complete the statements given below with the help of options that follow :
 
(a) To protect its cubs the mother panther hides them
(i) among rocks
(ii) in the branches of the trees
(iii) behind the tree trunks
(iv) at its heels
 
(b) The male panther :
(i) is protective of its cubs
(ii) trains its cubs
(iii) watches the progress of the mother
(iv) is impulsive and impatient

Answer the following questions briefly :
 
(c) How many cubs does the mother panther rarely deliver?
 
(d) What may happen if the panther cubs are not born blind?
 
(e) Why did the mahout drive his elephant away?
 
(f) Why did the tigress spit at its cubs?
 
(g) From the narrator's observation, what do we learn about the nature of the tigress?
 
(h) Why does the panther not face the risk of extinction?
 
(i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as each of the following :
(i) moving aimlessly (para 3)
(ii) came down / fell (para 7)

Read the passage given below:

People tend to amass possessions, sometimes without being aware of doing so. They can have a delightful surprise when they find something useful which they did not know they owned. Those who never have to change house become indiscriminate collectors of what can only be described as clutter. They leave unwanted objects in drawers, cupboards, and attics for years in the belief that they may one day need them. Old people also accumulate belongings for two other reasons, lack of physical and mental energy, and sentiment. Things owned for a long time are full of associations with the past, perhaps with the relatives who are dead, and so they gradually acquire a sentimental value.

Some things are collected deliberately in an attempt to avoid wastage. Among these are string and brown paper, kept by thrifty people when a parcel has been opened. Collecting small items can be mania. A lady cuts out from newspaper sketches of model clothes that she would like to buy if she had money. As she is not rich, the chances are that she will never be able to afford such purchases. It is a harmless habit, but it litters up her desk.

Collecting as a serious hobby is quite different and has many advantages. It provides relaxation for leisure hours, as just looking at one’s treasure is always a joy. One doesn’t have to go out for amusement as the collection is housed at home. Whatever it consists of - stamps, records, first editions of books, china – there is always something to do in connection with it, from finding the right place for the latest addition to verifying facts in reference books. This hobby educates one not only in the chosen subject but also in general matters which have some bearing on it.

There are other benefits also. One gets to meet like-minded collectors to get advice, compare notes, exchange articles, to show off one’s latest find. So one’s circle of friends grows. Soon the hobby leads to traveling, perhaps a meeting in another town, possibly a trip abroad in search of a rare specimen, for collectors are not confined to one country. Over the years one may well become an authority on one’s hobby and will probably be asked to give informal talks to little gatherings and then, if successful, to larger audiences.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also, supply an appropriate title to it.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words.


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:           

The most alarming of man’s assaults upon the environment is the contamination of air, earth, rivers, and sea with lethal materials. This pollution is for the most part irrevocable; the chain of evil it initiates is for the most part irreversible. In this contamination of the environment, chemicals are the sinister partners of radiation in changing the very nature of the world; radiation released through nuclear explosions into the air, comes to the earth in rain, lodges into the soil, enters the grass or corn, or wheat grown there and reaches the bones of a human being, there to remain until his death. Similarly, chemicals sprayed on crops lie long in soil, entering living organisms, passing from one to another in a chain of poisoning and death. Or they pass by underground streams until they emerge and combine into new forms that kill vegetation, sicken cattle, and harm those who drink from once pure wells.

It took hundreds of millions of years to produce the life that now inhabits the earth and reached a stage of adjustment and balance with its surroundings. The environment contained elements that were hostile as well as supporting. Even within the light of the sun, there were short wave radiations with power to injure. Given time, life has adjusted and a balance reached. For time is the essential ingredient, but in the modern world is no time.

The rapidity of change and the speed with which new situations are created follow the heedless pace of man rather than the deliberate pace of nature. Radiation is no longer the bombardment of cosmic rays; it is now the unnatural creation of man’s tampering with the atom. The chemicals to which life is asked to make adjustments are no longer merely calcium and silica and copper and all the rest of the minerals washed out of the rocks and carried in the rivers to the sea; they are the synthetic creations of man’s inventive mind, brewed in his laboratories, and having no counterparts in nature.

(a) On the basis of your understanding of the above passage make notes on it using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations (wherever necessary-minimum four) and a format you consider suitable. Also supply a title to it.

(b) Write a summary of the passage in about 80 words


Read the passage given below :

1. We often make all things around us the way we want them. Even during our pilgrimages we have begun to look for whatever makes our heart happy, gives comfort to our body and peace to the mind. It is as if external solutions will fulfil or needs, and we do not want to make any special efforts even in our spiritual search. Our minds is resourceful − it works to find shortcuts in simple and easy ways.

2. Even pilgrimages have been converted into tourism opportunities. Instead, we must awaken our conscience and souls and understand the truth. Let us not tamper with either our own nature of that of the Supreme.

3. All our cleverness is rendered ineffective when nature does a dance of destruction. Its fury can and will wash away all imperfection. Indian culture, based on Vedic treatises, assists in human evolution, but we are not using our entire energy in distorting these traditions according to our convenience instead of making efforts to make ourselves worthy of them.

4. The irony is that humans are not even aware of the complacent attitude they have allowed themselves to sink to. Nature is everyone's Amma and her fierce blows will sooner or later corner us and force us to understand this truth. Earlier, pilgrimages to places of spiritual significance were rituals that were undertaken when people became free from their worldly duties. Even now some seekers take up this pious religious journey as a path to peace and knowledge. Anyone travelling with this attitude feels and travels with only a few essential items that his body can carry. Pilgrims traditionally travelled light, on foot, eating light, dried chickpeas and fruits, or whatever was available. Pilgrims of olden days did not feel the need to stay in special AC bedrooms, or travel by luxury cars or indulge themselves with delicious food and savouries.

5. Pilgrims traditionally moved ahead, creating a feeling of belonging towards all, conveying a message of brotherhood among all they came across whether in small caves, ashrams or local settlements. They received the blessings and congregations of yogis and mahatmas in return while conducting the dharma of their pilgrimage. A pilgrimage is like penance or sadhana to stay near nature and to experience a feeling of oneness with it, to keep the body healthy and fulfilled with the amount of food, while seeking freedom from attachments and yet remaining happy while staying away from relatives and associates.

6. This is how a pilgrimage should be rather than making it like a picnic by taking a large group along and living in comfort, packing in entertainment, and tampering with environment. What is worse is giving a boost to the ego of having had a special darshan. Now alms are distributed, charity done while they brag about their spiritual experiences!

7. We must embark on our spiritual journey by first understanding the grace and significance of a pilgrimage and following it up with the prescribed rules and rituals − this is what translates into the ultimate and beautiful medium of spiritual evolution. There is no justification for tampering with nature.

8. A pilgrimage is symbolic of contemplation and meditation and acceptance, and is a metaphor for the constant growth or movement and love for nature that we should hold in our hearts.

9. This is the truth!
One the basis of your understanding of the above passage answer the questions that follow with the help of given options:

(a) How can a pilgrim keep his body healthy?
(i) By travelling light
(ii) By eating small amount of food
(iii) By keeping free from attachments
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)

(b) How do we satisfy our ego?
(i) By having a special darshan
(ii) By distributing alms
(iii) By treating it like a picnic
(iv) Both (i) and (ii)

Answer the following as briefly as possible:
(c) What change has taken place in our attitude towards pilgrimages?
(d) What happens when pilgrimages are turned into picnics?
(e) Why are we complacent in our spiritual efforts?
(f) How does nature respond when we try to be clever with it?
(g) In olden days with what attitude did people go on a pilgrimage?
(h) What message does the passage convey to the pilgrims?
(i) Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following:
(i) made/turned (para 3)
(ii) very satisfied (para 4)


(A) Read the fo llowing extract and answer the questions given below :

Kalpana Chawla was extremely proud other birth-place and made every effort to bring it into the lime-light. During space flights she vit, (mid prondk point it out to her Fellow-astronauts. Once, during the second Hight she remembered her closest friend, Dais Chawla, who died in a road accident. In fact, despite her celebrity status, she took pains to track down her former teachers, classmates and friends in India and showed a keen desire to stay in touch with them.

Her affectionate and humble nature won the hearts of all who came in contact with her. Although Kalpana had a strong desire to go to Mars, fly over its canyons she was equally concerned about the well-being of the earth. She always urged young people to listen to the sounds of nature and take care of our fragile planet. During, her space trips, she took many breatlitakilig photographs of the earth for various terrestrial studies later on the ground. When she was in space, she always felt a sense of connection with everyone on the earth.

It was Kalpana's cherished desire to visit India again. But that was not to be. A few months after her tragic death, Harrison visited India. He went to her school and college, met her family, teachers and friends and scattered her ashes over the Himalayas.

(1) What is the extract about? (1)

(2) How was Kalpana connected with India and Indians? (2)

(3) How was Kalpana concerned about the well-being of the earth? (2)

(4) What would you like to do For India? (2)

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:

(i) She took many breathtaking photographs of the earth.
(Rewrite it using the Present Perfect Continuous tense.) (1)

(ii) He scattered her ashes over the Himalayas.
(Rewrite it beginning with 'Her ashes ...... ')(1)

(iii) Kalpana was extremely proud of her birth-place and made every effort to bring it into limelight.
(Rewrite it using 'not only ...... but also'.)(1)

( 6) Give the antonyms from the extract for -

(i) collected                           (1/2)
(ii) forgot                              (1/2)

(B) Summary :
Write a summary of the above extract with the help of the following
points and suggest a suitable title :
Points : Kalpana's affection towards India and Indians her humble - nature her love for the earth Harrison's visit to India. (4)


Read the following extract and answer the questions given
below:
Prominent among the urges that inspire and drive a person in life, is the mge to be a somebody. It is quite human, especially in the early stages of life, to want to do something to win laurels and admiration of all around. There's a pitfall though - the very process of becoming a somebody may subtly reduce yon to a nobody.
American poet Emily Dickinson, who lived in obscurity, has an interesting poem on this theme. "I'm nobody!" she declares, with apparent pride.
"Who are you?
Are you nobody, too?"
Why should anybody be happy about being nobody?
The poem explains :
"How dreaiy to he somebody!
How public, like a frog
To tell your name the livelong day
To an admiring bog!
The word 'bog' is significant. When you become a somebody, you invite adulation :
this then begins to bog you down. The moment you think you have arrived, you begin to stagnate, or, worse, your downslide begins. An endless list of writers, artists, sportsmen, politicians ..... fit this pattern of personal history.
To sustain your development in absolute terms, to become a true somebody, it is important to remain a temporal nobody. Even if destiny makes you a temporal somebody,
you should be able to see yourself as merely an agent of a superior power; no more. This requires an exercise of will. You have to constantly watch out and talk to yourself morning and evening.

(1) What is the main idea of the extract? (1)

(2) Why is it important for one to remain a temporal nobody? How? (1)

(3) What does Emily Dickinson declare with pride? Why? (2)

(4) What would you like to be in your life - Somebody or nobody? Why? (2)

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed
(i) This requires an exercise of will.
(Rewrite it using the Simple Future tense.) (1)

(ii) You have to constantly watch out and talk to yourself.
(Rewrite it using another modal auxiliary showing 'compulsion'.) (1)

(iii) You begin to stagnate.
(Rewrite it using the noun form of the word underlined.) (1)

(6) Find out the words from the extract which mean -

(i) danger  (1/2)

(ii) praise   (1/2)


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below :
One day, I saw the tree was being cut. I rushed to the site and begged the tree cutters to spare the trunk as it wast the home of many a parrot. But I was laughed at and the tree fell with a great thud. I ran to the top end to see two just hatched chicks thrown out of their nest and smashed to death. I looked into all the nests and saw smashed eggs in two of them and one little chick in the other one. Fortunately, the little one survived the fall. I brought it home. The chick can be identified as a parrot only by the shape and colour of its beak. No feathers had come out. 1 carefully fed it with milk and within two weeks it began to eat bananas; and two months later, it started to fly and I let him fly away. But he would not fly long. He used to liner on the coconut trees in our compound and when I reached home from school, he would fly down and land on my head!
I would show him my finger and he would jump on to it from my head and drink the milk I offered him in a little plate. By putting the sharp end of the upper beak stationaty in the plate, he would drink the milk by moving his tongue and lower beak to and fro. Then he would fly on to my shoulder and eat paddy from mypahn.

(1) What is the extract about? (1)

(2) Describe how did the boy save the life of a chick ? (2)

(3) What was the parrot's daily routine at the author's home? (2)

(4) Do you think, we have deprived the birds of their natural habitats? What are its effects? (2)

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) I rushed to the site. (Rewrite the sentence using 'used to'.) (1)

(ii) The tree was being cut. (Rewrite it beginning with 'They .... .' (1)

(iii) I looked into all the nests and saw smashed eggs in two of them. (Rewrite the sentence using the word 'when'.  (1)

(6) Find out the words from the extract which mean -
(i) neatly                      (1/2)
(ii) stay for longer        (1/2)


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

Now, as I stood on the shore of that desolate Highland loch
I raised my voice in a surge of self-justification : ''By Heavens!
This is my opportunity. Gastric ulcer or no gastric ulcer, I will
write a novel.'' Before I could change 1ny mind I walked straight to the village and bot1ght myself two dozen penny exercise books.
Upstairs in my cold, clean bedroom was a scrubbed deal table and a very hard chair. Next morning, I found myself in this chair, facing a new exercise book open upon the table, slowly' becoming aware that, short of dog-Lati11 prescriptions, I had never composed a significant phrase in all my life. It was a discot1raging thought as I picked 11p my pen and gazed out of the window. Never mind, I would begin. Three hours later Mrs. Angus, the farmer's wife, called me to dinner. The page was still blank.
As I went dow-n to m:y milk and junket-they call this  "curds'' in Tarbert - I felt a dreadful fool. I felt like the wretched poet in Daudet's Jack whose im1nortal masterpiece never progressed beyond its stillborn opening phrase : ''In a remote valley of Pyrenees ..... ". I recollected, rather gri111ly, the sharp advice with which my old schoolmaster had goaded me to action. ''Get it down!'' he had said. ''If it ~tops in your head it will always be nothing.
Get it down.'' And so, after lunch, I went upstairs and began to get it down.

(1) What is the main idea of the extract? (1)
(2) Why did the narrator buy two dozen penny exercise books? (2)
(3) How was the narrator unprepared for writing his novel? (2)
(4) Write in brief about what you will do in your forthcoming vacation. (2)
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:
(i) I stood on the shore of that desolate Highland loch.
(Rewrite it using 'used to'.) (1)
(ii) I went down to my milk and junket.
(Rewrite it in the Past Perfect Tense.) (1)
(iii) I walked straight to the village and bought myself
two dozen penny exercise books. (Make it simple). (1)
(6) Find out the words from the extract which mean:
(i) chance  (1/2)
(ii) lake   (1/2)


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

One day, King Amrit and Chandan were taking a walk on the terrace of the palace. The terrace offered a beautiful view of the surroundings, and they could see far into the distance. They spotted the weekly market from up there, with people in colourful clothes buying and selling all kinds of things. There was plenty to buy and people had money to buy too. There were no poor people to be seen anywhere. The King watched with a smile on his face. He was delighted to see the prosperity of his kingdom. Like any good ruler, he was happy ·when his people were happy.
       He turned to Chandan and said, ''See how contented my people are. But I want to check this first-hand by talking to them. Tomorrow, summon people from all walks of life to the court, and I will ask them myself how they are doing.'' Chandan was used to the king's strange requests and went off to carry out this order.

       The next day, the King arrived in the court humming a happy tune to himself. Seeing all the people gathered there waiting for him, he was even more pleased. He cleared his throat and said in a loud voice, ''I have called you here to ask you a very important question. As your king, I need to know if all of you are contented. Do you have enough for your needs? Do you know anyone who is not happy about anything?''.

(1) What do you understand about the King from this extract?
(2) Why did the King want to talk to his people?
(3) How did the King come to know about the prosperity of his kingdom?
(4) According to you, what should the Government do for the bettennent of the poor people?
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) He was delighted to see the prosperity of his kingdom.
(Make it a rhetorical question.)
(ii) Summon people from all walls of life to the court
(Rewrite it beginning with 'Let ..... ')
(iii) As soon as the King arrived in the court humming a
happy tune to himself, he cleared his throat.
(Rewrite it using 'No sooner .... than'.)

(6) Find out the words from the extract which mean:
(i) development
(ii) examine


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

There are some glimmers of hope. I met up young Navdeep. Ahuja who along with another colleague began the innocuously named Graduates Welfare Association, Fazilka. They are bringing about change with the mandate of citizens' participation in governance and are facilitating the creation of physical and social infrastructure across 22 cities in Punjab. They have put in place a network of cycle rickshaws called Eco-cabs which can be booked through a mobile phone. They are also developing car tree zones, food and culture streets in these cities. All this is being done very efficiently and at a low cost. We need many such organizations. However, my idea of a city in 2020 is not a utopian dream. It is achievable. It has streets where people walk on wide footpaths shaded by leafy trees. Streets are usually one-third of a city's area and its most democratic segment. Public space dedicated to pedestrians reduces inequality and should be accorded priority when developing cities. Adjoining the streets should be cycle lanes where bicycles and, rickshaws can sail past smoothly. It'll have a great public transport system with buses, metro and taxis. Parking will be difficult and expensive so people will use public transport rather than cars. There will be parks and gardens and the air will be clean, as pollution levels will have dropped dramatically. And then cities will become areas of graceful living and a charmed way of life.

(1) What is the extract about?

(2) What will happen when parking becomes difficult and expensive?

(3) How has Graduates Welfare Association brought about changes in some cities?

(4) What efforts will you take to make your city a livable place?

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) We need many such organizations.
(Frame a ' Wh-question' to get the underlined part as an answer.)
(ii) It reduces inequality.
(Rewrite it using the Present Perfect Tense.)
(iii) The air will be clean, as pollution levels will. have dropped dramatically.
(Rewrite it using 'unless')

(6) Find out the words from the extract which mean:
(i) co-worker
(ii) small signs


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

I was 33 at the time, a doctor in the West End of London. I had been lucky in advancing through several arduous Welsh mining assistantships to my own practice - acquired on the installment plan from a dear old family physician who, at our first interview, gazed at my cracked boots and frayed cuffs and trusted me.
I think I wasn't a bad doctor. My patients seemed to like me - not only the nice old ladies with nothing wrong with them, who lived near the park and paid handsomely for my cheerful bedside manner but the cabbies, porters, and deadbeats in the mews and backstreets of Bayswater, who paid nothing and often had a great deal wrong with them.
Yet there was something-though I treated everything that came my way, read all the medical journals, attended scientific meetings, and even found time to take complex postgraduate diplomas-I wasn't quite sure of myself. I didn't stick at anything for long. I had successive ideas of specializing in dermatology, in aural surgery, in pediatrics, but discarded them all. While I worked all day and half of most nights, I really lacked perseverance, stability.
One day I developed indigestion. After resisting my wife's entreaties for several weeks, I went casually to consult a friendly colleague. I expected a bottle of bismuth and an invitation to a bridge. I received instead of the shock of my life: a sentence to six months’ complete rest in the country on a milk diet. I had a gastric ulcer.
Questions :
(1) What makes the writer think that he was a good doctor?
(2) What sort of patients did the doctor have?
(3) What were the reasons for the doctor's indigestion?
(4) “A doctor should have a pleasing personality and good manners.” Do you agree? Explain.
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:
(i) A dear old family physician gazed at my cracked boots and frayed cuffs. (Rewrite the sentence using not only...... but also.)
(ii) I didn't stick at anything for long. (Rewrite the sentence as a rhetorical question.)
(iii) I had successive ideas of specializing in dermatology, in aural Surgery, in pediatrics, but discarded them all. (Rewrite the sentence using Though.)
(6) Find out from the extract the words which mean the following:
(i) serious requests
(ii) unsewn

(A) Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:
   Chronic floods during the monsoon, on average, affect more than 30 million Indians annually Ironically, 60% of India's farmland, 66% of its livestock and its entire forest area depend on rains for survival.
   According to a recently released Central Water Commission (CWC) report, on an average, 7·21 million hectares (roughly 72,000 sq. km.) go under floodwater. This water typically ravages 3·78 million hectares of agricultural land, damaging crops worth Rs. 1, 118 crores annually.
   Heavy rains and floods account for nearly 1,700 lives lost annually. Apart from this, I ·25 lakh houses are annually damaged by torrential rains that also wipe out nearly 96,000 livestock.
   Floods are the most recurrent natural calamity, hitting India almost every year. According to the CWC's report on financial aspects of flood control, anti-sea erosion and drainage projects, it is not possible to provide absolute protection instantly to all flood-prone areas. It says that such an attempt will neither be practical nor economically viable.
   The CWC's analysis of floods in India from 1953 to 2011 shows a marginal decline in flood-affected areas over the years, the data shows 1977 1978 and 1979 were the worst-hit. The 1977 floods killed over 11,000 people, six-time the average for the 59 years, between 1953 and 2011. In terms of area and population affected, the floods of 1978 were the most destructive.
  In terms off the financial loss, recent floods have been far more destructive. The total loss of crops, houses and public utilities in 2009 was Rs. 32541 crores, the highest for any year.

Question
(1) What is the above extract about?

(2) How do floods adversely affect India?

(3) Why is it not possible to provide absolute protection to all flood-prone areas?

(4) How would you help the flood-affected people?

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) The floods of 1978 were the most destructive.
(Change the sentence into the 'positive degree'.)
(ii) Floods are the most recurrent natural calamity hitting India almost every year.
(Make it a complex sentence.)
(iii) Floods have been far more destructive.
(Rewrite the sentence using the Simple Present tense.)

(6) Give the meanings of:
(i) entire
(ii) calamity

(B) Write a brief summary of the above extract with the help of the points given below and suggest a suitable title.
Floods - natural, recurrent calamity in India - destroy life and property - no absolute protection - neither practical nor economically viable- floods in 1977 and 1978. 


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

So what is a city? It's a dense amalgamation of buildings and people. A city must provide equity and also be sustainable. As an architect who has been closely connected with Delhi and its planning, my wish list is more about the direction we need to take so that future generations don 't end up living in chaotic dysfunctional cities.
       The first requirement for a city is a pragmatic plan. Many of our cities such.as Delhi and Bhubaneswar and even Port Blair in the Andamans have reasonably good master plans. Many also have City Development Plans which have been made an essential requirement to draw funds. from the government's Urban Renewal Programme (JNNURM). But they should be updated frequently based on the changing needs of its people.
        And let's not forget its citizens - they need to be more pro-actively involved when evolving master plans. But often, there's lack of planning and inadequate implementation systems. This applies to all essential components of a city-streets, public transport system, traffic management, affordable housing, cars and parking, drainage. water supply, sewerage, and garbage. Any deficiency in these will lead to poor quality cities that won't be able to handle the pressure of increased population and changing needs.
      The second require1nent of a good city is good social infrastructure such as parks and places for leisure such as rivers and seafronts. It needs to preserve and protect its heritage. We are a nation with a rich diversity in culture, arts, and crafts.

Questions:
(1) What issue is raised in the above extract?
(2) What are the requirements for a good city?
(3) Why is it necessary to update our city development plan?
(4) Do you think unplanned cities make the life of its people
miserable? How?
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) A city must provide equity and also be sustainable.
(Rewrite the sentence using 'not only ...... but also'.)
(ii) Many of our cities have good master plans.
(Frame a Wh-question to get the underlined part as its answer.)
(iii) It needs to preserve and protect its heritage.
(Identify the tense used in the sentence.)
(6) Find out from the extract the words which mean:
(i) practical
(ii) blend


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:
 
The special school did Chaitanya a lot of good. He was now a much more confident person, adored by his teachers, his friends and his school staff. His speech improved and expression became clearer. His social manners became laudable.
 
Academically, he was still lagging behind the expected standard of learning but it was okey. He started developing an all- around interest in craft, art, music, dancing and sports.
 
Early in 1997-98, when he returned from state level inter- school sports, he had two prizes to his credit and a silver medal. He had won his laurels in athletic events and the silver medal in a running race.
 
When I saw the prizes and read the citation Chaitanya had received, I was stupefied, in total disbelief, then- hugged him, kissed him and cried unabashedly to my heart’s content. That day, I cried for the first time out of joy and a sense of being vindicated. Without practice he had competed with approximately 1,800 children drawn from various schools all over the state. He was subsequently selected for the marathon race, but he could not participate due to a healthy problem.” May be next year, he would”, I assured myself. And I, as his proud mother, would proudly chronicle his future achievements and success to inspire other mothers of the world.
 
Looking back at my own life, I feel that it is the spirit with which we can accept our life gracefully is what matters ultimately; and it is love which nourishes us.
1. What does the extract focus on? (1)
2. How  Chaitanya’s mother react when she saw the prizes? (2)
3. What were Chaitanya’s achievements in sports? (2)
4. How can you help a special child like Chaitanya? (2)
5. Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:
(i) When I saw the prizes, I was stupefied. (1)
(Rewrite the sentence using ‘No sooner…… than’)
(ii) He was still lagging behind the expected standard of learning, but it was okay. (1)
(Rewrite the sentence using ‘Although’)
(iii) He started developing an all – round interest in craft and sports. (1)
(Rewrite the sentence using infinitive form of the word underlined) 
6. Find out the words / phrases from the extract which mean: (1)
(i) to take part in = 
(ii) surprised =

Read the following extract and answer the question given below:    (11)
Researchers· recently announced the earth could actually
withstand up to 200,000 times the current population. They arrived at this figure by calculating the amount of heat a human body emits. and only at l ·3 million billion would the earth be too hot to be habitable. And though it would feel like being in a can of sardines if that figure were ever reached, the earth is capable of comfortably sustaining a population several times the current 6·5 billion.
In fact, fertility is actually on the decline worldwideThough
population has grown, the rate of growth has fallen sharply. Twenty years ago, the UN projected that population would reach l l · 16  billion in 2050, today they say it will reach only 9·37 billion. Moreover, human population will stabilize at about 11 ·5 billion.While this figure is almost twice the current one, it is hardly claustrophobic.
         True, the demands on resources are heavy even now, but this is more due to the manner in which these resources are being used. In fact, figures show that a bigger population does not amount to greater consumption. Over 20% of the world 's people in the highest income countries account for 86% of total private consumption expenditure - the poorest 20% a tiny 1 ·3%. With just 5% of the world's population, the US consumes about 40% of the world's resources. Would you say the US is overpopulated? 
     Concerns on scarcity of food are equally baseless. In fact, global food production has actually kept up with population growth . If people starve in many countries it is not because food is becoming scarce; it is because those people cannot afford it.

Questions: 
(1)  What conclusions did the researchers arrive at? (1)
( 2) How does the writer explain that the fertility is  on the
decline?   (2) 

(3) What does the extract predict about the fear-, of scarcity of food? (2)
( 4) How will population become a gift in the global market
scene? (2) 
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:
(i) The earth could withstand upto 200,000 times the
current population.
(Rewrite the sentence using the modal auxiliary showing 'certainty'.)  (I)
(ii) The earth would be too hot to be habitable.
(Remove ' too' and rewrite the sentence.) (1) 
(iii) These resources are being used. 
(Rewrite the sentence beginning with, 'We ............ ') (I)
( 6) Write the antonyms of:
(i) habitable      (1/2)
.
(ii) stabilize       ( 1/2 )


Read the following extract and answer the questions given
below: 

        Today, at 29, \.1.ichael has discovered the power of another good idea that has helped him rise in just a few years from teen to tycoon.He has become the fourth largest manufacturerof personal computers in America and the youngest man ever to head Fortune 500 Corporation.
             Growing up in Houston, Texas. Michael and his two brothers were imbued by their parents. Alexander and Lorraine - he anorthodontist, she a stockbroker- with the desire to learn and the drive to work hard. Even so, stories about the middle boy began to be told early.
                 Like the time a saleswoman came asking to speak to "Mr. Michael Dell" about his getting a high school equivalency diploma. Moments later. eight-year-old Michael was explaining that he thought it might be a good idea to get high school out of the way. 
               A few years later Michael had another good idea, to trade stamps by advertising in stamp magazines. With the $2000 he made, he bought his first personal computer. Then he took it apart to figure out how it worked.
             In high school Michael had a job selling newspaper subscriptions. Newlyweds, he figured, were the best prospects, so he hired friends to copy rhe names and addresses of recent recipients of marriage licences. These he entered into his computer, then sent a personalized letter offering each couple a free two-week subscription.
              This time Dell made $ 18,000 and bought an expensive BMW car. The car salesman was flabbergasted when the 17-ycar-oJd paid cash. 

(I) What details does the writer give about Dell's family in the
extract?   (1)
(2) How did Dell succeed in earning S2QOQ? (2)
(3) Why was the car salesman flabbergasted?  (2)
(41 What do you think you can learn from Dell's story? (2)
{5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instmcted:
{i) "He has discovered the power of another good idea."
(Rewrite it beginning with 'The power of another good 
idea ...... ... .'.) (1)
.(if) "If you think you have a good idea, try it. "
(Use 'Unless' .) (1)
(iii) '"This time Dell made $18,000 and bought an expensive
BMW car."     (1)
(Make it a simple sentence.)
CM Find out the words from the extract which mean :
(i) filled with a quality.    (1/2)
(ii) understand.        (1/2)


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below.

Once upon a time the animals decided they must do something heroic to meet the problems of a “new world” so they organized a school. They had adopted an activity  curriculum consisting of running, climbing, swimming and flying. To make it easier to administer the curriculum, all the animals took all the subjects.
 
The duck was excellent in swimming. In fact, better than his instructor. But he made only passing grades in flying and was very poor in running. Since he was slow in running, he had  to stay after school and also drop swimming in order to practice running. This was kept up until his webbed feet were badly worn and he was only average in swimming.
 
But average was acceptable in school so nobody worried about that, except the duck.
 
The rabbit started at the top of the class in running but had a nervous breakdown because of so much makeup work in swimming. The squirrel was excellent in climbing until he developed frustration in the flying class where his teacher made him start from the ground up instead of the treetop down. He also developed a “charlie horse” from overexertion and then got a C in climbing and D in running.
The eagle was a problem child and was disciplined severely. In the climbing class, he beat all the others to the top of the tree but insisted on using his own way to get there.
 
1. What were the special features of animal school?
2. Why was the duck, an excellent swimmer, average in swimming?
3. Why was the experience of the squirrel miserable?
4. What efforts will you take to score good marks in your examination?
5. Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed.
(i) The duck was excellent in swimming.
(Frame a Wh – type question to get the underlined part as an answer)
(ii) The duck was better than his instructor.
(Change the sentence into positive degree)
(iii) The squirrel was excellent in climbing. (1)
(Mention the function of the underlined gerund.)
6. Match the words in column ‘A’ with their meanings in column ‘B’
A B
(i) valedictorian (a) feeling of annoyance
(ii) frustration (b) dunce
  (c) school topper
 
(d) validity

Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:
Dairy farming is a major livelihood followed by many households in rural areas. This includes rearing milk cattle - cows, buffaloes, goats, and sheep. There is a shortage of milk in the country as consumption in both urban and rural areas has risen sharply.
 
Dairying is an important source of subsidiary income to marginal farmers and agricultural labours. They play a very important role in milk production of the country. In 1986 - 87, about 73 percent of rural households owned livestock. According to the National Sample Survey of 1993 - 94, the livestock sector produces regular employment to about 9.8 million persons in principal status and 8.6 million in subsidiary status, which constitutes about 5 percent of the total workforce.
 
The Manure from animals provides a good source of organic matter for improving soil fertility and crop yields. The gas obtained by processing dung is used as a fuel for domestic purposes and also for running engines to draw water from wells. The surplus fodder and agricultural by-products are gainfully utilized for feeding the animals. Since agriculture is mostly seasonal, there is a possibility of finding employment throughout the year for many persons through dairy farming.
 
The milk processing industry is a small one. Only 10 percent of all the milk produced is delivered to some 400 dairy plants. A specific Indian phenomenon is the unorganized sector of milkmen and vendors, which handles around 65 - 70 percent of the national milk production. They collect milk from local producers and sell it in both urban and non - urban areas.
1. What is the main theme of the extract?
2. How is dairy farming beneficial for farmers besides getting milk?
3. What information does the National Sample Survey of 1993 - 94 provide?
4. How, according to you, can dairy farming improve the financial condition of farmers?
5. Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:
(i) The gobar gas obtained by processing dung is used as fuel.
(Rewrite the sentence beginning with 'People…………')
(ii) The consumption of milk in both urban and rural areas has risen sharply.
(Rewrite the sentence using the past perfect tense)
(iii) The milk processing industry is a small one.
(Make is a complex sentence)
6. Form the antonyms of the following words by adding prefixes.
(i) fertility x 
(ii) possibility x 

Read the following extract and answer the questions given below.         

            I grew up in India in which telephones were both rare and virtually useless. When I left India in 1975 to go to the US for graduate studies, we had perhaps, 600 million residents in the country and just two million landline telephones. Having a telephone was a rare privilege: if you weren’t an important government official, or a doctor, or a journalist, you might languish in a long waiting list and never receive a phone.

             Telephone were such a rarity (after all, 90% of population had access to a telephone line) that elected members of Parliament had amongst their privileges the right to allocate 15 telephone connections to whomever they deemed worthy.

              And if you did have a phone, it wasn’t necessarily a blessing. I spent my high school years in Calcutta, and I remember that if you picked up your phone, you had no guarantee you would reach the number you had dialled. Sometimes you were connected to someone else’s ongoing conversation, and they had no idea you were able to hear them; there was even a technical term for it, the ‘cross - connection’ (appropriately, since these were connections that made us very cross). If you wanted to call another city, say Delhi, you had to book a ‘trunk call’ in the morning and then sit by the telephone all day waiting for it to come through; or you could pay eight times the going rate for a ‘lightning call’ = but even lightning struck slowly in India those days, so it only took half an hour instead of the usual three or four or more to be connected.
 

Questions:

(1). Why were telephones a rarity before 1975? (1)

(2) What special rights did elected members of Parliament use to have? (2)

(3) How did the author differentiate between a ‘trunk call’ and a ‘lightning call’?  (2)

(4) Do you think the cellphone has made us global?  (2)

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed.  . (3)

(i) You could pay eight times the going rate for a ‘lighting call’. (Rewrite it using modal auxiliary showing compulsion) 

(ii) I spent my high school years in Calcutta. [Rewrite it using past perfect tense] 

(iii) Telephones were a rarity. [Make it a rhetorical question] 

(6) Match the words in column ‘A’ with their meanings in column ‘B’.  (1)

  Column A   Column B
(i) Privilege
(i)
means to reach or get
(ii) Access
(ii)
remedy
    (iii) special right

 

 


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

 We often hear this statement that “many of our young people spend more time before their T.V. sets, than they do in their classrooms or with their textbooks. “A bit exaggerated though it may sound, it is nearly true and our teenagers are being considerably influenced by the electronic media, particularly the T.V. The television has become the single most powerful influence in the lives of many of our youngsters today. Too often this happens to us much before we realise it ourselves.
         I am in no way trying to deny the many advantages of T.V. or minimise its manifold contributions to our world. On the other hand, I consider T.V. as one of the greatest scientific achievements of our times, bringing people closer than ever before.
        Television’s use of the modern satellite technology brings today even the remotest regions of the world to us in seconds, making the world a small (global) village. As we know, television also provides us with a fuller and more impressive coverage of current events than any other media.
       The T.V. does serve. In addition, as medium of education as well as entertainment. Besides, helping us to learn subjects taught in schools, college in greater depth, it enables us (National Geographic, Discovery channel etc.) to see and appreciate from close quarters (without having to go there, which is very expensive or even impossible for most of us) the wonders of God’s creation in any part of the world.
 
Questions: 
1.  What does the passage tell us about? (1) 
2.Write at least two advantages of T.V. from the passage. (2)
3. What other purpose does the T.V. serve in addition to education and entertainment? (2) 
4. Do you agree with the statement that many of our young people spend more time with their T.V. set? Justify your answer.  (2)
5. Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed: 
(i) Our young people spend more time before their T.V. set than in their classrooms.  (1) (Rewrite it  using positive degree)
(ii) The T.V. does serve as medium of education as well as an entertainment.   (1) (Rewrite it using ‘not only ......... but also’) 
(iii) I consider T.V. as one of the greatest scientific achievements of our times. (1) (Rewrite it using the noun form of the underlined word.)  
6. Find out the synonyms of the following words from the extract. (1) 
B. Summary: 
Write a summary of the above extract with the help of the following points and suggest a suitable title:  (4) 
Clues: T.V. - Misunderstanding - influence on youngsters - advantages - other benefits. 

Read the following extract carefully.        (4) 

I was walking around the camp, around the barracks, near the barbed wire fence where the guards could not easily see. I was alone.
On the other side of the fence. I spotted someone: a little girl with light, almost luminous curls. She was half hidden behind a birch tree. I glanced around to make sure no one saw me. I called to her softly in German, “Do you have something to eat? She didn’t understand.
I inches closer to the fence and repeated the question in Polish. She stepped forward. I was thin and gaunt, with rags wrapped around my feet, but the girl looked unafraid. In her eyes I saw life. She pulled an apple from her woolen jacket and threw it over the fence. I grabbed the fruit and, as I started to run away, I heard her say faintly, “I’ll see you tomorrow.”
I returned to the same spot by the fence at the same time every day. She was always there with something for me to eat - a hunk of bread or better yet, an apple.
We didn’t dare speak of linger. To be caught would mean death for us, both. I didn’t know anything about her. Just a kind farm girl, except that she understood Polish.
What was her name? Why was she risking her life for me? 
Question 
Imagine that you are the author’s brother Sam and rewrite it.
You may begin with: “Hello, I am Sam. My brother was walking around the camp .......”

Read the following extract and answer the questions given
below : 

          In 1945 in Bay Roberts, Canada, a 12-year-old boy saw something in a shop window that set his heart racing. But the price -five dollars-was far beyond Reuben Earle's means. Five dollars would buy almost a week's groceries for his family.
         Reuben couldn't ask his father for the money. Everything Mark Earle made by fishing, Reuben's mother, Dora, stretched like elastic to feed and clothe their five children.
      Nevertheless, he opened the shop's weathered door and went inside. Standing proud and straight in his flour-sack shirt and washed out trousers, he told the shopkeeper what he wanted, adding, "but I don't have the money now. Can you please hold it for me?" ·
    "I will try," the shopkeeper smiled. ''Folks around here don't usually have that kind of money to spend on things. It should keep for a while.,.
     Reuben respectfully touched his worn cap and walked out into the May sunlight. The bay rippled in a freshening wind that ruffled his short hair. There was purpose in his loping stride. He
would raise the five dollars and not tell anybody.
     Hearing the sound of hammering from a side street, Reuben had an idea.

     He ran towards the sound and stopped at a construction site. People built their own homes in Bay Roberts, using nails purchased in burlap sack from a local factory. Sometimes the sacks were discarded in the flurry of buildings, and Reuben knew he could sell them back to the factory for five cents a piece.

(1) What did Reuben decide to do to raise the required amount?
(2) How much money did Reuben need? Why?
(3) Why couldn't Reuben ask his father for the money?
(4) What is special about the gifts which are given on special occasions?
(5) Rewrite the following sentences as directed :
(i) Reuben couldn't ask his father for the money.
(Rewrite the sentence using ' be able to'.)
(ii) Hearing the sound of hammering from a side street, Reuben had an idea. 
(Rewrite the sentence using 'and'.)
(iii) He could sell them back to the factory.
·(Rewrite the sentence beginning with: 'They ..... ')

(6) Match the words in column 'A' with their meanings in
column 'B':

column 'A' column 'B'
folk natural harbour
bay sticks
  people

Read the following passage and do the activities.

In the early days of farming, people did not understand how plants obtained essential nutrients. It so happened that wood ash, fish remains and slaughterhouse waste were thrown on vacant land just to get rid of them. Then, people started to notice that the grass, bushes and shrubs on this vacant land began to grow very well. They reasoned that if their farmland were similarly treated, the growth of their crops would also improve. People gradually began to realize that the nutrients required by plants came from the soil and that the amount of nutrients could be increased by the application of such organic remains to the soil. Thus started the manuring process in farming.
The practice of manuring has been practised as early since the seventeenth century. However, the importance of manuring was not properly understood until scientists began to study the nutritional needs of plants and gave birth to fertilizers. Thus, gradually, the use of fertilizers became accepted by farmers.
There are many types of manure and fertilizer currently being used. Manure is a substance derived from animals and plants. The most important advantage of using manure is the fact that they not only supply a wide range of plant
nutrients, but also improve the structure of the soil. It cements together the soil particles to form soil crumbs. The crumb structure is a desirable condition of cultivated soil. The addition of manure to soil will increase the inorganic and humus content which helps to prevent soil erosion and loss of plant nutrients when it rains. The common manure used in farming consists of farmyard manure, compost, blood meal, bone meal and fish meal.
Unlike manure, fertilizers are inorganic substances which do not improve the structure of the soil. They only supply extra amounts of nutrients to the growing plants when applied to the soil. The commercial fertilizers commonly used today
can be classified into three major categories; namely, nitrogen (N), phosphate and potash fertilizers.
Besides knowing the type of fertilizer to use, a farmer also needs to know when to apply the fertilizer and how to apply it. The fertilizer should be applied at the time when the plants need a particular nutrient most. The time and method
of application will determine how profitably the fertilizers have been used in farming. Fertilizers which have not been properly applied cannot be absorbed in large quantities by plant roots. These fertilizers may be washed away by rain
or they may kill the plants. This would mean a definite financial loss for the farmer.

(A1) Choose the correct option and rewrite the sentences.
(a) What did the people not understand in the early days of farming ? (1/2)
(i) how farming is done
(ii) how plants obtained essential nutrients
(iii) how grass, shrubs and bushes grow.

(b) What is manure ? (1/2)
(i) a substance derived from animals and plants.
(ii) the soil particles to form soil crumbs.
(iii) a combination of nitrogen, phosphate and potash.

(c) When should fertilizers be applied ? (1/2)
(i) When the plants get dried.
(ii) When the plants need a particular nutrient most.
(iii) In the early days of farming.

(d) What determines the profitability of the fertilizers ? (1/2)
(i) grass, bushes and shrubs
(ii) nitrogen, phosphate and potash.
(iii) The time and method of application.

(A2) How did the process of adding manure to the soil begin? (2)

(A3) Find out similar words from the passage. (2)
(i) necessary (ii) comprise
(iii) step by step (iv) ascertain

(A4)
(i) They supply extra amount of nutrients to the growing plants (Begin the sentence with ‘Extra amount of.......... ’.)(1)

(ii) It cements together the soil particles to form soil crumbs.
(Choose the correct option to name the tense.)(1)
(i) Simple present tense
(ii) Simple past tense
(iii) Simple future tense

(A5) ‘Agriculture plays important role in Indian economy’. Explain. (2)

(B) Read the passage given in Q. 4 (A) and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary. (5)


Read the following passage and do the activities.

Galaxies are vast clusters of thousands of millions of stars, planets, gases and dust, which are held together by gravity. There are over one thousand million galaxies, and each is a very long way from its nearest neighbour.
Galaxies were formed during the Big Bang explosion about 15,000 million years ago. When this phenomenon occurred, everything that was in the universe flew out in different directions. Scientists believe that the galaxies were formed from lumps of matter that resulted. However, the process is nowhere near complete. The universe is still expanding, galaxies are still moving away from each other, new stars are still being created.
Galaxies are classified according to their shapes. There are three main types. The most common type of galaxy is The Spiral. This has several spiral arms radiating out from the center. Spiral galaxies have a large cluster of stars in their nucleus. The second type is the Barred spiral. In this type of galaxy, the spiral arms curve away from the opposite ends of a sort of bar going through the middle of the nucleus. These contain large amounts of gas and dust as well stars. The third type of galaxy is electrical. These consist almost entirely of stars and contain very little gas or dust. Some galaxies have irregular, uneven shapes and cannot be classified.

(A1) State whether the following statements are true or false. 02
(1) The most common type of galaxy is the barred spiral.
(2) Galaxies are clusters, held by gravity.
(3) Scientists do not believe in the Big Bang explosion.
(4) Galaxies are moving from each other.

(A2) Complete the web chart. 02

(A3)
(a) Find out similar words from the passage. 01
(i) mass (ii) happenings
(b) Give the verb form of the given words. 01
(i) classified (ii) directions

(A4) Identify and name the clause. 02
Scientists believe that the galaxies were formed from the lumps of matter.

(A5) Can there be life in another galaxy? Give reasons for your answer. 02

(B) Read the passage given in Q. 4 (A) and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary. (05)


     We were an argrarian people. And my main hobby in my early teens was to wander through paddy field to see the different kinds of birds and how they nest. On the outskirts of the paddy fields, there had been many coconut trees and black palm trees. Beautifully crafted nests of the weaver-birds thookkanaam kuruvikal-would be seen dangling from the ends of palm leaves. Hundreds of these little birds would land on the paddy to squeeze the milk from the tender rice. They would come to the fields when the young stalks come out of the rise-plants. At this stage of the paddy, my father would send me to our field with a tin drum to scare these birds away. But often I have enjoyed the sight of these little birds balancing on the tender stalks and squeezing the milk out of the green rice. When the paddy is ripe enough to harvest, flocks of parrots would land there and cut the ripe stalks with their sharp beaks and fly away with the stalks dangling in their beaks. I have always liked to see this sight also.
       The nest of parrots were neatly crafted holes in the trunks of palm trees. I continued to wonder how they made chose holes on the hard trunks until I saw the patient work of the woodpeckers. They were the carpenters and their long, sharp and strong beaks, chisels. They make the holes (in search of worms inside the weak spots of the trunks) and the parrots occupy them. If I heard the sound tak, tak, tak. I knew it was a woodpeckers chiselling a had trunk. I would go after him. It seems that the woodpecker is the only bird which can walk perpendicularly on the tree trunks! How beautiful the sight was! Its strong legs, red crest, the dark red stripe on the face and black beak and the tak, tak, tak sound used to captivate me

A1. Complete the following table :Choose two sentence that appropriately mention the theme of the passage :

(i) The extract deals with the techniques to scare the birds away.
(ii) The extract depicts how parrots make holes on the tree trunks.
(iii) The extract depicts the writer’s love towards the birds.
(iv) The extract deals with the activities of different birds.

A2. Complete the flow-chart : 

A3. Complete the following table :

A4. Vocabulary -

Match the pairs of the words in column ‘A’ with their meaning in column ‘B’ :

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(i) dangling (a) connected with farming
(ii) squeezing (b) attract the attention
(iii) agrarian (c) hanging freely
(iv) captivate (d) pressing firmly

A5. Personal response - 

Suggest two measures to increase the number of birds.

A6. Grammer -

Rewrite the following sentences in the way instructed
(i) The paddy is ripe enough to harvest
(Remove ‘enough’ and rewrite the sentence.)
(ii) How beautiful the sight was!
(Rewritte as an assertive sentence)


        On this historic moment, I stand here to thank Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. India’s present epoch maker has come over here to bless the state of Maharashtra which is definitely going to last forever. On behalf of thousands of common people, I express my deep sense of gratitude to him for blessing us. We Maharashtrians love him, worship him. And once again, I wish to declare that this state of Maharashtra, recently formed, will work for the betterment of the common people of Maharashtra, but if it comes to sacrifice, whatever best and grand we have, it will be done primarily for India. This is so, because, we believe from the beginning, that Maharashtra depends on India; its greatness depends on the greatness of India. All Maharashtrians believe that both India and Maharashtra can progress only when there is oneness of interest. And, therefore, I have made this clear by bringing to your notice the significance of certain symbols, for example, the Himalayas stand for lndia and the Sahyadri, for Maharashtra. The snowy Himalayas with the highest mountain ranges symbolise India and the Sahyadri with the blackest rock structure and with 200-300 inches rainfall symbolise Maharashtra. I promise you that if the Himalayas are in jeopardy, the Sahyadri of Maharashtra will use its black rock structure like a shield to protect the Himalayas.
    ‘Hard labour’ is the watch word of our times. And, Panditji, you have given us the message of building Maharashtra and our nation by hard labour. We are going to inscribe this valuable message on our minds and try our best to look at your blessings and your guidance, as the blessings and guidance of an epoch maker.

A1 . Read the following statements. Find out the correct statements and write them down : (2)

(i) Both India and Maharashtra can progress if they have different interests.
(ii) Hard work is the only way to build the future of India and Maharashtra.
(iii) The sacrifice of the best and grand in Maharashtra will be made for the state of Maharashtra.
(iv) In times of great calamity the Sahyadri will protect the Himalayas, like a shield.

A2. Complete the following statements : (2)
(i) The interest of Maharashtra and that of India should be one for the progress of Maharashtra state, because ................
(ii) Maharashtra depends on India, because ................

A3.Complete the table : (2)

The name of the mountain Stands for The reason
The Himalayas The Sahyadri    

A4. Vocabulary - (2)
Give antonyms of the following words by adding prefixes :
(i) gratitude
(ii) clear
(iii) believe
(iv) significance

A5. Personal response - (2)
Give your suggestions that will help the people to make Maharashtra prosperous.

A6. Grammar - (2)
Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) India and Maharashtra can progress only when there is oneness of interest.
    (Rewrite it using ‘unless’)
(ii) This state of Maharashtra will work for the betterment of the common people of Maharashtra.
(Rewrite it using modal auxiliary showing ‘obligation’)


Read the following extract and complete the note given below :
The small village of Somnathpur contains an extraordinary temple, built around 1268 A.D by the Hoyasalas of Karnataka - one of the most prolific temple builders. Belur and Helebid are among their better-known works. While these suffered during the invasion of the 14th century, the Somnathpur temple stands more or less intact in near-original condition. The small temple captivates with the beauty and vitality of its detailed sculpture, covering almost every inch of the walls, pillars and even ceilings. It has three Shikhars and stands on a star-shaped raised platform with 24 edges. The outer walls have a profusion of detailed carvings: the entire surface run over by carved plaques of stone: There were vertical panels covered by exquisite figures of God and Goddesses, with many incarnations being depicted. There were nymphs too some carrying an ear of maize, a symbol of plenty and prosperity. The elaborate ornamentation, very characteristic of Hoyasala sculptures was a remarkable feature. On closer look and it is worth it-the series of friezes on the outer walls revealed intricately carved caparisored elephants, charging horsemen, stylized flowers and warriors.

                      Somnathpur Temple

(1) Location : ___________
(2) Year : 1268 A.D.
(3) Built by : ___________
(4) Captivates with : ___________
(5) Structural features :
    (i) Three Shikhars
    (ii) Star-shaped platform with 24 edges
   (iii) Outer wall carvings, ___________
    charging horsemen, __________ and warriors.
   (iv) Nymphs-symbol of ___________


Read the first activity, read the extract and then do all the activities:
The next year Dell enrolled at the University of Texas. Like most first-year students, he needed to earn spending money. Just about everyone on campus was talking about personal computers. At the time, anyone who didn’t have a PC wanted one, but dealers were selling them at a hefty mark-up. People wanted low-cost machines custom-made to their needs, and these were not readily available. Why should dealers get such a big mark-up for so little added value ? Dell wondered. Why not sell from the manufacturer directly to the end user ?
Dell knew that IBM required its dealers to take a monthly quota of PCs, in most cases more than they could sell. He also knew that holding excess inventory was costly. So he bought dealers’ surplus stock at cost. Back in his dormitory room, he added features to improve performance. The improved models found eager buyers. Seeing the hungry market, Dell placed local advertisements offering his customized computers at 15 percent of retail price. Soon he was selling to businesses, doctors’ offices and law firms. The trunk of his car was his store; his room took on the appearance of a small factory.
During a holiday break, Dell’s parents told him they were concerned about his grades. “If you want to start a business, do it after you get your degree,” his father pleaded. Dell agreed, but back in college he felt the opportunity of a lifetime was passing him by. “I couldn’t hear to miss this chance,” he says. After one month he started selling computers again- with a vengeance.

A1. True / False - (2)
Rewrite the following sentences stating against each of them whether they are true or false :
(i) Dell bought computers directly from the IBM company.
(ii) Dealers were selling computers at high prices.
(iii) Dell’s father wanted Dell to get his degree.
(iv) Dealers disagreed to sell the surplus stock of computers to Dell.

A2. Give reasons - (2)
Dell wanted to stait a business of selling computers because :
(i) ____________
(ii) ____________

A3. Guess : (2)
“I couldn’t bear to miss this chance,” Dell says. Guess. which chance Dell did not want to miss”.

A4. Vocabulary - (2)
Find out the words from the extract which mean :
(i) college hall of residence
(ii) large amount added to the cost price
(iii) quantity of good in stock
(iv) with great intensity

A5. Personal response : (2)
Suggest two strategies businessman to become a successful businessman.

A6. Grammar - (2)
Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) Seeing the hungry market, Dell placed local advertisement. (Make it a compound sentence)
(ii) He added features to improve performance. (Frame ‘Wh’ question to get the underlined part as an answer.)


Read the extract and do the activities that follow : 

‘Your father was my enemy,’ said Frederick. ‘I would have been better pleased by your brave deed if you had told me of another father?’
‘I am proud to be Sir Rowland's son,’ answered Orlando angrily,’ and I would not change my place to be the heir of this dukedom.’
The Duke and his lords went away, leaving Orlando alone with Rosalind and Celia. Celia was angry with her father for speaking so unkindly to Orlando. ‘Would I have done this in my father’s place?’ she said to Rosalind.
‘My father loved Sir Rowland as much as his own soul,’ Rosalind said to Celia, ‘and all the world agreed with him. If I had known that his young man was Sir Rowland’s son I should have begged him with tears not to take so great a risk.’
‘Let us go and speak to Orlando,’ said gentle Celia. ‘I am ashamed of my father’s rude and angry words.’
The two girls went up to Orilando and praised him for his bravery. Rosalind took a gold chain from her neck and gave it to him. ‘I would like to give you more’, she said, ‘but I am not rich.’ Then she and Celia went away.
Orlando, however, could not forget them. He had already fallen in love with the fair Rosalind, but he could not stay at the Duke’s palace. His friends warned him that Frederick was angry and jealous of him. They told Orlando to leave the dukedom, because the Duke meant to do him harm.

A1. Match - 

Match the characters and their attributes: 

  A   B
i. Celia a. fair
ii. Orlando b. rude and unkind
iii. Frederick c. gentle
iv. Rosalind d. brave

A2. Write an imaginary paragraph: 

Write an imaginary paragraph in about 50 words in continuation with the given extract. 


(A) Read the extract and do the activities that follows :

  “Pluck the flowers off”, said the other boy and the daisy trembled for fear, for to be pulled off meant death
to it; and it wished so much to live, as it was to go with the square of turf into the poor captive lark’s cage.
“No, let it stay,” said the other boy, “it looks so pretty.” And so it stayed, and was brought into the lark’s cage. The poor bird was lamenting its lost liberty, and beating its wings against the wires; and the little daisy could not speak or utter a consoling word, much as it would liked to do so. So the forenoon passed. “I have no water,” said the captive lark, “they have all gone out and forgotten to give me anything to drink. My throat is dry and burning. I feel as if I had fire and ice within me and the air is so oppressive. Alas! I must die, and part with the warm sunshine, the fresh green meadows, and all the beauty that God has created.” And it thrust its beak into the piece of grass, to refresh itself a little. Then it noticed the little daisy, and nodded to it, and kissed it with its beak and said : “You must also fade in here, poor little flower. You and the piece of grass are all they have given me in exchange for the whole world, which I enjoyed outside. Each little blade of grass shall be a green tree for me, each of your white petals a fragrant flower. Alas! You only
remind me of what I have lost .

A1. True / False - 
State whether the following statements are true or false :
(i) The boys had kept water in the cage for the lark.
(ii) The daisy had a desire to console the poor lark.
(iii) The lark was reminded of its lost liberty.
(iv) The daisy did not want to go into the lark’s cage.

A2. Write an imaginary ending : 
Write an imaginary paragraph in about 50 words to give a different ending to the above extract.


(B) Read the extract and do the activities that follows :

“May I come in?” asked the pink lady.
“Please come in,” said my mother. “Do sit down. Do you require a room?”
“Not today, thank you. I’m staying with Padre Dutt. He insisted on putting me up. But I may want a room
for a day or two – just for old times’ sake.”
“You’ve stayed here before.”
“A long time ago. I’m Mrs. Green, you know. The missing Mrs. Green. The one for whom you put up that handsome tombstone in the cementery. I was very touched by it. And I’m glad you didn’t add ‘Beloved wife of Henry Green’, because I didn’t love him any more than he loved me.”
“Then – then – you aren’t the skeleton?” Stammered my mother.
“Do I look like a skaleton?”
“No!”, we said together.
“But we heard you disappeared,” I said, “and when we found that skeleton —”
“You put two and two together.”
“Well, it was Miss Kellner who convinced us,” said my mother. “And you did disappear mysteriously. You
were missing for years. And everyone knew Mr. Green was a philander.”
“Couldn’t wait to get away from him,” said the pink lady. “Couldn’t stand him any more. He was a ladykiller
but not a real killer.”
“But your father came looking for you. Didn’t you get in touch with him?”
“ My father and I were never very close. Mother died when I was very young, and the only relative I had
was a cousin in West Africa. So that’s where I went – Sierra Leone!”

B1. Complete - 
Complete the following sentenses :
(i) Mrs. Green couldn’t stand Mr. Green, because ________.
(ii) The relationship between Mrs. Green and her father ________.
(iii) Mrs. Green cousin lived in ________.
(iv) Miss. Kellner convinced the narrator’s mother that the skeleton was of Mrs. Green, because ______.

B2. Convert dialogue into a story :
Convert the above dialogue into a story form in about 50 words.


Read the extract and do the activities that follow:

My mother was still managing Green's, even though its days were numbered. The day after my return I joined her in the small office, where she sat behind her over-large desk, telephone on her right and the latest paperback western  before her, ready to be taken up when noting much was happening – which was fairly often. My mother enjoyed reading westerns-particularly Luke Short, Max Brand, and Clarence E Mulfordmuch in the same way that I enjoyed detective fiction. Both genres were freely available in cheap collins ‘White Circle’, edition published during and just after the War.
We discussed the affair of the skeleton in the cupboard, but as there was no longer any mystery about it, there was nothing for me to investigate. However, armed with the key to the store room, I went down to the basement on my own and made a thorough search of all the old furniture, on the offchance that another skeleton moght tumble out of a cupboard or be found jammed into a drawer or trunk. I did find some old tennis rackets, back numbers of Punch, a cracked china chamber-pot, some old postcards of Darjeeling and Simla, and a framed photograph of King Edward the Seventh. I took the copies of ‘Punch’ to my room and read the reviews of all the plays that had been running in London between 1926 and 1930, thus becoming an authority on the theatre in England of that period.

A1. True/False
State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) The narrator found one skeleton jammed into a drawer
(ii) The narrator did not like to read detective fiction
(iii) The narrator's mother was managing the Green's hotel
(iv) The narrator wanted to be an authority on the English theatre of that period

A2. Write a gist :
Write a gist of the above given extract in about 50 words.


Read the following passage and do the given activities :
A1. Fill up the blanks with virtues of dogs : (2)

(1) __________ 
(2) __________
(3) __________
(4) __________

      Human and dogs are inseparable for thousands of years and they are dependent on each other for protection and survival. Relationship between humans and dogs is often characterized by strong emotional bonds which run both way. Dogs are very popular as pets and companions. Dog is the ‘Man’s Best Friend’ and a family member. The dog is one of the most loyal, faithful and devotee animal. In earlier days dogs were kept mainly for hunting and guarding; now they are kept for companionship, protection and showmanship.
       There are millions of people all over the world who are dog lovers Puppies need more attention at the, early age. As much as possible try many methods of socialization, such as playing with them, taking them for walk, expose them to crowds, make them to obey the orders etc.

A2. Methods of socialization of puppies are : (2)
(1) …......................
(2) …......................
(3) …......................
(4) …......................

A3. Cross out the odd man : (2)
(i) Inseparable, dependent, protection, popular.
(ii) Hunting. guarding, playing, petting.
(iii) Earlier, human, relationship, family
(iv) Often, mainly, now, emotional

A4.
(1) There are millions of people all over the world. (1)
(Pick out the determiners and write them)
(2) Puppies need more attention. (1)
(Rewrite the sentence without changing its meaning beginning with : Puppies don’t ….....)

A5. Should we ban keeping pets ? Justify. (2)


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1

As a novelist and storyteller, I have always drawn upon my memories of places that I have known and lived in over the years. More than most writers, perhaps, I find myself drawing inspiration from the past — my childhood, adolescence, youth, early manhood ... But to talk of my early inspiration I must go back to my very beginnings, to the then small, princely state of Jamnagar, tucked away in the Gulf of Kutch. Here my father started a small palace school for princesses. I was there till the age of six, and I still treasure vivid memories of Jamnagar's beautiful palaces and sandy beaches.

2 Some of these landmarks are preserved for me in photographs taken by my father, which I have to this day. An old palace with pretty windows of coloured glass remained fixed in my memory and many years later gave me the story, “The Room of Many Colours”, which also inspired an episode in a TV serial called Ek Tha Rusty. I spent a memorable year and a half with him in New Delhi, then still a very new city — just the capital area designed by Edwin Lutyens and Connaught Place, with its gleaming new shops and restaurants and cinemas. I saw Laurel and Hardy films and devoured milkshakes at the Milk Bar, even as the Quit India Movement gathered momentum.
3 When I was seventeen, I was shipped off to the UK to “better my prospects” as my mother put it. Out of longing for India and the friends I had made in Dehra came my first novel — The Room on the Roof — featuring the life and loves of Rusty, my alter ego. In the 1950s everyone travelled by sea, as air services were still in their infancy. A passenger liner took about three weeks from Southampton to Bombay (now Mumbai). After docking in Bombay, I took a train to Dehra, where I stepped onto the platform of the small railway station and embarked on the hazardous journey of a freelance writer. Railway stations! Trains! Platforms! I knew as long as these were there I would never run out of stories.
4 I also looked for inspiration in tombs and monuments and the ever-expanding city, but did not find it, and my productivity dropped. Escape from Delhi had become a priority for me. I felt drawn to the hills above Dehra. On the outskirts of Mussoorie I found a small cottage, surrounded by oak and maple trees where the rent, thankfully, was nominal. :
5

I'm of the opinion that every writer needs a window. Preferably two Is the house, the room, the situation ... important for a writer? A good wordsmith should be able to work anywhere. But to me, the room you live in day after day is all-important. The stories and the poems float in through my window, float in from the magic mountains, and the words appear on the page without much effort on my part. Planet Earth belongs to me. And at night, the stars are almost within reach. 

1. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, answer any four of the following questions in 30 - 40 words each:

  1. What does the writer remember about Jamnagar?
  2. How did he spend time in Delhi? 
  3. What was the inspiration for the first novel and why?
  4. What was the importance of trains and railway stations in his life? 
  5. What was the importance of a window in the writer’s life?

2. On the basis of your understanding of the above passage, fill in any two of the following blanks with appropriate words/phrases:

  1. He was shipped off to UK for ______. 
  2. Everyone travelled by sea because ______.
  3. The productivity dropped because ______.

3. Find out words/phrases from the passage that mean the same as the following. Attempt any two.

  1. gulped down/swallowed (para 2)
  2. early stage (para 3)
  3. attracted to (para 4)

Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

        But being named an 'AdarshGaon' is far from easy. Villages had to give a proposal after which a committee headed by Mr. Pawar inspected the villages. "The Villages had to show dedication in the struggle to fight mediocrity. They had to follow all the conditions of becoming an 'AdarshGaon'. We chose villages with a revolutionary spark, "Mr. Pawar says.

        Villages need to follow strict rules. The process begins with effective water management through the watershed technique and water auditing. taking responsibility for the village's natural resources-planting trees and stopping grazing. contributing labour for the village work, and then expanding to bring about behavioral changes in the people for harboring social change. Hiware Bazaar is free of any kind of addiction and there are no liquor or tobacco shops in the village. Vasectomy has been made compulsory, as is the pre-marital HIV test. 

        The 'AdarshGaon' model prides itself on being based on the joint decisions made by the Gram Sabha, where all the villagers are present. Even while selecting the new villages under the scheme, Mr. Pawar made sure that the decision to become an ideal village was taken by the entire village together.

        The greatest victory for Hiware Bazaar so far has been the reverse migration that the village has witnessed since 1989. As many as 93 families have come back to the village," from the slums in Mumbai and Pune," Mr. Pawar says.

Questions:

(1) What features of 'Adarsh Gaon' are given in this extract? 

(2) What is the procedure for selecting 'Adarsh Gaon'?

(3) What is the greatest victory for Hiware Bazaar?        

(4) Do you think all villages in Maharashtra should follow the ideals of Hiware Bazaar? why?

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :

 i.  Mr. Pawar inspected the villages. 

    (Rewrite it using the noun form of the word underlined.)     

ii. Vasectomy has been made compulsory by the villagers.

   (Rewrite it beginning with-"The villagers........".)

iii. There are no liquor or tobacco shops in the village.

   (Rewrite it using 'neither......nor'.)

(6) Find out the words from the extract which mean: 

(i) causing a great change 

(ii) the quality of being average


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below: 

  To read a lot is essential. It is stupid not to venture outside the examination 'set books' or the textbooks you have chosen for intensive study. Read as many books in English as you can., not as a duty but for pleasure. Do not close the most difficult books you find, with the idea of listing and learning as many new words as possible. choose what is likely to interest you and be sure in advance, that it is not too hard. You should not have to be constantly looking up new words in the dictionary, for that deadens interest and checks real learning. Lookup a word here and there, but as a general policy try to push ahead. guessing what words mean from the context. It is extensive and not intensive reading that normally helps you to get interested in extra reading and thereby improve your English. You should enjoy the feeling which extensive reading gives. As you read, you will become more and more familiar with words and sentence patterns you already know, understanding them better and better as you meet them in more and more contexts, some of which may differ only slightly from others. 

       Some people say that we cannot learn to speak a language better with the help of a book. To believe that the spoken language and written language are quite different things. This is not so.    

Questions:

(1) What does the author tell us about the importance of reading English?

(2) What different steps are suggested to improve reading?

(3) What do some people say about learning the spoken form of a language?

(4) What will you do to improve your English?

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed: 

i. To read a lot is essential. 

(Rewrite using gerund form of the words underlined.)

ii. Some people say that we cannot learn to speak a language better with the help of a book.

(Rewrite it using 'be able to'.)

iii. It is extensive. 

(Make it a Rhetorical question.) 

(6) You should not have to be constantly looking up new words in the dictionary, for that deadens interest and checks real learning.

The underlined word here means: 

(i) develops

(ii) deprives of 

(iii) creates

(B) Write a summary of the above extract with the help of the outline given below and suggest a suitable title. 

Read a lot --- outside the textbooks --- for pleasure --- avoid difficult books ---read interesting ones --- avoid dictionary --- guess meanings --- extensive and not intensive reading --- different opinions. 


Read the following extract and answer the questions given
below:
Another relative has no plans of joining this league though.
She is rather μnabashed about waking up past noon on a daily basis. To be fair, her husband is a media personality who typically arrives home from work past midnight. That does indeed give them sufficient justification to stay longer in slumber-land each morning. This practice does lead to certain oddities though. He goes for his 'morning' walk at 1 pm, heatwaves and appalled onlookers notwithstanding. They once returned from a night out only to meet the neighbour's son who was off on an early morning jog!
Early risers clearly have the edge in life. By the time most
of us wake up, they've been through their morning rituals, enjoyed their walk, had their tea and read the daily news. They're also likely to have made long-distance calls before dawn to those similarly inclined. Thus, by the time the sun warms up they're likely to have discussed all varieties of 'men, matters, and affairs' with a dozen people.
The upshot of these varying tendencies is that such extreme
contrasts often exist in the same household. Weeks pass before
the younger lot (typically late risers) and the older lot (normally early birds) come face to face. It's almost as if they live in different time zones and different countries.

Questions:
(1) What information does the extract give about the typical
routine of a media person?
(2) According to the writer, who are the early risers and the late risers?
(3) Why does the writer say that early risers clearly have the edge in life?
(4) Do you rise early or late? Why?
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:

  1. They live in different time zones and different countries.
    (Rewrite the sentence using 'not only- but also'.)
  2. That gives them sufficient justification.
    (Rewrite the sentence using the Present Perfect tense.)
  3. She is rather unabashed about waking up past noon on a daily basis.
    (Rewrite the sentence using 'infinitive' form of
    the underlined word.)

(6) Find out from the extract the words which mean:
(i) frightened
(ii) sleep


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below :

Reuben arrived at the factory. The sack buyer was about to lock up.
"Mister! Please don't close up yet." The man turned and saw Reuben, dirty and sweat-stained.
"Come back tomorrow, boy."
"Please, Mister. I have to sell the sacks now-please." The man heard a tremor in Reuben's voice and could tell he was close to tears.
"Why do you need this money so badly?"
"It's a secret."
The man took the sacks, reached into his pocket and put four nickels into Reuben's hand. Reuben murmured a quiet thank-you and ran home.
Then, clutching the tin can, he headed for the store.
"I have the money" he solemnly told the owner, pouring his coins onto the counter.
The man went to the window and retrieved Reuben's treasure. He wiped the dust off and gently wrapped it in brown paper. Then he placed the parcel in Reuben's hands.
Racing home, Reuben burst through the front door. His mother was scrubbing the kitchen range. "Here Mum!Here!" Reuben exclaimed as he ran to her side. He placed a small box in her work-roughened hand.
She unwrapped it carefully, to save the paper. A blue-velvet jewel box appeared. Dora lifted the did, tears beginning to blur her vision.
In gold tettering on a small, almond-shaped brooch was the word 'Mother'
It was Mother's Day, 1946
Dora had never received such a gift; she had no finery except her wedding ring. Speechless, she smiled radiantly and gathered her son into her arms.

(1) Why did Reuben insist on the sack buyer to buy his sacks that day only?
(2) How did the mother react when Reuben gave her the gift?
(3) In what way was Reuben's gift special to his mother?
(4) What do you plan to do on Mother's Day?
(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :
(i) I have to sell the sacks.
(Rewrite it replacing the underlined part with the modal auxiliary showing 'compulsion'.)
(ii) She smiled radiantly and gathered her son into her arms. (Use 'As soon as'.)
(iii) She unwrapped it carefully.
(Rewrite the sentences using the noun form of the underlined word.)
(6) Find out the words/phrases from the extract which mean:
(i) showing joy (ii) got back


Read the following extract and complete the table given below:

Children are perpetually asking questions. As adults, we are awkward with questions. We link the act of asking questions to ignorance. It indicates that we do not know; hence, we may look stupid while asking questions. 

Children have no shame, whereas adults suffer from layers and layers of shame. Because children have no shame, they are more capable of failing at something and moving on from it. Our sense of shame makes us inhibited. So we do not try new things at work.

Children quickly make friends with strangers. Put two small kids alongside a few toys and they will start playing before they care to know about each other’s antecedents. As adults, we seek the false comfort of known relationships before we agree to play with each other.

Children freely express their emotions; adults learn to suppress their emotional side. We come to the workplace and are frequently counselled, “Do not get emotional.”

Children play. They find play in everything. Adults shun play and consider it the opposite of “serious work”. To a child, every act is an act of play.

Traits Delinking Childhood and Adulthood:

  Traits Children Adults
1

Asking Questions

Perpetually ask questions freely

(1) Feet awkward with questions

(2) ___________

2

Feeling Shame

(1) Feel no shame

(2) ____________

(1) Suffer from shame

(2) Inhibited to try new things at work

3

Making friends

(1) Quick in making friendship without knowing each other

(1) ____________

4

Expressing emotions

(1) ____________

(1) Suppress emotions.


Read the extract and do the activities that follow :

When Rosalind heard about Orlando's wound and saw the handkerchief stained with his blood, she also fainted; and later she told Oliver that she was really Rosalind, and loved Orlando dearly. Oliver had already fallen in love with gentle Celia, and he persuaded the two girls to accompany him to Duke Senior's court. Rosalind, however, wanted to play one more trick as Ganymede, so she made Oliver promise not to tell anyone that the young shepherd boy and his sister Aliena were really Rosalind and Celia.

And so Aliena and Ganymede were introduced to the old Duke, and he did not recognize his daughter, although he remarked on Ganymede's likeness to Rosalind.

Then the "shepherd boy" told Orlando and the Duke that he could find Rosalind and would bring her to them, making the Duke promise that he would allow his daughter to marry Orlando. she and Celia ran quickly to the shepherd's cottage, changed into their own clothes and removed the brown stains from their faces. Then they returned to the Duke, where they were welcomed with great rejoicing.

'To you, I give myself, for I am yours,' Rosalind said to the Duke, her father. Then she turned to Orlando and said: 'To you, I give myself, for I am yours.'

Rosalind and Orlando were married at once in the forest and on the same day Oliver who was no longer selfish and wicked, married Celia. Just as they were going to be married, a messenger came to ask Duke Senior to go back to his dukedom. Celia's father, Duke Frederick, had mended his wicked ways and asked his brother to return.

A1. True/False :

Choose the true statements from those given below and write them down :

(i) Rosalind played the role of a shepherd boy Ganymede.
(ii) Senior Duke recognised his daughter, Celia.
(iii) Oliver married Rosalind.
(iv) Duke Frederick had mended his wicked ways.

A2. Convert into a dialogue :

Convert the above extract into a dialogue form.


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below :

I was 33 at the time, a doctor in the West End of London. I had been lucky)' in advancing through severed arduous Welsh mining assistantships to my own practice- acquired on the installment plan from a dear old family physician who, at our first interview, gazed at my cracked boots and frayed cuffs and trusted me.  
I think I wasn't a bad doctor. My patients seemed to like me not only 1he nice old ladies with nothing wrong with them, who lived near the Park and paid handsomely for my cheerful bedside manner but the cabbies, porters, and deadbeats in the mews and back streets of Bayswater, who paid nothing and often had a great deal wrong with them. Yet there was something- though I treated everything that came my way, read all Ille medical journals, attended scientific meetings, and even found time to take complex postgraduate diplomas - I wasn't quite sure of myself. I didn't stick at anything for long. I had successive ideas of specializing in dermatology, in aural surgery, in pediatrics, but discarded them all. While I worked all day and half of most nights, I really lacked perseverance, stability.  One day I developed indigestion. After resisting my wife's entreaties for several weeks, I went casually to consult a friendly colleague. I expected a bottle of bismuth and an invitation to a bridge. I received instead of the shock of my life: a sentence to six months' complete rest in the country on a milk diet. I had a gastric ulcer. 

(I) What does the doctor tell us about his profession?

(2) What sort of patients did the doctor handle? 

(3) What shock of life did the doctor receive when he visited his doctor colleague? 

(4) What qualities of the doctor appeal you the most? 

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed: 

(i) I read all the medical journals.
(Rewrite it using the past perfect continuous tense.) 

(ii) I treated everything that came n1y way. 
(Rewrite the sentence beginning with "Everything ... ") 

(iii) I received the shock of my life. 
(Make it a Rhetorical question.) 

(6) Find out the words from the extract which mean : 

(i) involving a lot of effort and energy. 

(ii) serious requests   


Read the following extract and answer the questions given
below:

So what is a city? It's a dense amalgamation of buildings and people. A city must provide equity and also be sustainable. As an architect who has been closely connected with Delhi and its planning, my wish list is more about the direction we need to take
so that future generations don't end up living in chaotic dysfunctional cities.

The first requirement for a city is a pragmatic plan. Many of our cities such as Delhi and Bhubaneshwar and even Port Blair in the Andamans have reasonably good master plans. Many also have City Development Plans which have been made an essential
requirement to draw funds from the government's Urban Renewal Programme (JNNURM). But they should be updated frequently based on the changing needs of its people.

And let's not forget its citizens-they need to be more proactively involved when evolving master plans. But often, there's a lack of planning and inadequate implementation systems. This applies to all essential components of city-streets, public transport system, traffic management, affordable housing, cars and parking, drainage, water supply, sewerage, and garbage. Any deficiency in these will lead to poor quality cities which won't be able to handle the pressure of increased population and changing needs.
The second requirement of a good city is good social infrastructure such as parks and places for leisure such as river and sea fronts. It needs to preserve and protect its heritage.

(1) What does a city require to emerge as a good city?

(2) What is the second requirement of a good city?

(3) What are the basic requirements to draw funds from the government's-Urban Renewal programme (JNNURM)?

(4) What suggestions will you give to make your city ideal?

(5) Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed:

(i) It's a dense amalgamation of buildings and people.
(Rewrite it using 'as well as'.)
(ii) A city must provide equity and also be sustainable.
(Rewrite it using another modal auxiliary showing "advice".)
(iii) The first requirement for a city is a pragmatic plan.
(Frame a 'Wh' ·question to get the underlined part as an answer.)

(6) Match the words in column 'A' with their meaning in 'B':

Column A Column B
1 pragmatic 1 blend
2 amalgamation 2 fantastic
  3 realistic
  4 ancient

Read the passage given below :

Globalization

Globalization is the way to open businesses, improve technological growth, economy, etc, at the international level for all countries. It is the way in which manufacturers and producers of the products or goods sell their products globally without any restriction. It provides huge profits to the businessmen as they get 1ow cost labor in poor countries easily. It provides a big opportunity for companies to„ deal with the worldwide market. 

Globalization helps to consider the whole world 'as a single market. Traders are extending their areas of business by treating the world as a global village. Earlier till the 1990s, there was a restriction on importing certain products that were already manufactured in India like agricultural products, engineering goods, food items, and toiletries. However, during the 1990s there was pressure from. the rich countries on the poor and developing countries to allow them to spread their businesses by opening their markets. In India, the globalization and liberalization process was started in 1991. 

After many years, globalization brought about a major revolution in the Indian market when multinational brands came to India and started delivering a wide range of quality products at cheap prices. Prices of good quality products came down because of the cutthroat competition in the market. 

Globalization and liberalization of the businesses in India have flooded the market with quality foreign products but have affected the local Indian industries adversely to a great extent resulting in job loss to poor and uneducated workers. Globalization has been a bonanza for the consumers, however, a loss to the small-scale Indian producers. 

Globalization has had some very positive effects on the Indian consumer in all sectors of society. It has affected the Indian students and education sector to a great extent by making study books and a lot of information available over the internet. The collaboration of foreign universities with Indian universities has brought about a huge change in the field of education.

Globalization of trade in the agricultural sector has brought varieties of quality seeds that have disease resistati8e; property. However, it is not good for the poor Indian farmers because the seeds and agricultural technologies are costly.

It has brought about a huge revolution in the employment sector by the spread of businesses like cottage, handloom, carpet, artisan carving, ceramic, jewelry, and glassware, etc

(a) What is globalization?

(b) Write any two advantages of globalization.

(c) What was the pressure from the rich countries in the 1990s?

(d) What is the effect of multinational brands entering the Indian market?

(e) How are the prices of quality products affected due to globalization?

(f) How have foreign products affected the local industry adversely?

(g) What has been the impact of globalization on Indian students?

(h) Why has globalization had a negative effect on the poor Indian farmer?

(i) How has the cottage industry benefited from globalization?


Read the passage given below :

Success

Everybody wants to succeed in life. For some, success means achieving whatever they desire or dream. For many, it is the name, fame, and social position. Whatever be the meaning of success, it is a success that makes a man popular. 

All great men have been successful. They are remembered for their great achievements. But it is certain that success comes to those who are sincere, hardworking, loyal, and committed to their goals. 

Success has been man's greatest motivation. It is very important for all. Success has a  great effect on life. It brings pleasure and pride. It gives a sense of fulfillment. It means all-around development. Everybody hopes to be successful in life. But success smiles on those who have a proper approach, planning, vision, and stamina. A proper and timely application of all these things is bound to bear fruit. One cannot be successful without cultivating these certain basic things in life. It is very difficult to set out on a journey without knowing one's goals and purposes. The clarity of the objective is a must to succeed in life. A focused approach with proper planning is certain to bring success. Indecision and insincerity are big obstacles on the path to success. 

One should have the capability, capacity, and resources to turn one's dreams into reality. Mere desire cannot bring you success. The desire should be weighed against factors like capability and resources. This is the basic requirement of success. The next important thing is the eagerness, seriousness, and the urge to be successful. It is the driving force that decides success. It is the first step on the ladder of success. 

One needs to pursue one's goals with all one's sincerity and passion. One should always be in high spirits. Lack of such spirit leads to an inferiority complex which is a big obstruction on the path to success. Time is also a deciding factor. Only the punctual and committed have succeeded in life. The lives of great men are examples of this. They had all these qualities in plenty which helped them rise to the peak of success. 

Hard labor is one of the basic requirements of success. There is no substitute for hard labor. It alone can take one to the peak of success. Every success has a ratio of five percent inspiration and ninety-five percent perspiration. It is patience, persistence, and perseverance which play a decisive role in achieving success. Failures are the pillars of success as they are our stepping-stones and we must get up and start again and be motivated.

2.1 On the basis of your reading of the passage, answer any four of the following questions in 30-40 words each: 

(a) To whom does success come certainly? 

(b) What are the basic things in life we need to achieve success? 

(c) What did great men have in plenty to rise to the peak of success? Give any two examples

(d) What is the one basic requirement of success? 

(e) Explain: "Failures are pillars of success." 


2.2 On the basis of your reading of the passage, fill in any two of the following blanks with appropriate words/phrase :

(a) ________________ plays a decisive role in achieving success. 

(b) Goals have to be pursued with ________________  and ________________ 

(c) Ratio of success is  ________________  inspiration. 


2.3 Find out the words from the passage that mean the same as the following : 

(a) endurance (para 2) 

(b) obstruction (para 4) 

(c) motivation (para 5)


Read the following passage carefully. 
Caged behind thick glass, the most famous dancer in the world can easily be missed in the National Museum, Delhi. The Dancing Girl of Mohenjo-Daro is a rare artifact that even school children are familiar with. Our school textbooks also communicate the wealth of our 5000-year heritage of art. You have to be alert to her existence there, amid terracotta animals to rediscover this bronze image.
Most of us have seen her only in photographs or sketches, therefore the impact of actually holding her is magnified a million times over. One discovers that the dancing girl has no feet. She is small, a little over 10 cm tall-the length of a human palm-but she surprises us with the power of the great art-the ability to communicate across centuries.
A series of bangles-of shell or ivory or thin metal-clothe her left upper arm all the way down to her fingers. A necklace with three pendants bunched together and a few bangles above the elbow and wrist on the right-hand display almost modern art.
She speaks of the undaunted, ever hopeful human spirit. She reminds us that it is important to visit museums in our country to experience the impact that a work of art leaves on our senses, to find among all the riches one particular vision of beauty that speaks to us alone.

1.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage answer the following questions. 
(a) The Dancing Girl belongs to: 
(i) Mohenjo-Daro
(ii) Greek culture
(iii) Homo sapiens
(iv) Tibet 

(b) In the museum she's kept among: 
(i) dancing figures.
(ii) bronze statues.
(iii) terracotta animals.
(iv) books.
 
(c) Which information is not given in the passage? 
(i) The girl is caged behind glass.
(ii) She is a rare artefact.
(iii) School books communicate the wealth of our heritage.
(iv) She cannot be rediscovered as she's bronze. 

(d) 'Great Art' has power because: 
(i) it appeals to us despite the passage of time.
(ii) it is small and can be understood.
(iii) it's seen in pictures and sketches.
(iv) it's magnified a million times.

(e) The jewellery she wears:
(i) consists of only bangles of shell or ivory or thin metal.
(ii) is a necklace with two pendants.
(iii) both (i) and (ii) are correct.
(iv) neither (i) nor (ii) is correct.

(f)  She reminds us:
(i) of the never-say-die attitude of humans.
(ii) why museums in our country are exciting.
(iii) why she will make us come into money.
(iv) of dancing figures.

(g)
The synonym of the word "among" in para is 1 _____________
(h) The size of the dancing girl is equal to the length of the human palm. (True/ False)

Read of the following passage and answer the questions:

When I casually mentioned this to a friend, he casually replied that I had better get one in the Tigris marshes, for there they were as common as mosquitoes, and were often tamed by the Arabs. We were going to Basra to the Consulate-General to collect and answer our mail from Europe. At the Consulate-General we found that my friend's mail had arrived but that mine had not.

Questions :

(a) What was 'they'?

(b) Where could the author get 'one'?

(c) Find the exact word from the extract which means 'domesticated.'

(d) What did the author find at the Consulate-General?


Read the passage given below.
Then all the windows of the grey wooden house (Miss Hilton used to live here. She expired last week.), were thrown open, a thing I had never seen before.
At the end of the day a sign was nailed on the mango tree: FOR SALE.
Nobody in the street knew Miss Hilton. While she lived, her front gate was always locked and no one ever saw her leave or saw anybody go in. So even if you wanted to, you couldn't feel sorry and say that you missed Miss Hilton.
When I think of her house I see just two colours. Grey and green. The green of the mango tree, the grey of the house, and the grey of the high iron fence that prevented you from getting at the mangoes.
If your cricket ball fell in Miss Hilton's courtyard you never got it back. It wasn't the mango season when Miss Hilton died. But we got back about ten or twelve of our cricket balls.
The house was sold and we were prepared to dislike the new owners ever before they came. I think we were a little worried. Already we had one resident of the street who kept on complaining about us to our parents. He complained that we played cricket on the pavment; and if we were not playing cricket he complained that we were making too much noise anyway.
One afternoon, when I came back from school Pal, said, "Is a man and a woman. She pretty pretty, but he ugly like hell". I didn't see much. The front gate was open, but the windows were shut again. I heard a dog barking in an angry way.
One thing was settled pretty quickly. Whoever these people were they would never be the sort of people to complain that we were making noise and disturbing their sleep.
A lot of noise came from the house that night. The radio was going at full volume until midnight when the radio station closed down. The dog was barking and the man was shouting. I didn't hear the woman.

On the basis of your understanding the above passage complete the following statements :

(a) Nobody went into Miss Hilton's house because her front __________.

(b) Her house had only two colours, (i) __________ and (ii) __________.

(c) High iron fence did not let the boys get __________.

(d) They never got it back if their __________ fell into her courtyard.

(e) The boys were ready to dislike the __________.

(f) One resident of the street always __________.

(g) New owners of Miss Hilton's house were (i) __________ and (ii) __________.

(h) A man was shouting, a dog was barking, only __________.


Read the passage given below:
During our growing up years we as children were taught both at home and school-to worship the photos and idols of the gods of our respective religions. When we grow a little older, we were to read holy books like The Bhagwad Gita, Bible, and Quran; we were told that there are a lot of life lessons to be learned from these holy books. We were then introduced to stories from our mythologies which taught us about ethics and morality-what is good and what is bad I also learned to be respectful towards my parents who made my life comfortable with their hard work and love and care, and my teachers who guided me to become a good student and a responsible citizen.
Much later in life, I realised that though we learn much from our respective holy books, there is a lot to learn from our surroundings. This realization dawned upon me when I learned to enquire and explore. Everything around us- the sun, the moon, the stars, rain, rivers, stones, rocks, birds, plants, and animals-teach us many valuable life lessons.
No wonder that besides the scriptures in many cultures nature is also worshipped. The message that we get is to save our environment and maintain ecological balance. People are taught to live in harmony with nature and recognize that there is God in all aspects of nature.
Nature is a great teacher. A river never stops flowing. If it finds an obstacle in its way in the form of heavy rock, the river water fights to remove it from its path or finds an alternative path to move ahead. This teaches us to be progressive in life, and keep the fighting spirit alive.
Snakes are worshipped as they eat insects in the field that can hurt our crops, thus protecting the grains for us. In fact, whatever we worship is our helper and makes our lives easy for us. There are many such examples in nature, but we are not ready to learn a lesson, Overcome with greed, we are destroying nature. As a result, we face natural disasters like drought, floods, and landslides. We don't know that nature is angry with us.
However, it is never too late to learn. If we learn to respect nature the quality of our life will improve.

2.1 Answer briefly the following questions:
(a) What are we taught in our childhood and growing up years?
(b) Why should we respect our parents and teachers?
(c) What message do we get when we worship nature?
(d) How does a river face an obstacle that comes in its way?

2.2 Choose meanings of the words given below with the help of options that follow:
(e) guided
(i) answered
(ii) advised
(iii) fought
(iv) polished

(f) explore
(i) search
(ii) frequent
(iii) describe
(iv) request

(g) valuable
(i) proper
(ii) desirable
(iii) available
(iv) useful

(h) harmony
(i) beauty
(ii) friendship
(iii) discomfort
(iv) honesty

A. Read the following passage and do the given activities:

A1. List the benefits of Yoga (02)

  1. ______
  2. ______
  3. ______
  4. ______

We give undue importance to our health and the treatment of diseases. A large number of medicines treat only the symptoms of the disease, and not the root cause. In fact, the cause of many chronic ailments is still being researched. It is here that Yoga therapy comes to our assistance. Yoga emphasizes the treatment of the root cause of an ailment. It works in a slow, subtle and miraculous manner. Modern medicine can claim to save a life at a critical stage, but, for complete recovery and regaining of normal health, one must believe in the efficiency of Yoga therapy.

The Yogic way of life includes a code of ethics, regulations, discipline, combined with prayer and meditation. Even a discussion of these subjects helps one relieve mental tensions and change attitudes. Simple Asana has helped to stretch and relax the whole body and release tensions. The sincere practice of Yoga postures is beneficial, for the mind and body.

The continued practice of Yoga has a profound effect on the inner dimensions of life. Yoga aims at developing mental, physical, spiritual, and emotional facilities. Other forms of physical exercises, like aerobics, assure only physical well-being. They have little to do with the development of the soul and mind.

A2. Complete the following statement according to the passage: (02)

  1. One must believe in the ________
  2. Aerobics assure only __________

A3. Fill up the word-formation chart: (02)

Noun Verb Adjective
development ______ ______
______ believe ______

A4. 

  1. Yoga emphasizes the treatment of the root cause of an ailment.
    (Frame ‘Wh-‘ Question to get the underlined part as an answer) (02)
  2. We give undue importance to our health.
    (Begin with Undue importance......) (02)

A5. Do you believe Yoga Asanas are better than physical exercises? Justify your answer.

B. Summary Writing (5)

Write a short summary of the passage given in above and suggest a suitable title.


Read the following passage and complete the activities:

A1. State whether the following statements are True or False.  (02)

  1. Time is the most valueless resource.
  2. The importance of time management is self-evident.
  3. Allow the time to flow and pass away.
  4. Time’s nature is clear.

Time is the most valuable resource available to every individual.

Time is a resource to measure quantitatively but its nature is unclear. Time is a fleeting, limited, and intangible human resource which is always calculated and used accordingly. The time of the day is as shown on the clock or announced on the media like radio, television constantly guides us in carrying out daily activities, distribution of time for work, rest, entertainment and checking the progress during the day.
The secret of time management lies in successfully identifying and eliminating time-wasting activities with effective and efficient utilization of time. In order to be a good time manager, grab the time, utilize it properly and invest it into productive work. Do not allow the time to flow and pass away without offering any result.
The importance of time management is self-evident. Every individual has twenty-four hours a day to use. One must be aware of the available time and time needed to complete the daily routine. Everyone must remember that time cares only for those who take care of time. So, for the achievement of goals, proper planning and utilization of time are very important which is definitely possible only through time management.

A2. What are the secrets of a good time manager?    (02)

A3. 

  1. Pick out two adverbs from the given passage.
  2. Write the root word for the following:
    1. utilization
    2. entertainment

A4. Do as Directed:   (02)

  1. Rewrite the sentence using ‘Not only ……. But also’
    For the achievement of goals, proper planning and utilization of time are important.
  2. Do not allow the time to flow.  (Make the sentence assertive)

A5. “Time once lost, is lost forever.” Justify   (02)


Read the extract and complete the activities given below :

    Luxurious houses on the edge of a big city which one promoter sold with the tagline ‘‘Where Nature peeps through every window.’’ All the advantages of a modern lifestyle but with the added bonus of fresh air. But nature isn’t greenery alone; it also includes wild animals.
   While the view from the picture windows was easy on the eye, occasionally, it made them gulp with nervousness. At dusk, wild cats leaped out of the adjoining forest on to the top of the peripheral walls and strolled nonchalantly. Sometimes, they lounged on ledges with their long tails swinging freely, oblivious of the many worried human eyes pinned on them. Their cold yellow aggressive eyes turned black as their pupils dilated with failing light.
   Some Mumbaikars paid a lot of money to see leopards on safari in Africa. But to watch them from one’s own home was disconcerting. These predators were out of line, stepping off nature into the city. Why did the leopards not stay within the 100-square kilometre Sanjay Gandhi National Park? Perhaps, the leopards thought that if people could venture into nature to jog, walk and picnic, why couldn’t they hang around apartment blocks? If people could enjoy nature, couldn’t nature savour humanity’s offerings?
   Capturing leopards is extraordinarily simple. These curious cats seem incapable of resisting a free meal, walking into baited traps without hesitation. The reason the felines are attracted to their residential community is prey : stray dogs that live on rubbish heaps. Taking care of the food source is the best course of action, the volunteers said.

A1. Rewrite the following sentences as per their occurrence in the extract :

  1. Instead of capturing leopards we can take care of their food.
  2. Leopards leave their habitat and enter the human habitat.
  3. Modern lifestyle and nature both attract the dwellers.
  4. Leopards can enjoy human surroundings by leaving nature.

A2. Complete the following sentences :

  1. Nature is a combination of ______ and ______
  2. The best of both the worlds include ______ and ______
  3. The wild animals are out of line as ______
  4. The wild cats are attracted towards residential areas because ______

A3. Find out the words for leopards used in the extract :

  1. ____________
  2. ____________
  3. ____________
  4. ____________

A4. ‘‘If people could venture into nature to jog, walk, and picnic, why couldn’t the wild animals hang around apartment blocks?’’ Express your opinion.

A5. Rewrite the following sentences in the ways instructed :

  1. Taking care of the food source is the best course of action.
    (Use infinitive form of the underlined word and rewrite.)
  2. Nature isn’t greenery alone; it also includes wild animals.
    (Rewrite it by using ‘not only ... but also’.)

A6. Find a word for each of the following expressions from the extract :

  1. Enjoy the taste of something
  2. Embarrassing and confusing to watch
  3. Not conscious or aware of something or someone
  4. Relaxed and in an unworried manner

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. A fisherman, enfeebled with age, could no longer go out to sea so he began fishing in the river. Every morning he would go down to the river and sit there fishing the whole day long. In the evening he would sell whatever he had caught, buy food for himself and go home. It was a hard life for an old man. One hot afternoon while he was trying to keep awake and bemoaning his fate, a large bird with silvery feathers alighted on a rock near him. It was Kaha, the heavenly bird. “Have you no one to care for you, grandpa?” asked the bird. “Not a soul.” “You should not be doing such work at your age,” said the bird. “From now on I will bring you a big fish every evening. You can sell it and live in comfort.” True to her word, the bird began to drop a large fish at his doorstep every evening. All that the fisherman had to do was take it to the market and sell it. As big fish were in great demand, he was soon rolling in money. He bought a cottage near the sea, with a garden around it and engaged a servant to cook for him. His wife had died some years earlier. He had decided to marry again and began to look for a suitable woman.
2. One day he heard the royal courtier make an announcement. Our king has news of a great bird called Kaha,” said the courtier. “Whoever can give information about this bird and help catch it, will be rewarded with half the gold in the royal treasury and half the kingdom!” The fisherman was sorely tempted by the reward. Half the kingdom would make him a prince!
3. “Why does the king want the bird,” he asked. “He has lost his sight,” explained the courtier. “A wise man has advised him to bathe his eyes with the blood of Kaha. Do you know where she can be found?” “No…I mean …no, no…” Torn between greed and his sense of gratitude to the bird, the fisherman could not give a coherent reply. The courtier, sensing that he knew something about the bird, informed the king. The king had him brought to the palace.
4. “If you have information about the bird, tell me”, urged the king. “I will reward you handsomely and if you help catch her, I will personally crown you king of half my domain.” “I will get the bird for you,” cried the fisherman, suddenly making up his mind. “But Kaha is strong. I will need help. The king sent a dozen soldiers with him. That evening when the bird came with the fish, the fisherman called out to her to wait. “You drop the fish and go and I never get a chance to thank you for all that you‘ve done for me," he said. “Today I have laid out a feast for you inside. Please alight and come in. Kaha was reluctant to accept the invitation but the fisherman pleaded so earnestly that she finally gave in, and alighted. The moment she was on the ground, the fisherman grabbed one of her legs and shouted to the soldiers hiding in his house to come out. They rushed to his aid but their combined effort could not keep Kaha down.
5. She rose into the air with the fisherman still clinging to her leg. By the time he realised he was being carried away, the fisherman was too high in the air to let go. He hung on grimly, and neither he nor Kaha was ever seen again.

Based on your understanding of the above passage, answer the questions.

  1. Why did the fisherman start fishing in the river?
  2. How did the fisherman spend the day before he met Kaha?
  3. How did the fisherman betray Kaha?
  4. Why was the fisherman doubtful about revealing information about Kaha to the courtier?

Read the given case-based passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.

 

Case study of museums

1.

We don’t go to museums. We prefer malls, cinema halls, and restaurants. Visiting a museum is best left to schools which makes it mandatory. After all, it is an academic exercise. And what entertainment can these places possibly offer? India doesn’t boast the greatest of museums, but one can’t doubt the collection of artefacts in these repositories of heritage, even for a second. Our eventful history has handed down us numerous masterpieces, but unfortunately, we don’t find them compelling enough. A cultural historian and museologist Jyotindra Jain says that the habit of going to museums has just not been inculcated in us. One of the best museums in the country, the National Museum in Delhi charges a mere Rs. 20. According to Joyoti Roy, outreach consultant, National Museum, it receives between 6,00,000 to 7,00,000 visitors each year and anything between 2,500 and 3,000 per day. The mix includes Indians, foreigners, and school students. For an Indian museum, it is an astounding figure, but still nowhere close to the footfalls museums, we consider the finest, get.

2. It has not been many days since the National Gallery of Modern Art, Bangalore, hosted A. Ramachandran’s expansive retrospective covering five decades of his artistic journey. As we sat outside the first-floor gallery after Ramachandran walked me through his sketches, sculptures, and paintings, the senior artist, a bit disappointed said, “Had an exhibition of this scale taken place abroad, people would have come in thousands.” There were about three-five visitors inside the gallery at that time. Jain, who has also helmed institutions like the Crafts Museum and Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts in Delhi, puts the onus on museums. “We developed the museums but didn’t evolve the infrastructure around it. And it is the museum’s responsibility to do it. When you know, people are not going to come to you, you must go to them. Crafts Museum shares its wall with India Trade Promotion Organisation. It receives lakhs of people during the trade fair. I fought tooth and nail to get that door opened during my tenure (1984-89) so that the visitors spill over to the Crafts Museum as well. Museums need to rethink their strategies and outreach should be a major point of concern for them.”
3. In 2010, UNESCO brought out a report on the terrible conditions at India’s top eight museums, citing substandard maintenance, lighting, and signage, among other issues. The Ministry of Culture put together a 14 - point museum reforms agenda and things have moved forward since then. Dr Bhau Daji Lad Museum, the oldest museum in Mumbai has received 3,00,000 visitors over the past year. On average, the museum witnesses 500 visitors every day, with an average of 2,000 visitors over weekends. Not big numbers again, but impressive enough in the Indian context. And this is when the museum re-emerged after a revamp in 2008 with an extensive exhibition programme. Collaborations, screenings of movies of different genres, and workshops for adults and children contributed to the increase in the number of footfalls. The public-private partnership model of the museum is unique and can be replicated in other cases as well.
4. Robust publicity of exhibitions and creating links between different art spaces can also fetch the audience. Different art institutions located in proximity can host a series of events to be held in each one of them simultaneously. Museums also need to transform their cafes, upgrade their museum shops, and most importantly, invest in their human resource. So, what do we do until then? Let’s go and explore these storehouses of history, culture, and knowledge because unless and until we claim them, they will remain indifferent to our needs.

After studying the case study of museums, answer the following questions.

  1. What according to the author is the reason for fewer footfalls in the museums in India?
  2. What measures are suggested in the passage to multiply the visitors to the museums?
  3. What was the proposition given by A. Ramachandran during his tenure at Crafts Museum?
  4. Between the National Museum of Delhi and Dr. Bhau Daji Lad Museum, which museum has more footfall on daily basis? Justify using statistics provided in the study.

Read the passage given below.

5

Technology is making advancements at a rapid rate but at the cost of a valued tradition - the crafts industry. The traditional crafts industry is losing a lot of its trained and skilled craftsmen. With that, the art of embellishing brass and copper utensils with fine engravings is also disappearing. The government has identified around 35 crafts as a languishing craft.

10

The speciality of handcrafted items is their design, an association with long traditions belonging to a specific region. The word ‘handcrafted’ does not imply the involvement of dexterous human fingers or an agile mind with a moving spirit anymore. Lessening drudgery, increasing production and promoting efficiency have taken precedence. The labour-saving devices are taking the place of handcrafted tools and this has jeopardized the skills of these artisans.

15

Mechanisation has made its way into everything - cutting, polishing, edging, designing etc. Ideally, the use of machinery should be negligible and the handicrafts should be made purely by hand with a distinguishable artistic appeal. However, with the exception of small-scale industries, the export units are mostly operated by machines. The heavily computerised designs contribute to faster production at lower costs.

20

Although mechanization of crafts poses a challenge to safeguarding traditional crafts, the artisans are lured with incentives in order to impart handicrafts training. Some makers do see machines as a time-saving blessing since they are now able to accomplish difficult and demanding tasks with relative ease. These machines might give a better 25finesse to these products but they don’t stand out as handcrafted. The quantity has overtaken quality in this industry.

30

A need to highlight the importance of the handmade aspect is required by both the government and private sectors, in order to amplify awareness and also support the culture of making handicrafts. A few artisans are still trying their best to rejuvenate and revive their culture and heritage but it’s an uphill task competing with the machine-made goods. A multitude of artisans have changed their professions and are encouraging their progeny to follow suit. There are others who have stayed their ground but are clearly inclined towards buying machines.

35

Nearly two decades ago, there were around 65 lakh artisans in the country. Three years ago, when the government started the process of granting a unique number to the artisans based on the Aadhaar card, 25 lakhs were identified. Loss of traditional crafts is clearly a worrying issue, but it stands to reason that forcing any artisan to follow old ways when concerns of livelihood overrule other considerations, is unfair.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.

  1. What does the writer mean by calling handicrafts a ‘valued tradition’?
  2. Rewrite the following sentence by replacing the underlined phrase with a word that means the same from lines 5-15.
    If it continues, the workcation (work + vacation) trend will be a powerful boost to domestic tourism operators failing to make progress in the economic slump caused due to the pandemic.
  3. State any two reasons why artisans are choosing to work via machines rather than handcrafted tools.
  4. Why do the artisans need to be ‘lured with incentives’ to impart handicrafts training?
  5. List one likely impact of the support of government and private sectors towards the culture of making handicrafts.
  6. How does the writer justify an artist’s act of abandoning her/his traditional craft for a more lucrative option?

Read the passage given below.

 

 

 

 

5

I saw ‘Jaws’, the popular shark movie, the summer it came out, in 1975 and became paranoid about sharks. Though I kept swimming after Jaws, it was always with the vague fear that a shark’s teeth could tug on my leg at any moment. Never mind that there’d been only two shark bites since 1900 on the Connecticut coast, where I lived.
10 So, when I got this assignment for the National Geographic magazine, I decided to accept and do what I’d never wanted to do: swim with the sharks. I had to go to a place in the Bahamas known as Tiger Beach and dive with tiger sharks, the species responsible for more recorded attacks on humans than any shark except the great white. It was to be my first dive after getting certified-which meant it would be my first dive anywhere other than a swimming pool or a quarry-and without a diver’s cage. Most people who got wind of this plan thought I was either very brave or very stupid.

15

 

 

 

 

But I just wanted to puncture an illusion. The people who know sharks intimately tend to be the least afraid of them, and no one gets closer to sharks than divers. The divers who run operations at Tiger Beach speak lovingly of the tiger sharks and the way people talk about their children or their pets. In their eyes, these sharks aren’t man-eaters any more than dogs are.

20

 

 

 

25

The business of puncturing illusions is never just black and white. My fellow divers had hundreds of dives under their belt and on the two-hour boat ride to the site on the morning of our first dive, they kept saying things like, “Seriously, I really can’t believe this is your first dive.” All this was okay with me until I reached the bottom and immediately had to fend off the first tiger shark, I had ever laid eyes on. However, when I watched the other divers feeding them fish and steering them gently, it became easy to see the sharks in a very benign light.
30 I think it would be unfair not to mention that tiger sharks are apex predators. They act as a crucial balancing force in ocean ecosystems, constraining the numbers of animals like sea turtles and limiting their behaviour by preventing them from overgrazing the seagrass beds. Furthermore, tiger sharks love warm water, they eat almost anything, have a huge litter and are the hardiest shark species. If the planet and its oceans continue to warm, some species will be winners and others will be losers, and tiger sharks are likely to be winners.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.

  1. Cite a point in evidence, from the text, to suggest that the writer's post-Jaws fear was not justified.
  2. State any one trait of the writer that is evident from lines 5-10 and provide a reason for your choice.
  3. People thought the writer was ‘either brave or very stupid’. Why did some people think that he was ‘very stupid’?
  4. Why does the writer say that people who know sharks intimately tend to be least afraid of them?
  5. Rewrite the given sentence by replacing the underlined phrase with another one, from lines 10-20.
    Some academicians think that reward, as a form of discipline, is a simple right or wrong issue.
  6. What does the use of the phrase ‘benign light’ suggest in the context of the writer’s viewpoint about tiger sharks?
  7. Select a suitable phrase from lines 15-25 to complete the following sentence appropriately.
    I agree the team will find this experience tough, but competing will be easier next time after they get this tournament ______
  8. Apex predators serve to keep prey numbers in check. How can we say that tiger sharks are apex predators?
  9. Analyse why having a large litter is one of the features that empower tiger sharks to emerge, winners, if global warming persists.

Read the passage given below.

5 Changing food preferences have brought about rapid changes in the structure of the Indian diet. The rapid proliferation of multinational fast food companies and the influence of Western culture have replaced traditional home-cooked meals with ready-to-eat, processed foods thus increasing the risk of chronic diseases in urban Indians. Therefore, nurturing healthy eating habits among Indians from an early age would help to reduce health risks.
10 To date, little is known about the quality and quantity of foods and beverages consumed by urban Indian adolescents. This lack of evidence is a significant barrier to the development of effective nutrition promotion and disease prevention measures.

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

 

Therefore, a self-administered, semi-quantitative, 59-item meal-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed to assess the dietary intake of adolescents. A total of 1026 students (aged 14-16 years) attending private, English-speaking schools in Kolkata completed the survey.

A sample percentage of the food consumption pattern is displayed.

The survey results report poor food consumption patterns and highlight the need to design healthy eating initiatives. Interestingly, while there were no gender differences in the consumption of legumes and fried snacks, the survey found more females consumed cereals, vegetables and fruits than their male counterparts.

25 In conclusion, the report suggested that schools ought to incorporate food literacy concepts into their curriculum as they have the potential of increasing the fruit and vegetable intake of teenagers. Additionally, healthy school canteen policies with improved availability, accessibility, variety and affordability of healthy food choices would support the consumption of nutritious food in students.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.

  1. What does the researcher mean by ‘changing food preferences'?
  2. Why was this survey on the food consumption of adolescents undertaken?
  3. With reference to the above figure, write one conclusion about students' consumption of energy-dense drinks.
  4. What can be concluded from the ‘no intake’ data of fruit consumption versus energy-dense snacks, with reference to the above figure?
  5. There were gender differences observed in the consumption of healthy foods, according to the survey. Substantiate.
  6. Why is ‘affordability’ recommended as a significant feature of a school canteen policy?
  7. Identify a word from lines 9-18 indicating that the questionnaire was specifically designed to be completed by a respondent without the intervention of the researcher collecting the data.

Read the following passage and complete the activities:

A1. Complete the chart on the life stages of fireflies:  (2)

 

Fireflies are beetles and go through several life stages, starting out as an egg, then hatching into larvae. At the juvenile stage, they turn into pupae and then, finally adults. Fireflies spend most of their lives in a larval stage, hidden away. There are 2000 different species of fireflies. But they all go through a long juvenile stage and a short adult life, which is mainly about courtship, mating and reproduction. The juveniles living underground or underwater, are very different though-they're hunters, they eat snails and soft-bodied insects and they have very different habitats.

Conserving them is essential for human life as fireflies are a key part of the food web. They are predators of agricultural pests. In turn, they are prey for spiders and other insects. They are completely enmeshed in the web of life. In addition, about 70 years ago, scientists unravelled the mystery of fireflies' light-producing talents. Since then, the bio-chemical reactions that fireflies experience have been used in detecting bacterial contamination in foods, testing drugs against cancer, developing drought-resistant crops. They have been used in space exploration. So fireflies give us beauty and inventions. Fireflies carry oxygen, calcium, magnesium and a natural chemical called luciferin. These react together to produce the photons. This is how the fireflies glow.

Firefly tourism is growing across the world. In Maharashtra, for example, a particular species monsoon fireflies, emerge before the rains. They're beautiful and a festival is held in Purushwadi, encouraging firefly tourism. Its wonderful that people around the world go to see fireflies in their natural habitat. We need to be cautious. Too many people can disturb adult and larval habitats. Fireflies need darkness to communicate with each other and we need fireflies because they are harbingers of hope.

A2. Write two reasons for the conservation of fireflies. (2)

A3. Make antonyms of the following words using prefix: (2)

  1. different × ______
  2. experience × ______
  3. bacterial × ______
  4. natural × ______

A4. Do as directed:   (2)

(i) Too many people can disturb adult and larval habitat.
(Rewrite using 'as well as')

(ii) These react together to produce photons.
(Pick out the infinitive from the given sentence)

A5. Can you think of any other insect that teaches us some values of life? Explain with examples.  (2)


Read the following passage and do the activities.

November 4, 1851.

Dear Brother John Honston,

When I came to Charleston day before yesterday, I learned that you were anxious to sell the land where you live, and move to Missouri. I have been thinking of this ever since, and cannot but say such an idea is quite foolish. What can you do in Missouri better than here? Is the land any richer? Can you, there, any more than here, raise com and wheat without work? Will anybody there, any more than here, do your work for you? If you intend to go to work, there is no better place than right where you are; if you do not intend to work, you cannot get along anywhere. Crawling about from place to place can do you no good. You have raised no crop this year. What you really want is to sell the land, get the money and spend it. Part with the land you have and my life upon it-never after will you own a spot big enough to bury you. Half of what you will get for the land, you will spend in moving to Missouri, and the other hall you will eat, drink, wear out and no foot of land will be brought. Now I feel it my duty to have no hand in such a piece of foolery.

Now do not misunderstand this letter. I do not write it in any unkindness. I write it in order, if possible, to get you to face the truth which truth is, you are poor and needy because you have idled away your time. Your thousand excuses for not getting along better are all nonsense. They deceive nobody but yourself. To go to work is the only cure for your case.

Affectionately,
Your brother,
Abraham Lincoln.

A1. Answer the following whether True or False:

  1. Writer came to Charleston
  2. Writer is Abraham Lincoln
  3. Letter is for sister Honston
  4. No crop was raised

A2. How, according to Lincoln, would his brother spend the money coming from selling the land?

A3.

  1. Find out two words with prefix from the passage.
  2. Write two different words on your own by using the same prefix.

A4. Do as directed:

  1. Rewrite the sentence using 'Not only .......... but also'.
    She forgot to wish me on my birthday and did not even apologize.
  2. Change the voice:
    The workers built the dome.

A5. Lincoln wishes to have no hand in selling the land Justify.


Read the passage given below.

1 Mountains have always been held in great awe by mankind. They have been a challenge to humans. Those brave among us have always wanted to conquer them. You see, the more incredible the mountains, the greater the thrill – a challenge to the bravery of the human race. Climbing mountains is an experience that is hard to put into words. You are in a beautiful environment and, when you reach the top, you feel incredible. But you also have to climb down, which is when most accidents happen – people are tired, it gets dark, it’s harder. So, mountain climbing is undoubtedly one of the most popular adventure sports along with being challenging and risky for the climber.
2 Without any perceived risk, there can’t be a feeling that any significant challenge has been surmounted. Fair, but we have to bear in mind that mountaineering is not a sport that can be embraced without preparation. The enthusiasts must develop in themselves the spirit of adventure, willingness to undertake hardships and risks, extraordinary powers of perseverance, endurance, and keenness of purpose before climbing a mountain. They should also know how to handle mountaineering equipment. Then comes the penance of the rigorous training. This could very well be the lifeline up there. It helps inculcate and hone survival instincts that allow the climber to negotiate perilous situations. There are numerous institutes in India and abroad that offer such training.
3 Mountain climbers are unanimous in agreeing that unpredictable weather is what they fear the most. There may be sunshine one moment and a snowstorm the other. At higher altitudes, snow is a regular feature and being decisive about setting up camps or proceeding further is crucial. The icy sheets after ice storms make walking treacherous, while the powdery snow makes a mountaineer sink deep into the snow. Up there, where the intention is to embrace Nature’s wonder, one realizes that it cannot be done without facing its formidable glory. A true mountaineer may challenge the mountain, yet is always respectful of the powerful forces of nature.
4 Summiting mountains carries its own health risks such as oxygen and altitude sickness problems, frost bites, swelling of hands and feet, fluid collection in brain or lungs and exhaustion. Yet, the gratification mountaineers feel from mastering something that is so frightening, urges them to undertake these endeavors. We may think that the mountaineers are fearless, experts say, “Not at all. It’s fear that keeps them so intrigued with such arduous journeys.” Impulse and brazenness can be deadly foes. In the words of the Indian mountaineer, Bachendri Pal, “The biggest risk ... is to not to take the risk at all. Remember that.”

i. Why does the writer say that mountains inspire ‘awe’ in humans? (Paragraph 1)  (1)

  1. They present us with opportunities for exciting sports.
  2. They evoke the wish in us, to master them.
  3. They inspire in us, deeds of valour.
  4. They represent peace and calm, to us.

ii. Select the option that corresponds to the following relation below:  (1)

The more incredible the mountains - the greater the thrill (Paragraph 1)

  1. The higher the stamina - the lower the food intake
  2. The more you laugh - the lesser your illness
  3. The smaller the car - the bigger the advantage
  4. The heavier the luggage - the higher the penalty

iii. Select the option that displays what the writer projects, with reference to the following:  (1)

So, mountain climbing is undoubtedly one of the most popular adventure sports (Paragraph 1)

  1. doubt
  2. caution
  3. conviction
  4. denial

iv. Complete the following with a phrase from paragraph 1.  (1)

Opinion Reason
______ Best experienced rather than described

v. The writer compares training to penance in the line - Then comes the penance of the rigorous training. (Paragraph 2)  (1)

State 1 point of similarity between training and penance.

vi. Based on your reading of the text, list 2 reasons why the writer says that
“mountaineering is not a sport that can be embraced without preparation”. (Paragraph 2)  (1)

  1. ____________
  2. ____________

vii. What connect does the writer draw out between unpredictable weather and setting up of camps? (Paragraph 3)  (1)

viii. The writer says, “A true mountaineer may challenge the mountain, yet is always respectful to the powerful forces of nature.” (Paragraph 3)  (1)

Select the reason the mountaineer is respectful to the forces of nature, up in the mountains.

  1. survival
  2. experience
  3. tradition
  4. directive

ix. justify the following:  (1)

While mountain climbing, an impulsive mountaineer is either disaster-prone or as good as dead.

x. Evaluate the Inappropriate reason for the feeling of exhilaration on reaching a summit, that the mountain-climbers experience.  (1)

  1. Achievement of a seemingly impossible feat
  2. Spectacular panoramic view
  3. Application of the inculcated survival instincts
  4. Opportunity to use sophisticated mountaineering equipment

II. Read the passage given below.

1 The North-East of India is a melting pot of variegated cultural mosaic of people and races, an ethnic tapestry of many hues and shades. Yet, these states are lesser explored as compared to the rest of the country. The new generations of travellers who are ‘money rich and time poor’ are increasingly looking for unique experiences --a phenomenon being called the emergence of the ‘experience economy’. For this new and growing breed of tourists, the North-East with its variety and uniqueness holds immense attraction.
2 A study conducted in 2020 by Dr. Sherap Bhutia, revealed that the foreign tourist arrival in the North-East increased from 37,380 persons in 2005 to 118,552 in 2014. The overall growth rate of tourists (both domestic and foreign) in the North-East was as high as 26.44% during 2005-06. High and positive growth of 12.53% was registered in foreign tourist visits to North-East States of India during 2012 from 2011, which further rose to register a growth of 27.93% during 2013 from 2012. Foreign tourist arrivals in the North-East witnessed a growth of 39.77% during 2014 from 2013, according to data provided from the Ministry of Tourism, Government of India.
3 The study recommendations for tourism planners included the need to concentrate on some key areas like enhancement of tourist facilities, tourism financing, focus on community involvement and others for the formulation of a sustainable tourism strategy in the North-East States of India.

i. Infer one reason for the following, based on information in paragraph 1.  (1)

The rate of tourism in the North-East of India puzzles tourism officials.

ii. Select the appropriate option to fill in the blanks.  (1)

From paragraph 1, we can infer that the ______ and ______ of the North-Eastern states aid attracting the ‘money rich and time poor’ tourists.

1. distinctiveness
2. conventionality
3. diversity
4. uniformity
5. modernity

  1. 1 & 3
  2. 2 & 4
  3. 2 & 5
  4. 1 & 4

iii. Complete the following analogy correctly with a word/ phrase from paragraph 1:  (1)

aroma : cooking : : ______ : painting
(Clue: Just like aroma is integral to cooking, similarly, ______ is/ are integral to painting)

iv. Select the correct option to complete the following sentence:  (1)

Travellers advocating the ‘experience economy’ seek a holiday package with ______ (Paragraph 1)

  1. grand facilities, expensive hotels and excellent services to pamper them.
  2. a wholesome experience within the budget they have planned for.
  3. places and cities to buy things from and opportunities to spend money.
  4. cost-effective services, affordable accommodation and many days of touring.

v. Select the chart that appropriately represents the trend of foreign tourist travels in the North-East, from 2011-2014, as per paragraph 2.  (1)

(1) (2) (3) (4)
  1. Option 1
  2. Option 2
  3. Option 3
  4. Option 4

vi. Fill in the blank by selecting the correct option.  (1)

The study of tourist travel statistics in the North-East, from 2005 to 2014 showed ______ results.

  1. expected
  2. encouraging
  3. inconsistent
  4. questionable

vii. Substitute the word ‘witnessed’ with one word similar in meaning, in the following, sentence from paragraph 2:  (1)

Foreign tourist arrivals in the North-East witnessed a growth of...

viii. List any 2 examples of ‘tourist facilities’ as referred to, in Paragraph 3.  (1)

ix. List one reason why the researchers recommend that the formulation of a tourism strategy in the North-Eastern States of India be sustainable.  (1)

x. Select the option that titles paragraphs 1-3 appropriately, with reference to information in the text.  (1)

  1. 1. Full Speed Ahead!
    2. Ups and Downs
    3. Cause for Concern
  2. 1. Winds of Change
    2. Numbers Don't Lie
    3. Time for Action
  3. 1. Inspecting Trends
    2. Statistically Speaking
    3. Let's Investigate
  4. 1. Cause and Effect
    2. Dynamic Data
    3. Dependable Facts

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. The Higgs boson has been called, or miscalled, the God particle, enabling it to pass into the realm of popular scientific lore, like the discovery of the smallpox vaccine, the structure of DNA, or the theory of relativity. It would be difficult for most people to understand its significance, just as it would be to comprehend the notion of relativity, but such problems are overcome by locating science in personalities as well as cultural and national traditions. The first thing that you and I know about the Higgs boson is that it’s named after Peter Higgs, a physicist at Edinburgh University who made the discovery - although the original insight, in one of those recurrent back stories of science, was Philip Anderson’s.

2. Still, we have Higgs, and Edinburgh, and western civilisation to fall back on. The rest - “the Higgs boson is a hypothetical elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. It belongs to a class of particles known as bosons ...” - we needn’t worry too much about. But maybe we should worry just enough to ask, “What is a boson?” since the word tends to come up as soon as Higgs does. Is it, an ignoramus such myself would ask, akin to an atom or a molecule? It is, in fact, along with the fermion (named after Enrico Fermi), one of the two fundamental classes of subatomic particles.

3. From Bose

The word must surely have some European genealogy. In fact, “boson” is derived from Satyendra Nath Bose, an Indian physicist from Kolkata who, in 1924, realised that the statistical method used to analyse most 19th-century work on the thermal behaviour of gases was inadequate. He first sent off a paper on quantum statistics to a British journal, which turned it down. He then sent it to Albert Einstein, who immediately grasped its immense importance, and published it in a German journal. Bose’s innovation came to be known as the Bose-Einstein statistics and became a basis of quantum mechanics. Einstein saw that it had profound implications for physics; that it had opened the way for this subatomic particle, which he named, after his Indian collaborator, “boson.” Still, science and the West are largely synonymous and coeval: they are words that have the same far-reaching meaning. Just as Van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec’s paintings digest the Japanese prints they were responding to so we don’t need to be aware of Japanese prints when viewing the post-impressionists, western science is pristine, and bears no mark of what’s outside itself.

4. Other Indian contributions

The last Indian scientific discovery that is universally acknowledged is zero. Indians are very strong at maths, and the only modern Indian who’s remotely part of the western mythology of science is Srinivasa Ramanujan, equally well known for his Hindu idiosyncrasies and his agonised stay in Cambridge as he is for his mathematical genius.

5. Indians can be excellent geeks, as demonstrated by the tongue-tied astrophysicist Raj Koothrappalli in the U.S. sitcom Big Bang Theory; but the Nobel prize can only be aspired to by Sheldon Cooper, the super-geek and genius in the series, for whom Raj’s country of origin is a diverting enigma, and miles away from the popular myth of science on which Big Bang Theory is dependent. Bose didn’t get the Nobel Prize; nor did his contemporary and namesake, J.C. Bose, whose contribution to the fashioning of wireless predates Marconi’s. The only Indian scientist to get a Nobel Prize is the physicist C.V. Raman, for his work on a light at Kolkata University. Other Indians have had to become Americans to get the award.

6. Conditions have always been inimical to science in India, from colonial times to the present day; and despite that, its contributions have occasionally been huge. Yet non-western science (an ugly label engendered by the exclusive nature of western popular imagination) is yet to find its Rosalind Franklin, its symbol of paradoxical success. Unlike Franklin, however, scientists were never in a race that they lost; they simply came from another planet.

Based on your reading of the passage, answer twelve out of fifteen questions that follow:

(a) What is the first thing which the narrator knows about Higgs Boson?

(b) What is Bose-Einstein statistics?

(c) How does Sheldon view Raj’s country of origin?

(d) What do Van Gogh’s paintings do to Japanese prints?

(e) Has India always got credit for its merit?

(f) What do Higgs Boson have in common with Smallpox vaccine?

  1. Both are used in medical radiography.
  2. Both are part of scientific myth and legends now.
  3. Both were met with scepticism on their discovery.
  4. Both fetched their teams a Nobel prize.

(g) Which statement is not true about Boson?

  1. They were not discovered by Enrico Fermi.
  2. They constitute one class of subatomic particle.
  3. It is named after an Indian Physicist.
  4. It was discovered by Satyendra Nath Bose.

(h) Choose the word which is an apt synonym of the word Ignoramus. (used in para 2)

  1. Idiot
  2. Intelligent
  3. Idealist
  4. Ingenious

(i) How are esoteric scientific concepts made understandable for people?

  1. By printing short introductory courses.
  2. By comparing it with other scientific discoveries.
  3. By locating science in personalities, social and cultural traditions. iv. By revising the country’s educational structure.

(j) Based on the reading of the passage, which statements are correct about Higgs Boson.

  1. They are called God’s particle.
  2. Philip Anderson’s study provided the original insight.
  3. This concept is easily understood by common people.
  4. A physicist from Edinburgh University made the discovery.
  5. It was discovered by Albert Einstein.
  1. 1, 2 & 3
  2. 2, 3 & 5
  3. 1, 4 & 5
  4. 1, 2 & 4

(k) Which field of Physics was SN Bose working on?

  1. Quantum Mechanics
  2. Electromagnetism
  3. Geophysics
  4. Acoustic

(l) Which scientist/mathematician out of the following won the Nobel prize?

  1. J C Bose
  2. C V Raman
  3. Srinivasa Ramanujan
  4. S N Bose

(m) What is Srinivasa Ramanujan known for in popular culture?

  1. Mathematical genius.
  2. For formulation of game theory.
  3. Hindu Idiosyncrasies.
  4. Troubled stay in Cambridge.
  5. For devising another explanation for chaos theory.
  1. 1, 2 & 3
  2. 1, 3 & 5
  3. 1, 3 & 4
  4. 1, 4 & 5

(n) The conclusion of third paragraph highlights that ______.

  1. Western art grants recognition to all its inspirations.
  2. Van Gogh painted Japanese prints.
  3. Western art subsumes all the influences under it.
  4. Van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec are post-impressionist painters.

(o) Why did JC Bose deserve a Nobel?

  1. He was an Indian physicist.
  2. He was the only one researching on wireless.
  3. His research & findings on wireless started before Marconi.
  4. He acquired American citizenship.

Based on the careful reading of the passage given below, answer any four out of five questions that follow:

Climate change and global warming are the biggest threats of the present time and how the world manages to control pollution will define our future. Rising industrialization, urbanization, deforestation etc., are endangering the natural ecosystem. Since 1880, the earth’s temperature has been rising at a rate of 0.14° F (0.08° C) per decade and the rate of increase has doubled since 1981 at 0.32° F (0.18° C) per decade. The 10 warmest years on record have occurred since 2015, with 2020 recorded as the second-warmest year as per the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

With growing economies, global carbon measurements have been rapidly rising for the last 15 years. As per recent data, in January 2022, carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement stood at 418 parts per million, up around 11% from 378 parts per million recorded since 2007.

(a) What is the key to defining our future?

  1. The means employed to control pollution.
  2. The means employed to control resources.
  3. The means employed to control state policies.
  4. The means employed to educate masses.

(b) Which of the following elements are not responsible for endangering natural ecosystem?

  1. Deforestation
  2. Inflation
  3. Industrialization
  4. Urbanization

(c) According to the passage, economy, and carbon emissions have been ______ to each other for last 15 years.

  1. Inversely proportionate
  2. Directly proportionate
  3. Not related
  4. Disproportionate

(d) Name the institution responsible for observing and recording earth’s temperature over the years.

  1. National Organic and Atmospheric Administration
  2. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  3. North Organic and Atmospheric Administration
  4. National Offshore and Atmospheric Administration

(e) Carbon dioxide measurement stood at ______ parts per million in 2007.

  1. 387
  2. 378
  3. 481
  4. 418

Read the passage given below.

1 Ghost nets aren’t supernatural, but they are legitimately scary. A ghost net is a fishing net that’s been lost or abandoned in the ocean. They are one particularly appalling part of the global ghost fishing problem, which includes fishing gear abandoned in the water. Any net or line left in the ocean can pose a threat to marine life. Just because a net is no longer used by fishers doesn’t mean it stops working. These nets continue to trap everything in their path, presenting a major problem for the health of our oceans and marine life.
2 Ghost nets entangle sea turtles, dolphins and porpoises, birds, sharks, seals and more, apart from catching fish. The nets keep animals from moving freely, cause injuries and keep mammals and birds from rising to the surface for air. Since hundreds of animals can be caught in a single net, this threat is monumental. The ghost nets harm coral reefs too — breaking corals, exposing them to disease and even blocking the reefs from needed sunlight.
3 Ghost nets are also a major contributor to the ocean plastics crisis. Most modern nets are made of nylon or other plastic compounds that can last for centuries. According to a 2018 study in Scientific Reports, ghost nets make up at least 46 percent of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch. Those abandoned fishing lines and nets that do breakdown never go away; they just become smaller pieces of plastic. Marine animals mistake this microplastic for food and eat it, which can harm internal organs, keep them from eating and expose them to toxic chemicals.
4 Exorcising ghost nets from our oceans will require commitment, cooperation and innovation. Many groups are working to remove ghost nets from the sea and are collaborating with local fishers and governments around the world to identify target areas and remove as many nets as possible. In 2015, a single World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF)-led mission in the Baltic Sea hauled up 268 tons of nets, ropes and other material.
5 To stop these nets from becoming ghosts in the first place, conservation organisations advocate for fishing gear that can be traced to its owner so anyone dumping nets can be fined and refundable deposits on nets to encourage returning or recycling rather than littering. Tools like sonar reflectors that can make ghost nets easier to find and working with small-scale fisheries to develop more sustainable fishing gear and practices are other suggestions. It is only by attacking this problem from all sides, together with conservation partners, fishers and supporters, can we banish ghost nets and protect our oceans.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.

(i) Complete the sentence by choosing an appropriate option. (1)

Ghost nets have been named so because they ______

  1. cause much harm to the marine life.
  2. are functional though not in use by fishers.
  3. are not owned by anyone.
  4. act as a snare for all animals in oceans.

(ii) Comment on the writer’s reference to the ghost nets in paragraph one, as a health problem for the oceans. (1)

(iii) List the two ways being entangled in a ghost net is likely to impact a walrus. (1)
(Clue: Think about the type of animal a walrus is)

(iv) Select the option that conveys the opposite of ‘negligible’, from words used in paragraph two. (1)

  1. unimpressive
  2. monumental
  3. exposing
  4. threat

(v) The writer would agree with the given statements based on paragraph three, EXCEPT: (1)

  1. Most ghost nets take a few years to completely disintegrate.
  2. Ghost nets contribute to the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.
  3. Most ghost nets provide nutrition to marine animals, upon disintegration.
  4. Ghost nets can curtail freedom of marine animals.

(vi) Some records share that fishing nets used to be made of common rope using natural fibres, prior to the 1960s. Based on your understanding of paragraph three, list one major advantage that these had over the fishing nets being used in present times. (1)

(vii) Why is it fair to say that commitment and innovation have to go hand-in-hand to rid the oceans of ghost nets? (1)

(viii) Complete the given sentence with an appropriate inference, with respect to the following: (1)   

The writer quotes the example of the WWF-led mission in the Baltic Sea (Paragraph 4), in order to ______.

(ix) How can the solutions, suggested in paragraph five, best be described? (1)

  1. practical
  2. presentable
  3. popular
  4. prejudiced

(x) Select the most suitable title for the above passage. (1)

  1. The Scary Side of Ghost Nets
  2. Ghost Nets – A Result of Human Dominance
  3. Ghost Nets – A Menace to Marine Life
  4. Ways to Tackle the Problem of Ghost Nets

Read the passage given below.

1 It is generally accepted that leadership development should be a part of the education system's responsibility for preparing individuals to participate in a democratic and progressive society. Many schools, colleges and universities, across nations, provide their students with leadership courses, curricular programs and co-curricular programs that are designed to develop students’ formal knowledge about leadership as well as opportunities and experiences to develop students as leaders and actually practise leadership. Yet, only a handful of studies have sought to understand leader development from the students’ point of view, with students describing their own experiences and what they learned from them in their own words.
2

A 2014 descriptive study sought to understand student leadership with research through key events via the following research questions:
Research Question 1: What key events do student leaders in college, report as significantly impacting their development as a leader?
Research Question 2: What lessons do student leaders in college, report learning as a result of the key events they have experienced?
Research Question 3: Are certain key events more likely to be linked to particular lessons? Approximately 130 students were contacted and the 72 interested, were interviewed. Two members of the research team were present for each 15 – 45 minute interview. One member served as the primary interviewer while the second ran the audio equipment.
The results for lessons learned (Table 1), were varied, but there were a few that were frequently quoted.

Lessons learned Responses
Identity  
Self Identity 58
Leadership Identity 54
Professionalism 30
Balancing Roles 19
Individual Competencies  
Delegation 17
Decision Making 15
Adaptability/Flexibility 38
Resilience/Persistence/Hard Work 18
Taking Initiative 36
Accountability/Responsibility 29
Big Picture 27
Learing to Teach/Learn 18
Support Systems  
Developing and Using Support Systems 36
Being a Support System 28
Working with Others  
Communication 59
Teamwork 26
Conflict 21
Diversity 32
Inspiring and motivating others 17
Others working with others 30
Getting the job done  
Task skills 55
Environment 34
3 This study described the rich array of leadership lessons that students are learning through their experiences. It revealed that student leaders are learning foundational leadership skills and competencies that have positively impacted how to accomplish work, how to work with others and how to be both supported by and support others.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below.

(i) Does the following statement agree with the information given in paragraph 1? (1)

The researcher believes that educational institutions have ideal resources to study impact of leadership skills on young adults.

Select from the following:

  1. True - if the statement agrees with the information
  2. False - if the statement contradicts the information
  3. Not Given - if there is no information on this

(ii) Do you think the researchers of the study aimed to change the students’ outlook towards the development of leadership skills, directly or indirectly? Support your answer with reference to the text. (1)

(iii) Select the option that displays the most likely reason for including Research Question 3 in the 2014 study. (1)

In order to find out if... 

  1. learning opportunities shape students’ overall personality.
  2. leadership lessons are the result of the designed learning opportunities.
  3. all learning opportunities cater to a specific lesson.
  4. certain lessons are common in more than one learning opportunity.

(iv) Complete the sentence based on the following statement. (1)

More than 50% of the identified student respondents were keen to participate in the 2014 study.

We can say this because ______.

(v) Select the option that displays the key event designed with “Balancing Roles” (Table 1) as the objective. (1)

  1. Students will be able to debate the issue at hand, with different teams.
  2. Students will be able to manage the responsibilities of a mentor, planner researcher and presenter.
  3. Students will be able to surmount minor problems and focus on the final goal.
  4. Students will be able to explain concepts and clarify them for peers.

(vi) Complete the given sentence by selecting the most appropriate option. (1)

The 2014 study attempts to understand student leadership by focussing on ______

  1. experiences that shaped students’ overall personality.
  2. lessons gained by students as they grew up.
  3. relationship of key events with particular lessons.
  4. students in leadership roles.

(vii) The lessons for ‘Individual competencies’ had a range of responses. (1)
Give one reason why having the least number of responses for ‘Decision Making’, is a matter that needs attention.

(viii) Complete the given sentence by selecting the most appropriate option. (1)

The concluding sentence of the text makes a clear case for ______ by listing it as a core competency for student leadership.

  1. collaboration
  2. flexibility
  3. hard work
  4. observation

(ix) Complete the sentence appropriately with one/two words. (1)

In the context of “Working with Others” in Table 1, the lesson of ‘Conflict’ refers to ______.

(x) Based on the reading of the text, state a point to challenge the given statement. (1)

When theoretical knowledge about leadership suffices, it is a waste of funds by educational organisations, to organise leadership camps and programmes.


Read the passage given below-

(1) Milkha Singh, also known as The Flying Sikh, was an Indian track and field sprinter who was introduced to the sport while serving in the Indian Army. He is the only athlete to win gold in 400 metres at the Asian Games as well as the Commonwealth Games. He also won gold medals in the 1958 and 1962 Asian Games. He represented India in the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome and the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo. He was awarded the Padma Shri, India's fourth-highest civilian honour, in recognition of his sporting achievements.
(2) The race for which Singh is best remembered is his fourth-place finish in the 400 metres final at the 1960 Olympic Games. He led the race till the 200 m mark before easing off, allowing others to pass him. Singh's fourth-place time of 45.73 seconds was the Indian national record for almost 40 years.
(3) From beginning that saw him orphaned and displaced during the partition of India, Singh became a sporting icon in the country. In 2008, journalist Rohit Brijnath described Singh as "the finest athlete India has ever produced".
(4) He was disappointed with his debut performance at the 1956 Melbourne Olympics. "I returned to India, chastened by my poor performance in Melbourne. I had been so excited by the prospects of being part of the Indian Olympics team, but, hadn't realized how strong and professional the competition would be. My success in India had filled me with a false sense of pride and it was only when I was on the track that I saw how inconsequential my talents were when pitted against superbly fit and seasoned athletes. It was then that I understood what competition actually meant, and that if I wanted to succeed on the international arena, I must be prepared to test my mettle against the best athletes in the world."
(5) Then he decided to make sprinting the sole focus of his life.
"Running had thus become my God, my religion and my beloved".
"My life during those two years was governed by strict rules and regulations and a self-imposed penance. Every morning I would rise at the crack of dawn, get into my sports kit and dash off to the track, where I would run two or three miles cross-country in the company of my coach."
(6) On how he pushed himself through the tough days of vigorous training. "I practiced so strenuously that often I was drained of all energy, and there were times when I would increase my speed to such an extent that after my rounds, I would vomit blood or drop down unconscious through sheer exercise. My doctors and coaches warned me, asked me to slow down to maintain my health and equilibrium but my determination was too strong to give up. My only focus was to become the best athlete in the world. But then images of a packed stadium filled with cheering spectators, wildly applauding me as I crossed the finishing line, would flash across my mind and I would start again, encouraged by visions of victory."

Based on your reading answer any five questions from the six given below:   (5)

  1. What is Milkha Singh known as? What realization did Milkha Singh have when he was on the track during the Melbourne Olympics? 
  2. List any two of Milkha Singh's achievements.
  3. What strict rules and regulations did Milkha Singh follow?
  4. State two consequences of his hard and strenuous practice.
  5. What motivated Milkha Singh to become the best athlete in the world?
  6. Explain the phrase 'I would start again' in the last sentence.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

1.

Too many parents these days can't say no, As a result, they find themselves raising 'children' who respond greedily to the advertisements aimed right at them. Even getting what they want doesn't satisfy some kids; they only want more. Now, a growing number of psychologists, educators, and parents think it's time to stop the madness and start teaching kids about what's really important: values like hard work, contentment, honesty, and compassion. The struggle to set limits has never been tougher and the stakes have never been higher. One recent study of adults who were overindulged as children paints a discouraging picture of their future: when given too much too soon, they grow up to be adults who have difficulty coping with life's disappointments. They also have a distorted sense of entitlement that gets in the way of success in the workplace and in relationships.

2.

Psychologists say that parents who overindulge their kids set them up to be more vulnerable to future anxiety and depression. Today's parents themselves raised on values of thrift and self-sacrifice, grew up in a culture where no was a household word. Today's kids want much more, partly because there is so much more to want. The oldest members of this generation were born in the late 1980s, just as PCs and video games were making their assaults on the family room. They think of MP3 players and flat-screen TV as essential utilities, and they have developed strategies to get them. One survey of teenagers found that when they crave something new, most expect to ask nine times before their parents give in. By every measure, parents are shelling out record amounts. In the heat of this buying blitz, even parents who desperately need to say no find themselves reaching for their credit cards.

3.

What parents need to find, is a balance between the advantages of an affluent society and the critical life lessons that come from waiting, saving, and working hard to achieve goals. That search for balance has to start early. Children need limits on their behaviour because they feel better and more secure when they live within a secure structure.

4.

 Older children learn self-control by watching how others, especially parents act. Learning how to overcome challenges is essential to becoming a successful adult. Few parents ask kids to do chores. They think their kids are already overburdened by social and academic pressures. Every individual can be of service to others, and life has meaning beyond one's own immediate happiness. That means parents eager to teach values have to take a long, hard look at their own.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any eight questions from the nine given below:

  1. What is challenging for today's parents?
  2. What will be the consequence of over indulging children?
  3. Why do parents get caught in the buying blitz?
  4. How do children learn critical life lessons?
  5. What is the impact of advertisements on children?
  6. Why do children need limits on their behaviour?
  7. How do older children learn self-control?
  8. Find a word in the passage which means 'research'. (Paragraph 2)
  9. Find a word in the passage which means 'wealthy'. (Paragraph 3)

Read the passage given below:

(1) Ratan, a global brand in Dairy products, works on a business model popularly known as, 'The Ratan Model'. This model aims to provide value for money to the customers and protect the interests of farmers simultaneously.
(2) The Ratan model is a three-tiered structure that is implemented in its Dairy production: Firstly, Ratan acts as a direct link between milk producers and consumers that removes the middlemen. Secondly, farmers (milk producers) control procurement, processing and marketing. Thirdly, it is a professionally managed organization.
(3) One can understand the Ratan Model better by taking cognizance of 'Ratan's Target Audience', where it has targeted the mass market of India with no premium offerings and works on providing the best quality products at affordable prices.
(4) So Ratan formulates its pricing policy on the low cost price strategy which has attracted a lot of customers in the past and it continues to do so.
(5) Another stance used by Ratan's Target Audience is based on customer-wise targeting and industry wise targeting. This strategy divides the target audience on the following two bases :
(6)
Segment wise break down of Customer -
Based Target Audience
Customers Ratan products
Kids Chocolate, Ratan cool, Ratan milk.
Youth Ratan Pizza Cheese, Cheese spread,
Health Conscious Ratan Shakti, Ratan Lite, Butter.

The above table showcases how Ratan has a diversified customer base.

(7) Industry Based Target Audience: Ratan has segmented milk for various industries such as ice-cream manufacturers, restaurants, coffee shops, and many similar industries. Further, it has segmented butter, ghee and cheese for bakeries, snack retailers, confectioneries, and many more.
(8) The target audience study tells us that Ratan has a strong presence in both Business to Business and Businessto-Customers.
(9) Ratan's marketing campaigns and strategies are implemented in a very attractive way. For example, the story of the 'Ratan Girl' is a popular 'ad' icon. It is a hand drawn cartoon of a young girl.

Based on your understanding of the passage answer any Six out of the Seven questions given below:

  1. What does 'The Ratan Model' aim at?
  2. In dairy production how many tiers are there?
  3. Ratan acts as a direct link...? Explain.
  4. "Ratan Target audience is described as a diversified market. Explain with reference to the given table.
  5. Name the two basis on which Ratan divides the target audience.
  6. In which two spheres does Ratan have a strong presence?
  7. Which is the most loved ad icon of Ratan?

Read the following passage and do the given activities:

A1. Match the columns A with B correctly:  (2)

A B
(i) Rocket programming (a) IIT (Bombay)
(ii) Graduation (b) ISRO
(iii) Masters in Engineering (c) S. T. Hindu College
(iv) Ph.D (d) IISC

 

The humble son of a farmer from Sarakkalvilai village in Tamil Nadu's Kanyakumari district, Dr. K. Sivan as Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) chairman was leading the Chandrayaan-2 mission to the moon. Sivan studied in a Tamil medium government school. After graduating from S.T. Hindu College in Nagercoil, Sivan completed a Master's in Engineering from IISC in 1982. In 2006, he received Ph.D in Aerospace Engineering from IIT Bombay.

Sivan is the first graduate in his family. His brother and two sisters were unable to complete higher education due to their poverty.  "When I was in college, I used to help my father in the field. That was the reason he got me admitted to a college near our house." Sivan told TOI, "Only when I had completed my B.Sc. (Mathematics) with 100% marks his mind changed." Sivan said he had spent his childhood days without a shoe or sandal. I continued wearing a vesti (dhoti) till college. I wore pants for the first time when I entered MIT." He joined ISRO in 1982 and worked on almost all rocket programmes. Before taking charge as an ISRO chairman in January 2018, he was the director, of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) which develops rockets. He is known as ISRO's 'Rocket Man'.

A2. Answer the following questions in a few words. (One or two words)    (2)

  1. What is Dr. Sivan known as?
  2. In which subject Dr. Sivan scored 100% marks in B.Sc.?
  3. When did Dr. Sivan join ISRO?
  4. In which space centre Dr. Sivan was the director?

A3. Match the word connectors from the passage and use one of the connectors in your own sentence:  (2)

A B
(i) Tamil (a) School
(ii) Government (b) Medium
  (c) Centre

A4. Do as directed:   (2)

  1. Sivan is the first graduate in his family.    (Rewrite as a negative sentence)
  2. His brother and two sister were unable to complete higher education due to their poverty.
    (Rewrite the above sentence using 'neither ____nor')

A5. Personal Response:   (2)

What inspiration can we draw from Dr. Sivan's success?


Read the following passage and do the activities:

A1. Complete the following sentences from the passage:    (2)

  1. Sachin was born on _____.
  2. Sachin is a devotee of the deity ______.
  3. He was trained under the able guidance of ______.
  4. He made debut on ______.

Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar who was born on 24th April 1973 in Mumbai is a former Indian International Cricketer and a former captain of the Indian National Team. He is regarded as one of the greatest batsmen of all time and is often referred as the ‘God of cricket’ by Indian Cricket followers. He made his debut on 15th November 1989 against Pakistan in ‘Karachi’ at the age of sixteen. He is the only player to have scored one hundred international centuries and only player to complete more than 30,000 runs in international cricket. He was trained under the able guidance of Ramakant Achrekar Sir. He received the Arjuna Award in 1994, Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award in 1997, Padma Shri and Padma Vibhushan Awards in 1999 and 2008 respectively, fourth and second highest civilian awards of India. He was also awarded the Bharat Ratna, highest civilian award of India in 2013. He is a devotee of the deity Ganesha.

A2. Complete the web diagram:     (2)

A3. Match the 'Synonyms':   (2)

  'A'   'B'
i. debut a. previous
ii. received b. God
iii. former c. got
iv. deity d. first performance

A4. Do as directed:    (2)

  1. He made his debut.     (Make 'Simple Future Tense').
  2. He received the Arjuna Award.          (Choose the correct Q-tag):
    1. did he?
    2. didn't he?
    3. doesn't he?

A5. Do you like to play games? Why?    (2)


Read the following extract and complete the activities given below:

The government of India is encouraging medical tourism in the country by offering tax benefits and export incentives to the participating hospitals. Medical visas are being cleared quickly without any hassles. With a view to facilitating the growth of medical tourism industry, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare along with the Ministry of Tourism has set up a task force to evaluate the opportunities in the industry. Efforts are being made to standardise procedures and to guide foreign patients to select the hospitals most suited to their needs. Meanwhile, several private hospitals are seeking to take advantage of the booming medical tourism industry and are investing hugely in acquiring equipments and skills.

However, medical tourism carries some risks that locally provided medical care does not. Some countries like India, Malaysia and Thailand have very different infectious diseases rarely found in Europe and North America. Exposure to disease without having built-up natural immunity can be a hazard for weak individuals specially with respect to gastrointestinal diseases like Hepatitis A, amoebic dysentery etc., which could slow down the recovery process. Also, medical tourists may be at risk from mosquito-transmitted diseases, influenza and tuberculosis. The quality of post-operative care can also vary dramatically depending on the hospital and the country. Finally, after returning home, a patient has limited contact with their surgeon. This may make it difficult to deal with any complications that may arise later, such as a delayed infection.

The concept of medical tourism raises some important questions regarding accessibility, affordability and ethics in medical care. It is unfortunate that a large section of the Indian population has little or no access to private health care. Public health care system is inadequate and lacks proper infrastructure and facilities. One wonders if it is sensible to make provisions for medical tourism in a democratic country like India, which has failed to provide nourishment, sanitation and health care to its masses.

A1. Complete the web:    (2)

A2. Complete the following statements with the help of information provided in the extract:      (2)

  1. Building up natural immunity is must for all because ______.
  2. The concept of medical tourism can not be much successful in India because _______.

A3. Complete the following table with reference to the statement ‘Medical Tourism is a mixed blessing’:        (2)

Positive aspects of Medical Tourism Hazard/Nagative aspects
of Medical Tourism
1.   1.  
2.   2.  

A4. ‘We need to promote the concept of Wildlife Tourism in India’. State whether you agree or disagree with the statement. Mention any two arguments.   (2)

A5. Language study:    (2)

(i) ‘Govt. of India is encouraging medical tourism in the country’.     ...(Choose the correct present perfect form of the given statement.)

  1. Govt. of India is encouraged medical tourism in the country.
  2. Govt. of India had encouraged medical tourism in the country.
  3. Govt. of India has been encouraged medical tourism in the country.
  4. Govt. of India has encouraged medical tourism in the country.

(ii) ‘This may make it difficult to deal with any complication’.     ...(Identify the replaced version of the statement using the auxiliary of certainty or definiteness.)

  1. This can make it difficult to deal with any complication.
  2. This might make it difficult to deal with any complication.
  3. This will make it difficult to deal with any complication.
  4. This have made it difficult to deal with any complication.

A6. Identify the words from the passage with the following meaning:    (2)

  1. growing immensely
  2. threat
  3. obtaining
  4. able to approach/possible to approach

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

  1. Mankind's fascination with gold is as old as civilization itself. The ancient Egyptians held gold in high esteem. Gold had religious significance for them, and King Tutankhamen was buried in a solid gold coffin 3300 years ago. The wandering Israelites worshipped a golden calf, and the legendary King Midas asked that whatever he touched be turned into gold. 
  2. Not only is gold beautiful, but it is virtually indestructible. It will not rust or corrode. Gold coins and products fabricated from the metal have survived undamaged for centuries. Gold is extremely easy to work with. One ounce, which is about the size of a cube of sugar, can be beaten into a sheet nearly 100 square feet in size, and becomes so thin that light can pass through it. An ounce of gold can also be stretched into a wire 50 miles long. Gold conducts electricity better than any other substance except copper and silver, and it is particularly important in modern electronic industry.
  3. People have always longed to possess gold. Unfortunately, this longing has also brought out the worst in human character. The Spanish conquerors robbed palaces, temples and graves and killed thousands of people in their ruthless search for gold. Even today, the economy of South Africa's gold mines depend largely on the employment of black labourers who are paid about 40 pounds a month, plus boarding and lodging. They work in conditions that can only be described as cruel. About 400 miners die in South Africa each year.
  4. Much of the gold's value lies in its scarcity. Only about 80,000 tons have been mined in the history of the world. All of it can be stored in a vault 60 feet square, or a super tanker. Great Britain was the first country to adopt the gold standard, when the Master of the Mint, Sir Issac Newton, established a fixed price for gold in 1717. The discovery of gold in the last half of the nineteenth century in California (1848) and later in Australia and South Africa changed everything. Before the discovery there wasn't enough gold around for all the trading nations to link their currencies to the precious metal.
  5. An out-of-work prospector named George Harrison launched South Africa into the gold age in 1886 when he discovered the metal on a farm near what is now Johannesburg. Harrison was given a 12 pounds as a reward by the farmer. He then disappeared and was eaten by a lion.
  6. One of the biggest gold mining areas in the Soviet Union is the Kolyma River region, once infamous for its prison camp. The camp has gone, but in a way nothing has changed. Many ex-prisoners have stayed on to work in the mines and are supervised by ex-guards.
  7. Despite the current rush to buy gold, 75 percent of the metal goes into making jewellery. Italy is the biggest consumer of gold for this purpose, and many Italian jewellers even tear up their wooden floors and bum them to recover the tiny flecks of gold. Historically, the desire to hoard gold at home has been primarily an occupation of the working and peasant classes, who have had no faith in paper money. George Bernard Shaw defended their instincts eloquently, "You have to choose between trusting the natural stability of the honesty and intelligence of the members of the government," he said "and with due respect to these gentlemen, I advise to vote for gold."

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below:

  1. When was King Tutankhamen burled?      (1)
    1. 1717
    2. 1886
    3. 3300 years ago
    4. 1848
  2. Why did Egyptians hold gold in great esteem?      (1)
    1. because it is a good conductor of electricity.
    2. because of its religious significance.
    3. for lovely gold ornaments.
    4. because it is indestructible.
  3. According to the passage, which of the following statements is NOT true?       (1)
    1. Gold is the best conductor of electricity.
    2. Apart from gold, copper and silver are good conductors of electricity.
    3. Gold can be easily beaten, hence it is easy to work with.
    4. Gold plays an important role in the modern electronics industry.
  4. Select the option that displays what the writer projects, with reference of the following:      (1)
    The wandering Israelites worshipped a golden calf ______.
    1. importance of religion
    2. importance of the metal
    3. good conductor
    4. can replace money
  5. How were the black labourers exploited?         (1)
  6. Complete the following with the phrase from paragraph 1:    (1)
    Opinion Reason
      King Tutankhamen was buried in
    a solid gold coffin 3300 years ago.
  7. Based on your reading of the text list 2 reasons why the writer says that,
    Not only is gold beautiful but it is virtually indestructible.      (1)
  8. Who launched South Africa into the gold age?      (1)
    1. Issac Newton
    2. George Harrison
    3. George Bernard Shaw
    4. A farmer
  9. Select the option that corresponds to the following:    (1)
    The ancient Egyptians and the modern electronic industry both hold gold in high esteem.
    1. The hardworking student came first because of his diligent practice.
    2. Honesty is underrated whereas strategy is appreciated.
    3. The vibrant colours made the interiors look luminous.
    4. The steaming food was both appetizing and tasty.
  10. Supply one point to justify the following:     (1)
    The desire to hoard gold at home has been primarily an occupation of the working and peasant classes.

Read the passage given below:

  1. Starting Monday, the country's low-cost Mars mission with the red planet for an extended period will enter the "blackout" phase snapping communication with the satellite. From June 8 to 22 the Sun will block Mars from the Earth snapping communication with the satellite.
  2. A senior Indian Space Research Organisation official said. "This will be for the first time that there will be a communication break for such a long period of about 15 days. During this period, there will be no communication with the satellite", he added.
  3. Expressing confidence about regaining control over the satellite once the blackout phase is over, he said, "the scenario has been tested and the line of communication will be established." The spacecraft's life has been extended for another six months in March due to surplus fuel.
  4. Stating that the spacecraft has been "configured" for the blackout, the ISRO official said, "we are not sending any commands to the spacecraft now, till 8th June few hours of signals will be sent by the spacecraft that will be for about two to three hours per day". In May next year, the mission will have to go through a similar phase once again, if there is another extension of mission life when the Earth will come between the Sun and Mars.
  5. Scripting space history, India on September 24 last successfully placed its low-cost Mars spacecraft in orbit around the red planet in its very first attempt, breaking into an elite club of three countries.
  1. Infer one reason for the following based on information in paragraph 1.  (1)
    The 'blackout' phase is significant ______.
  2. Choose the appropriate option to fill in the blank.    (1)
    From paragraph 1 & 2, we can infer that there will be ______.
    1. no communication with the people.
    2. blackout phase.
    3. satellite will get no communication.
    4. the moon will block the earth.
    5. the communication break will be for 15 days.
    1. 1, 2 & 3
    2. 1, 3 & 4
    3. 2, 3 & 5
    4. 3, 4 & 5
  3. The communication with the satellite will break for approximately ______ days.    (1)
    1. 10
    2. 15
    3. 20
    4. 25
  4. Complete the following analogy correctly with a word/phrase from paragraph 2:     (1)
    aroma : cooking : : ______ : space research
    (Clue - just like aroma is integral to cooking, similarly __ is/are integral to space research.)
  5. According to ISRO official till 8th July, when Sun will block Mars, ______ signal/signals per day will be sent to the spacecraft.     (1)
    1. no
    2. considerable
    3. indefinite
    4. only for few
  6. Select the correct option to complete the following sentence:    (1)
    The ISRO officials are ______ about their control over the spacecraft after the blackout phase.
    1. doubtful
    2. apprehensive
    3. confident
    4. jittery
  7. The spacecraft's life was extended by six months because of ______.       (1)
    1. extra fuel
    2. incomplete work
    3. lack of communication amongst ISRO officials
    4. technical problems in its landing
  8. Read the following sentences:    (1)
    (A) The blackout was a sudden development.
    (B) Because of this, the officials are very nervous about the success of the spacecraft.
    1. Both (A) & (B) are true.
    2. Both (A) & (B) are false.
    3. (A) is true and (B) is false.
    4. (A) is false and (B) is true.
  9. Substitute the word 'nonpareil' with one word similar in meaning in the following sentence from paragraph 5.    (1)
    India managed to get into the nonpareil club of Mars spacecraft in orbit.
  10. The word 'fascination' in the opening sentence means the same as:    (1)
    1. enchantment
    2. boredom
    3. disinterest
    4. ugliness

Read the following passage.

A Dirshti was young woman who had always been fascinated by the supernatural. She had read countless books and watched numerous documentaries about ghosts and otherworldly beings. So, when she heard about an abandoned hotel on the outskirts of town that was said to be haunted, she knew she had to investigate.
B One night, Dirshti decided to sneak into the dilapidated hotel with a few of her friends. As they made their way through the dark, eerie corridors, they heard strange noises and felt cold spots. They were convinced that they were not alone.
C Suddenly, they came across a room that was different from the rest. It was filled with old cooking equipment and strange symbols etched into the walls. Drishti felt a chill run down her spine as she entered the room. She knew that this was where the most paranormal activity occurred. As they were examining the room, they heard a loud bang coming from the hallway. They froze in fear, not knowing what was coming their way. They could hear footsteps approaching, and they knew they had to hide.
D They quickly ducked behind some old shelves as the footsteps grew louder. The sound of breathing was getting closer and closer until finally, they saw a figure appear in the doorway. It was a man wearing a chef’s hat, with a face that was twisted in a sinister smile. Drishti and her friends felt their blood run cold as the man approached them. They could feel his cold breath on their faces as he leaned in, whispering in a deep voice, "You shouldn't be here."
E Dirshti and her friends were frozen with fear as they stared into the chef's eyes. But suddenly, the lights flickered on and the figure disappeared. They looked around the room, and everything seemed normal. They had been so scared that they hadn't realized they were in a room with faulty wiring
F Disappointed, they realized that their ghost hunt had been a bust. They left the hotel feeling deflated and let down. They had hoped for an exciting, spine-tingling adventure, but all they got was a scary moment caused by faulty wiring. As they drove home, they couldn't help but feel foolish for getting so worked up over nothing. They had been so convinced that they would find evidence of the paranormal that they had overlooked the simple explanation for the noises they had heard.
G Dirshti learned an important lesson that night. Sometimes, the scariest things are the ones that we create in our own minds. She realized that she didn't need to chase after the supernatural to experience thrills and excitement. The world around her was full of mystery and wonder, and she was content to experience it without the need for ghosts and ghouls.

Answer the following questions, based on the passage above.

(i) How does the setting contribute to the overall mood and atmosphere of the story?    (1)

    1. It creates a sense of nostalgia.
    2. It provides a sense of false security.
    3. It adds to the suspense in the story.
    4. It presents a contrast with the real world.

(ii) List two ways, how the disappointment that Drishti and her friends felt after their ghost hunt is analogous to the feeling of waking up from a dream. Answer in 30 -40 words.    (2)

(iii) What is the main flaw in Drishti's approach to investigating the haunted hotel?   (1)

  1. She was too focused on finding evidence of the paranormal.
  2. She was too skeptical and refused to believe in the possibility of ghosts.
  3. She relied too heavily on other people's accounts of the supernatural.
  4. She didn't take enough precautions to ensure her safety.

(iv) After which paragraph of the story, would the following paragraph most likely be placed?   (1)
They commenced walking through the hotel, Drishti’s torchlight barely illuminating the darkness around her. Suddenly, they heard a loud creaking noise behind them. Drishti whipped around, pointing her flashlight in the direction of the noise. Nothing. Shaken, they all quickened their pace.

(v) Briefly explain (in 30-40 words) any two elements that classify the story as scary  (2)

(vi) Substitute the underlined word in the following sentence with a word/ phrase from paragraphs 4- 6, that means the same.     (1)

The sound of the footsteps outside the door left her petrified and the rasping breathing added to her horror.

(vii) What is the most significant lesson that Drishti learns from her experience in the haunted hotel?   (1)

  1. The importance of avoiding risk-taking.
  2. The need to be more sceptical of the supernatural.
  3. The value of evaluating your weaknesses
  4. The power of imagination to create suspense.

(viii) Complete the following appropriately.   (1)

Based on the use of the word "dilapidated" to describe the hotel in Paragraph 2, we can infer that its condition was ______.

(ix) Complete the sentence appropriately.   (1)

If the title, The Hotel Haunting is given to this passage, it would be an inappropriate title, as compared to The Unsettling Encounter at the Abandoned Hotel because ______.

(x) State whether the given assertion is TRUE or FALSE.   (1)

The reason Drishti and her friends visited the abandoned hotel was to prove the existence of ghosts.


Read the following table displaying the details of five House Captains.

Name Motto Participation in activities Achievements Awards Personal Qualities Drawbacks Other notable things
Rohit "Together we can achieve greatness" Debate club, Quiz club 1st prize in Science Olympiad Best Student Diligent, confident, empathetic Sometimes tends to be overly competitive Volunteer at a local NGO
Sanya "Service before self" Social service club, Drama club 1st prize in Debate competition Best Orator Compassionate, organized, responsible Can be overly self critical at times Participated in a Model United Nations conference
Rajat "Never give up, always rise up" Sports club, Music club 2nd position in Chess competition Best Sportsperson Perseverant, team player, adaptable Can sometimes be indecisive Plays in a local band
Aryan "Success through hard work" Photography club, Science club 1st prize in a Photography competition Budding Innovator Creative, curious, detail oriented Can sometimes procrastinate Built a working model of a wind turbine for a science fair
Ananya "Strive for excellence" "Dance club, Art club 1st prize in Art competition Creative Mind Confident, hardworking, imaginative Tends to overthink things Published her own poetry collection

Answer the following questions, based on the table above.

(i) Identify the person who is likely to ask many "why" questions, and support your choice with one reason.    (2)

(ii) Which house captain is most likely to struggle the most with handling stress during the school's annual inter-house sports tournament?   (1)

  1. Rohit
  2. Sanya
  3. Rajat
  4. Ananya

(iii) Give two justifications for Sanya being the best fit to lead a school-wide initiative to promote mental health and well-being among students.   (2)

(iv) Select the correct option to fill the blank and complete the analogy.   (1)

______ : paint brush :: Rajat : tabla

  1. Rohit
  2. Sanya
  3. Aryan
  4. Ananya

(v) Based on the personal qualities of the House Captains, why is Rajat the most likely to be a collaborative worker?   (1)

(vi) Complete the given sentence with the appropriate reason, with reference to the information in the table.   (1)

We can infer that Aryan’s overall performance may be negatively impacted by his weakness in time management because ______.

(vii) Explain briefly why situation (b), from the three situations given below, showcases Ananya's motto, "Lead by example"?   (1)

  1. During a group project, Ananya assigns each team member specific tasks and sets a high standard for the project's quality. She tells them to actively participate in the project and take it to fruition.
  2. During a house debate competition, Ananya notices that a few of her house members are struggling to articulate their arguments effectively. Ananya takes the time to listen to their concerns and provides constructive feedback and support.
  3. During a fundraising event, Ananya volunteers to be in charge of organizing and coordinating the event but she frequently delegates tasks to others and attends to her school assignment while her team completes the task successfully.

(viii) Select the option that correctly matches the House Captains (a) -(c), to the trophies (i)-(v).     (1)

House Captains (a) Rajat (b) Ananya (c) Aryan

 

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)
  1. (a) - (ii) , (b) - (i) , (c) - (iii)
  2. (a) - (i) , (b) - (v) , (c) - (iv)
  3. (a) - (v) , (b) - (iii) , (c) - (ii)
  4. (a) - (iii) , (b) - (iv) , (c) - (i)

Read the following text.

(1) Reduction in green areas has caused various environmental problems. People squeezed between concrete structures are looking for various ways to meet their longing for green. One of the ways to do so, is vertical gardens and green walls. Vertical gardening is a unique method of gardening where plants are grown in a vertical position or upward, rather than in the traditional method of planting them on the ground.
(2) The purpose of vertical gardens and green walls, which arises from the studies of different disciplines (landscape architects, architects, engineers, etc.), is to close the cold image of concrete and increase the visual value. In these systems, nature and structures are integrated, and thus, urban areas and the desired environment have become intertwined.
(3) Vertical garden case studies often show that, though functionality should be in the foreground when vertical gardens are planned, they are generally made as aesthetic elements in the city's underpasses and city squares and decorative elements in residences without seeking functionality.
(4) Experts support that the visual quality and evaluation of landscape architecture are determined based on the satisfaction of the users. Hence, a survey questionnaire was prepared for residents of varied age groups from of a metropolitan city. The given Table 1, displays these responses:
 
Table 1 - Total number of participants : 400
No. Survey statements Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly disagree
Vertical gardens -
1 improve quality of life of people in urban areas 191 138 43 9 19
2 reduce noise pollution 128 164 77 25 6
3 increase air quality -indoors and outdoors 172 147 51 28 2
4 reduce energy and water consumption 58 47 125 68 2
5 positively impact global warming 114 144 106 30 6
6 have a relaxing and calming effect 161 177 44 7 11
7 cost too much 86 107 152 42 13
8 make plants look beautiful 195 139 44 6 16
9 add naturalness to the environs 135 173 55 25 12
10 are among the determining factor to visiting a place 59 133 141 54 13
11 are inconvenient indoors 9 84 123 126 48
12 can be applied in every place 71 132 97 77 23
13 have a functional feature 81 207 100 10 2
14 distract drivers 34 101 106 131 28
15 funds are best used for social issues 57 72 100 130 41
(5) The study acknowledged that vertical gardening has the potential to transform urban spaces into green, sustainable areas, and further research should explore the impact of vertical gardening on the environment and human well-being.

Answer the following questions, based on the passage above.

i. Complete the following analogy appropriately, based on your understanding of paragraphs 1 & 2.   (1)

We can say that the situation of people living in concrete structures is comparable with a fish living in a fishbowl, and the need for vertical gardens to the need for decorations in the fishbowl because ______.

ii. Fill the blanks with the appropriate option from those given in brackets, based on your understanding of paragraph 2.   (1)

The statement that urban spaces have become more closely connected with the desired natural surroundings through the incorporation of nature and structures in vertical gardens and green walls is a _______ (fact/ opinion) because it is a _______ (subjective judgement/ objective detail).

iii. Justify the following, in about 40 words.   (2)

While the survey results suggest that vertical gardens may be effective in improving the quality of life in urban areas, further research and evaluation may be necessary to fully understand their effectiveness and potential drawbacks.

iv. Based on the survey results, which two concerns should a city government, looking to install vertical gardens, address?   (1)

v. In Table 1, statement 3, "Vertical gardens increase air quality - indoors and outdoors," received the most neutral responses from participants, with 51 respondents indicating a neutral stance. State any one inference that can be drawn from this.   (1)

vi. Select the option that correctly displays what ‘intertwined’ signifies. (Reference-Paragraph 2)   (1)

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)
  1. (i), (iv) and (v)
  2. Only (ii)
  3. Only (iii)
  4. (ii) and (v)

vii. Infer one benefit and one drawback of vertical gardening in comparison to other solutions, such as community gardens or parks. (Answer in about 40 words)      (2)

viii. Which of the following is the main takeaway from the study mentioned in the passage?     (1)

  1. Vertical gardening has minimal impact on the environment or human well-being.
  2. Vertical gardening is a sustainable practice that can transform urban spaces into green areas.
  3. The impact of vertical gardening on the environment and human well-being has already been thoroughly explored.
  4. The study needs to include experts from horticultural firms to offer any recommendations for further research.

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

(1) Hiking is a great source of pleasure to us besides being beneficial for health. Once we leave the crowded streets of a city and go out for a walking tour away from the mad world, we really feel free. The open air has a bracing effect on the mind. The congestion of the city, the uproar and tumult, the intolerable noise of traffic, the hectic daily routine, all these are forgotten and the mind is at ease. We then feel like running, leaping, singing and laughing. We travel merrily mile after mile in the company of friends and associates.
(2) Hiking takes us in the midst of nature. The sight of waterfalls, flowers, streams, trees and bushes is pleasing. A connect is established between us and nature. Various sounds of nature, like the murmur of a brook or the song of a bird, acquire a new meaning and significance of us.
(3) You enjoy the beauty of nature. Minute observations like a snake casting its slough, a mouse peeping out of its hole, a squirrel leaping about on the branches of a tree, a bird flying past as, all these are noticed and they arouse our interest. We have no business worries, no fear of the examination, no anxiety about the home. We have leisure to stand, to walk and talk. It is more thrilling and pleasurable to hike. in a mountainous region than in the plains. The excitement of climbing up to the top of a hill, the adventure of corning down a slope, the grandeur of sunset behind a mountain - All these sights. lend a rare charm and interest to our journey.
(4) We walk along a zigzag motor road or cut across a mountain path in search of adventure. We may have bright sunny weather or might get caught in a shower of rain. We may look below us into the yawning chasm or up at the mountain peak. The feeling of unlimited freedom makes our hearts leap with joy.
(5) Hiking is one of the healthiest sports. It ensure a complete escape from the urgent and busy activities of life and therefore gives solace to our brain. It regains its lost energy and is able to do twice as much work as before.
(6) The fresh air, beautiful mountains, majestic trees, chirping sound of birds make one's mind and soul at peace with nature.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions below:

  1. To go out for a walking tour is ______.     (1)
    1. to stroll.
    2. to ramble.
    3. to hike.
    4. to saunter.
  2. Why does the writer say that the mind is at ease when you hike?       (1)
    1. because hiking is an inexpensive activity.
    2. because it brings families together
    3. because of intolerable noise of traffic.
    4. because the depressing daily routine is forgotten.
  3. Complete the following with a phrase:      (1)
    The various sounds of nature acquire ______.
  4. Infer one reason for the following based on information in paragraph 2.     (1)
    A contact is established between us and nature.
  5. Complete the following analogy correctly with a word from paragraph 2.       (1)
    Aroma : cooking : fragrance : ______.
  6. Given one reason why it is a pleasure to hike in the mountains than in the plains.         (1)
    1. because observation is sharpened.
    2. because of the excitement of climbing up and adventure of coming down.
    3. because it is leisure to stand, to walk.
    4. because there are no worries.
  7. Hiking gives the brain, the rest it needs because ______.       (1)
    1. it is a short time activity.
    2. it is one of the heathiest sports.
    3. it makes up sleep peacefully.
    4. it is an escape from our busy schedule.
  8. List any two example of minute observations you make while on a hike.         (1)
  9. Supply one point to justify the following:        (1)
    Hiking gives us a feeling of unlimited joy.
  10. Substitute the word 'leap with joy' with one word similar in meaning in the following sentence from the passage.    (1)
    The feeling of unlimited freedom makes our hearts leap with joy.

Read the extract given below:

(1) Necessity is indeed the mother of invention. When areas in and around Leh began to experience water shortages, life didn't grind to a halt. Why? Because a retired civil engineer in the Jammu and Kashmir Government came up with the idea of artificial glaciers.
(2) Ladakh, a cold desert at an altitude of 3,000 - 3,500 meters above sea level, has a low average annual rainfall rate of 50 mm. Glaciers have always been the only source of water. Agriculture is completely dependent on glacier melt, unlike the rest of river/monsoon-fed India. But over the years, with increasing effects of climate change, rainfall and snowfall patterns have been changing, resulting in severe shortage and drought situations. Given the extreme winter conditions, the window for farming is usually limited to one harvest season.
(3) It is located between the natural glacier above and the village below. The one closer to the village and lowest in altitude melts first, providing water during April-May, the crucial sowing season. Further, layers of ice above melt with the increasing temperature, thus ensuring continuous supply to the fields. 

Therefore, farmers have been able to manage two crops instead of one. It costs about 1,50,000 and above to create a glacier.

(4)

Fondly called the glacier man, he has designed over 15 artificial glaciers in and around Leh since 1987. In recognition of his pioneering effort, he was conferred the Padma Shri by The President of India.

(5)

There are a few basic steps followed while creating an artificial glacier. River or stream water at high altitude is diverted to a shaded area of the hill, facing north, where the winter sun is blocked by a ridge or a mountain range. At the start of winter ie., in November, the diverted water is made to flow on sloping hills facing distribution channels. Stone embankments are built at regular intervals which impede the flow of water, making shallow pools which freeze, forming a cascade of ice along the slope. Ice formation continues for 3-4 months resulting in a large accumulation of ice which is referred to as an ‘artificial glacier’.

Based on your understanding of the extract, answer the questions below:

  1. Infer one reason for, the following, based on information in paragraph 1.       (1)
    Areas in and around Leh began to experience water shortage but life didn't grind to a halt.
  2. Select from the passage the appropriate option to fill in the blanks:     (1)
    Agriculture is completely dependent on ______ unlike the rest of river/monsoon-fed India.
    1. rainfall pattern
    2. climate change
    3. glaciers melt
    4. extreme winter conditions
  3. Complete the following analogy correctly with a word/phrase from paragraph 3:       (1)
    Icing : cake :: layers : ______.
  4. Select the correct option to complete the following sentence:       (1)
    At the start of winter the diverted water is made to flow ______.
    1. on sloping hills facing distribution channels.
    2. on high altitude.
    3. on ice-cold water level.
    4. on mountain range.
  5. From the chart select the months of water surplus.    (1)
    1. January, February.
    2. November, December.
    3. July, August, September.
    4. March, April
  6. Fill in the blank by selecting from the passage the correct option:     (1)
    The ______ have been the only source of water in areas in and around Ladakh.
    1. glaciers
    2. rivers
    3. streams
    4. water springs
  7. The word 'located' in paragraph 3 means:       (1)
    1. found
    2. locally found
    3. situated
    4. adapted
  8. Write any two steps followed while creating the glaciers.      (1)
  9. List one reason why artificial glaciers seem the best option.      (1)
  10. Select the most suitable title from the following for the passage:    (1)
    1. Water Shortage.
    2. New Ways Pool Water.
    3. Artificial Glacier.
    4. River Beds.

Read the following text.

 

Arthur lay in his cabin, still trying to piece together the events of the last few hours. He had watched his home planet of Earth be demolished to make way for a hyperspace bypass, been saved by his friend Ford, and then whisked away on a ship that was powered by an "infinite improbability drive." It was all too much for him.

5.

Just then, Ford stuck his head around the door.
"Hey, Earthman," he said, "come and have a look at this."
Arthur stumbled after him down a corridor and into the ship's control room. He gazed in amazement at the banks of controls and flashing lights. In the center of the room was a large console covered in buttons and switches, and in the middle of the console was a small, white mouse.

10

"What's that?" asked Arthur.
"That's the ship's computer," said Ford.
Arthur stared at the mouse. "That's a computer?" he said.
"Yup," said Ford. "Five-dimensional, biologically-based, super intelligent, and in the form of a white lab mouse. Pretty neat, huh?"

15

"I don't know," said Arthur. "I don't think I really understand anything anymore. Why is a mouse the ship's computer?"
"It's a long story," said Ford. "But the short version is that the mice built the Earth as a giant computer to figure out the Ultimate Question of Life, the Universe, and Everything. Then they ran out of money and had to destroy it to make way for a hyperspace bypass. So now they're using the Heart of Gold to finish the calculation."

20

Arthur was about to say something, but at that moment the ship's intercom crackled to life.
"Good evening, Heart of Gold," said a smooth, computerized voice. "This is Eddie, your shipboard computer. I'm feeling a bit depressed today. Would you like me to sing you a song?"
"Oh, not again," groaned Ford.

25

"Eddie, would you mind shutting up?" said Arthur.
Arthur sighed and leaned back against the console, trying to make sense of everything. But as he closed his eyes, he heard a voice inside his head.
"Hello?" it said.
Arthur jumped, startled. "Who's there?" he said.

30

"It's me," said the voice. "Marvin."
"Marvin?" said Arthur. "Who's Marvin?"
"The Paranoid Android," said the voice.
Arthur looked around, but he didn't see anyone. "Where are you?" he said.
"I'm down here," said the voice.

35

Arthur looked down and saw a small, metal figure shuffling across the floor. It was about three feet tall, with a round head and a body that looked like it had been cobbled together from spare parts. Its eyes were a dull red, and its voice was a monotone.
"I've been waiting for someone to talk to me for over two million years," said Marvin.

Answer the following questions, based on the passage above.

  1. Select the option that classifies Arthur's confusion about drastic events such as the destruction of his home planet and the introduction of new technologies, correctly.      (1)
    1. Routine and boredom
    2. Adventure and excitement
    3. Loss and change
    4. Calm and relaxation
  2. What is the significance of the white lab mouse in the control room of the Heart of Gold spaceship?     (1)
    1. It is the captain of the ship
    2. It serves as the ship's computer
    3. It is a pet of the crew
    4. It is used for scientific experiments
  3. Share evidence from the text, in about 40 words to support the view that the writer’s writing style is descriptive and humourous.     (2)
  4. Complete the sentence appropriately with a characteristic or its description.    (1)
    Based on the information given in the excerpt, one can infer that the mice who built the Earth are ______.
  5. Select the option that is similar in meaning to Ford’s expression, “Pretty neat, huh?".     (1)
    1. Easy, isn’t it?
    2. Could be worse, no?
    3. Impressive, yes?
    4. Too difficult for you?
  6. Explain, in about 40 words, why the name "The Paranoid Android" is considered ironic.       (2)
  7. In the line, “…a body that looked like it had been cobbled together from spare parts…”, what comparison does the word “cobbled” refer to?      (1)
  8. How does the following, impact the reader, even though they know Marvin is just an android?      (2)
    "I've been waiting for someone to talk to me for over two million years," said Marvin. Answer in about 40 words.
  9. Read the five headlines (a) -(e), given below:        (1)
    (a) HUMANITY'S JOURNEY WITNESSED BY A DEPRESSED ROBOT
    (b) HITCHHIKING THROUGH SPACE: A COMICAL TAKE ON THE END OF THE WORLD
    (c) NEW STUDY FINDS ALIENS LIVING AMONG US
    (d) GROUNDBREAKING TECHNOLOGY WILL SOON ENABLE TIME TRAVEL
    (e) INTERGALACTIC TRAVEL VIA NEW INFINITE IMPROBABILITY DRIVE
    Identify the option that displays the headline/s that DOES/ DO NOT correspond with occurrences in the passage.
    1. Only (a)
    2. (b) (c) and (d)
    3. Only (e)
    4. (a) and (e)

Read the following text.

(1) In recent years, there has been a surge in both group and solo travel among young adults in India. A survey conducted among young adults aged 18-25 aimed to explore the reasons behind their travel preferences and recorded the percentage variation for 10 common points that influence travel choices.
(2) Among those who prefer solo travel, the most common reason cited was the desire for independence and freedom (58%), followed closely by the opportunity for introspection and self-discovery (52%). Additionally, solo travellers appreciated the ability to customize their itinerary to their preferences (44%) and the chance to meet new people on their own terms (36%).
(3) On the other hand, those who prefer group travel often cited the desire for socializing and making new friends (61%) as their primary reason. Group travel also provided a sense of security and safety in unfamiliar places (52%) and allowed for shared experiences and memories with others (48%). Additionally, group travellers enjoyed the convenience of having pre-planned itineraries and organized transportation (38%).
(4) Interestingly, both groups had similar levels of interest in exploring new cultures and trying new experiences (40% for solo travellers, 36% for group travellers). Similarly, both groups valued the opportunity to relax and escape from the stresses of everyday life (36% for solo travellers, 32% for group travellers).
(5) However, there were also some notable differences between the two groups. For example, solo travellers placed a higher priority on budget-friendly travel options (38%) compared to group travellers (24%). Conversely, group travellers were more likely to prioritize luxury and comfort during their travels (28%) compared to solo travellers (12%).
(6) Overall, the survey results suggest that both group and solo travel have their own unique advantages and appeal to different individuals, based on their preferences and priorities.

Answer the following questions, based on given passage.

  1. Infer two possible ways that the survey, mentioned in paragraph (1) could be beneficial. Answer in about 40 words.     (2)
  2. Which travel choice point of the survey would influence tour operators to incorporate group dinners, social events, and shared accommodations in their itinerary?    (1)
    1. Freedom to customise itinerary
    2. Luxury and comfort
    3. Security and safety
    4. Desire for making new friends
  3. What do the top choices in the survey, for travelling solo and in a group suggest about young adults?   (1)
  4. Identify the solo traveller from the following three travellers:      (1)
    1. Reshma- I don’t want to keep hunting for rickshaws or taxis. A pre-booked vehicle is perfect.
    2. Nawaz-I’m happy sharing a room in a hostel. I don’t need hotel accommodation.
    3. Deepak-I’m not worried about my well-being, even while exploring remote areas.
  5. Which of the following is an example of an opportunity for self-discovery, as mentioned in paragraph 2?      (1)
    1. Trying new cuisine
    2. Hiring a tour guide
    3. Purchasing local artifacts
    4. Advance booking travel tickets
  6. How might the differences in budget priorities between solo and group travellers impact the types of accommodations and activities offered by the travel industry in India?      (2)
  7. Complete the sentence appropriately. The similarities in the percentage of both solo and group travellers who are interested in exploring new cultures and trying new experiences may be due to ______.     (1)
  8. State TRUE or FALSE.    (1)
    The title, "Wanderlust: The Solo Travel Trend Among Young Adults in India", is appropriate for this passage.

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

1. The man with the white face entered the carriage at Rugby. He moved slowly in spite of the urgency of his porter, and even while he was still on the platform I noted how ill he seemed. He dropped into the corner over against me with a sigh, made an incomplete attempt to arrange his travelling shawl and became motionless, with his eyes staring vacantly. Presently he was moved by a sense of my observation, looked up at me, and put out a spiritless hand for his newspaper. Then he glanced again in my direction. I feigned to read. I feared I had unwittingly embarrassed him, and in a moment I
was surprised to find him speaking.
2. "I beg your pardon?" said I.
"That book," he repeated, pointing a lean finger, "is about dreams."
"Obviously," I answered, for it was Fortnum Roscoe's Dream States, and the title was on the cover.
He hung silent for a space as if he sought words.
"Yes," he said at last, "but they tell you nothing."
I did not catch his meaning for a second.
"They don't know," he added. I looked a little more attentively at his face.
"There are dreams," he said, "and dreams."
That sort of proposition I never dispute.
"I suppose--" he hesitated. "Do you ever dream? I mean vividly."
"I dream very little," I answered. "I doubt if I have three vivid dreams in a year."
"Ah!" he said and seemed for a moment to collect his thoughts.
"Your dreams don't mix with your memories?" he asked abruptly.
"You don't find yourself in doubt; did this happen or did it not?"
"Hardly ever. Except just for a momentary hesitation now and then. I suppose few people do."
"Does he say--?" He indicated the book.
"Says it happens at times and gives the usual explanation about intensity of impression and the like to
account for its not happening as a rule. I suppose you know something of these theories--"
"Very little--except that they are wrong."
3. His emaciated hand played with the strap of the window for a time. I prepared to resume reading, and that seemed to precipitate his next remark. He leant forward almost as though he would touch me.
"Isn't there something called consecutive dreaming--that goes on night after night?"
"I believe there is. There are cases given in most books on mental trouble."
"Mental trouble! Yes. I daresay there are. It's the right place for them. But what I mean--" He looked at his
bony knuckles. "Is that sort of thing always dreaming? Is it dreaming?
Or is it something else? Mightn't it be something else?"
4. I should have snubbed his persistent conversation but for the
drawn anxiety of his face. I remember now the look of his faded eyes and the lids red stained--perhaps you know that look.
"I'm not just arguing about a matter of opinion," he said.
"The thing's killing me."
"Dreams?"
"If you call them dreams. Night after night. Vivid!—so vivid . . . this--" (he indicated the landscape that went streaming by the window) "seems unreal in comparison! I can scarcely remember who I am, what business I am on . . . ."He paused. "Even now--"
"The dream is always the same--do you mean?" I asked.
"It's over."
"You mean?"
"I died."
"Died?"
5. "Smashed and killed, and now, so much of me as that dream was, is dead. Dead forever. I dreamt I was another man, you know, living in a different part of the world and in a different time. I dreamt that night after night. Night after night I woke into that other life. Fresh scenes and fresh happenings--until I came upon the last--"
"When you died?"
"When I died."
"And since then--"
"No," he said. "Thank God! That was the end of the dream.. . "
6. It was clear I was in for this dream. And after all, I had an hour before me, the light was fading fast, and Fortnum Roscoe has a dreary way with him. "Living in a different time," I said: "do you mean in some different age?"
"Yes."
"Past?"
"No, to come--to come."
"The year three thousand, for example?"
"I don't know what year it was. I did when I was asleep, when I was dreaming, that is, but not now--not now that I am awake.
There's a lot of things I have forgotten since I woke out of these dreams, though I knew them at the time when I was--I suppose it was dreaming. They called the year differently from our way of calling the year . . . What did they call it?" He put his hand to his forehead. "No," said he, "I forget." He sat smiling weakly. For a moment I feared he did not mean to tell me his dream. As a rule, I hate people who tell their dreams, but this struck me differently. I proffered assistance even. "It began--" I suggested.
7. "It was vivid from the first. I seemed to wake up in it suddenly. And it's curious that in these dreams I am speaking of I never remembered this life I am living now. It seemed as if the dream life was enough while it lasted. Perhaps--But I will tell you how I find myself when I do my best to recall it all. I don't remember anything clearly until I found myself sitting in a sort of loggia looking out over the sea. I had been dozing, and suddenly I woke up--fresh and vivid--not a bit dreamlike—because the girl had stopped fanning me."

On the basis of your reading of the above excerpt, choose the correct option to answer the following questions:

  1. How did the man with the white face behave as he entered the carriage?     (1)
    1. Excited and enthusiastic
    2. Scared
    3. Excited and nervous
    4. showed no enthusiasm
  2. What was the name of the book which the narrator was reading?     (1)
    1. Fortnum Roscoe's Dream States
    2. Dream States
    3. Dreams of the States
    4. State of the Dream
  3. What was the man’s opinion about the theory of dreams given in the narrator’s book?     (1)
    1. He felt that it was all correct.
    2. He felt the book painted a wrong picture.
    3. He felt that the book explained nothing.
    4. He felt that the book was confusing.
  4. Statement 1: The narrator couldn’t snub the man’s conversation.
    Statement 2: The man with the white face looked anxious.      (1)
    1. Both 1 & 2 are correct and 2 is the reason for 1.
    2. Both 1 & 2 are correct and 2 is not the reason for 1.
    3. 1 is correct and 2 is incorrect.
    4. Both 1 & 2 are incorrect.
  5. What is NOT the reason for narrator being interested in listening to the man’s description of his last dream?    (1)
    1. The man’s dream was about an alien.
    2. It was getting dark.
    3. The narrator had still an hour’s journey left.
    4. His book was getting boring.
  6. What did the man NOT say about the last dream which he had?      (1)
    1. It was a dream which wasn’t clear.
    2. He was sitting in the loggia.
    3. His last dream was very clear.
    4. He would wake up in these dreams suddenly.
  7. Which of the following is NOT true for the Man with the white face?      (1)
    1. He moved around slowly.
    2. He looked sickly.
    3. He didn’t want to talk about his dream.
    4. He didn’t believe in theories of Fortnum Roscoe's Dream States.
  8.  "I dream very little," I answered. "I doubt if I have three vivid dreams in a year. This line highlights that the narrator did not –     (1)
    1. Have normal dreams.
    2. Good sleep pattern.
    3. Give much importance to the science behind dreams.
    4. like talking to the man with the white face.
  9. How does the use of vivid and descriptive language in the passage enhance the reader's understanding of the man's experience?       (1)
  10. Complete the sentence appropriately.       (1)
    It is fair to say that the man's experience of consecutive dreaming is similar with being lost in a maze because ______.
  11. Choose the right answer which explains the phrase:       (1)
    He hung silent for a space as if he sought words.
    1. he was at a loss of words.
    2. he was indecisive.
    3. he was left hanging because of his indecisiveness.
    4. he stayed silent for some time as if he searched for words.
  12. State whether the following opinion is TRUE or FALSE.     (1)
    The author implies that memory and consciousness are not objective, but rather are shaped by our subjective experiences and perceptions.
  13. What does the man with the white face, most likely mean by "there are dreams, and dreams"? (Reference - paragraph 2)     (1)
  14. What do the man's "vacant" stare and "spiritless" hand suggest about his condition?      (1)
  15. In paragraph 2, the narrator says, “I did not catch his meaning for a second.”
    Which of the following expressions correctly display the usage of “catch”?      (1)
    1. catch a glimpse
    2. catch a hunger
    3. catch an anger
    4. catch a skill

Read the passage given below.

Most cities, may not be prohibit hawking as a profession, but do place restrictions on the use of urban space. Therefore, a comprehensive study was conducted in 1998-99 on street vending, to provide concrete data for furthering the cause of the hawkers.

Eight cities were selected - Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Kolkata, Imphal, Patna, Bhubaneswar and Bangalore.

Three points were important while selecting respondents –hawkers were from different parts of a city; sold a variety of goods and adequate numbers of women were covered. The questionnaire was included questions on personal details, details regarding the work and the hazards faced.

Table: Results of the survey

It is fair to say that hawkers cannot be removed, because apart from their own livelihood, their services benefit the common urban dweller.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the given questions.

  1. Fill in the blank by selecting the appropriate option.        1
    The study aims to ______ the practice of street vending in urban spaces.
    1. support
    2. discourage
    3. understand
    4. prove
  2. Jagan goes door to door with his basket of goods to sell bananas in the city. What action from his end would lead to a prohibition on hawking?       1
  3. State TRUE or FALSE.      1
    The following question could have been a part of the study survey.
    What are the challenges presented by the security guards?
  4. Complete the sentence appropriately.       1
    The most preferred form of source of capital, according to the survey table, exposes the hawkers to exploitation because ______.
  5. State a point in support for the given opinion:      1   
    Street vending must be legalised as a profession.

Read the passage given below:

(1) When we think of the game of cricket, we come to the conclusion that it is primarily a game that depends on outstanding physical activities, good hand-eye coordination, speed, skill and strength. It provides entertainment and generates strong feelings of excitement. A good match of cricket or of any other game neither adds to the existing stock of human knowledge nor reveals any secret of existence. It does not carry any deep meaning but most people, particularly the lover of sports attach deep emotions and numerous meanings to it. Games are thought of as a metaphor for life. They are supposed to teach many lessons. In fact, more is said and written about a cricket match than about scientific findings or great philosophy.
(2) This is because games, like a morality play, in which settings and rules are made by us, can easily make people test their fair and foul conduct, principles of reward and punishment, and emotions of joy and disappointment. They can make us experience the thrill of war without exposing us to its dangers. A man watching a cricket match on T.V. and munching popcorn is like a surrogate warrior. In fact, games provide us with a safe outlet for our aggressiveness.
If games become aggressive, they lose the very purpose of providing entertainment and purging us of our aggressiveness. They can calm our impatience without creating any conflict.
(3) Commentators, journalists, politicians and analysts can do a great favour to the competing teams by keeping the excitement within limits. The teams should play without being dominated by feelings of national honour and shame. Excellent performance of the players of both teams should be enjoyed and appreciated.
Winning or losing in a game should not be taken seriously. A game is fun if it is played with true spirit of sportsmanship.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below:

  1. Complete the sentence by choosing an appropriate option: (1)
    Most people conclude that cricket is primarily a game because ______.
    1. it is played as a match
    2. it requires two teams
    3. it includes physical activity
    4. it depends only on skill and strength.
  2. Comment on the writer's reference to 'that cricket does not reveal any secret of existence. (1)
  3. List two responses to which watching a game of cricket gives rise to. (1)
  4. Select the option that conveys the opposite of 'destroy' from words used in the passage. (1)
    1. reveals
    2. experience
    3. generate
    4. purging
  5. The writer would not agree with the given statements based on paragraph 2, EXCEPT (1)
    1. Rules of any game are made by people.
    2. Watching a cricket match makes the viewer believe that he is fighting a battle.
    3. It is necessary for a game to be aggressive in order to build excitement.
    4. A game can test people's sense of fair judgement.
  6. With reference to the passage, a spectator is compared to a 'surrogate warrior'. (1)
    Choose the option that best describes this phrase:
    1. a spectator who is paid to watch.
    2. a spectator who is in pain while watching the match.
    3. a spectator who enjoys the match as an armchair soldier.
    4. a spectator who makes judgments about reward and punishment.
  7. Why does the writer compare games to a morality play? (1)
  8. Complete the given sentence with an appropriate inference with respect to the following: (1)
    The writer says that games can calm our impatience without creating any conflict by ______.
  9. The writer advises the players that games should not become aggressive because ______. (1)
  10. Select the most suitable title for the above passage. (1)
    1. Excellent Performance by Cricketers
    2. The Benefits of Playing Cricket
    3. Cricket - The King of Games
    4. The True Spirit of Playing Games

Read the following report and answer the questions by choosing the correct/most appropriate option:

(1)

How bird hits happen, why they are a concern?

New Delhi June 20

At least two bird strike incidents happened on Sunday. Both aircrafts returned to their airports of origin and were grounded for maintenance. An ABC aircraft, which took off from Guwahati towards Delhi, suffered damage to its left engine following a bird hit at 1600 feet. The pilots returned to Guwahati. The other strike happened on another flight from Patna to Delhi. The pilots of the aircraft suspected a bird strike during the take-off roll but continued to climb. Following the take-off rotation, they were informed by the cabin crew of sparks emanating from the left engine. Subsequently, the pilots were also informed by air traffic control of smoke coming out of one of the engines. The pilots declared an emergency and returned to Patna.

(2)

Why are bird strikes a concern?

Bird strikes are among the most common threats to aircraft safety, and they typically occur during take-off or landing. Dozens of bird-strikes happen each day but some can be more dangerous than others. Typically, when birds collide with an aircraft's airframe, it is unlikely to cause significant problems for the pilots flying. But there are instances when the aircraft engine ingests the birds. This can lead to a loss of thrust for the engine and cause manoeuvrability problems for the crew. In these cases, where a jet engine ingests a bird, procedures would generally call for pilots to land the plane at the closest airport. While most airframe bird strikes are not considered critical to air safety, if a collision cracks a window or a wind screen, pilots will look to land as early as possible.

(3)

How critical are bird strikes to air safety?

Smaller planes would generally be more susceptible to the dangers of bird strikes than larger ones.

However, given that bird strikes mostly happen during take-off and landing, these incidents could distract the pilots during what are highly critical phases of flights that demand the complete attention of the crew.

(4)

What causes bird-strikes?

The presence of birds around an aircraft increases the chances of a bird strike. In the monsoon, as water puddles emerge on open grounds attracting insects to breed, the presence of birds increases. In some cases, bird hits also happen at higher altitudes when a plane is cruising. These are more dangerous than the low-altitude hits, given that they can cause rapid depressurization of cabins. Other reasons for bird activity around the airfield could be presence of landfills or waste disposal sites that can attract a large number of birds.

  1. Does the following statement agree with the information given in paragraph 1? (1)
    When an airplane is hit by a bird or is suspected to have been hit, the passengers must be asked to get down at once.
    Select from the following:
    True: If the statement agrees with the information.
    False: If the statement contradicts the information.
    Not Given: If there is no information on this.
  2. Select the option that displays the most likely reason for bird hits. (1)
    1. when the aircraft is overloaded
    2. at the time of landing or taking off
    3. when the crew become negligent
    4. when the passengers become panicky
  3. Complete the sentence appropriately with one word. (1)
    Smaller planes are generally more ______ than larger ones.
  4. Complete the sentence by selecting the most appropriate option: (1)
    When the window or the windscreen of the airplane is cracked due to a bird hit ______.
    1. the crew must rush to the cockpit
    2. the pilot must land at the earliest airport
    3. the pilot must inform the maintenance engineer
    4. the pilot must get instructions from the aviation wing on what should do in emergency
  5. Based on the reading of the text, state a point to further the statement. (1)
    Dozens of bird hits take place every day ______.
    1. but only a few are dangerous
    2. all of them are fatal
    3. but after every bird hit it is imperative to land the aircraft
    4. the pilot should ignore them
  6. Complete the sentence based on the following statement: (1)
    Complete attention of the crew is demanded during take-off and landing.
    We can say this because ______.
  7. Complete the sentence appropriately with one/two words. (1)
    In cases where the aircraft engine infests the bird, it leads to the loss of thrust and causes problems in ______.
  8. Which are the areas more prone to bird hits? (1)
  9. Based on the reading of the text, state a point to challenge the given statement: (1)
    The area around air fields should be clear of any waste disposal sites.
  10. Look at the graph. It shows that between 2016 and 2021, whereas air flights have come down, the bird-hits have gone up. This implies that the incidence of bird hits has: (1)
    1. decreased
    2. increased
    3. remained constant
    4. been alarming

Read the passage given below:

(1) Seagulls, as you know, never falter, never stall. To stall in the air is for them a disgrace and a dishonour. But Jonathan Livingston Seagull, unashamed, stretching his wings again in that trembling hard curve – slowing, slowing, and stalling once more –was no ordinary bird. Most gulls don't bother to learn more than the simplest facts of flight – how to get from shore to food and back again. For most gulls, it is not flying that matters, but eating. For this gull, though, it was not eating that mattered, but flight. More than anything else, Jonathan Livingston Seagull loved to fly.
(2) This kind of thinking, he found, is not the way to make oneself popular with other birds. Even his parents were dismayed as Jonathan spent the whole day alone, making hundreds of low-level gliders, experimenting. "Why, Jon, why?" his mother asked. "Why is it so hard to be like the rest of the flock, Jon? Why can't you leave low flying to the pelicans, the albatross? Why don't you eat? Son, you're bone and feathers!" "I don't mind being bone and feathers, Mom. I just want to know what I can do in the air and what I can't, that's all. I just want to know." "See here Jonathan," said his father, not unkindly. "Winter isn't far away. Boats will be few, and the surface fish will be swimming deep. If you must study, then study food, and how to get it. This flying business is all very well, but you can't eat a glide, you know. Don't you forget that the reason you fly is to eat?"
(3) Jonathan nodded obediently. For the next few days, he tried to behave like the other gulls; he really tried, screeching and fighting with the flock around the piers and fishing boats, diving on scraps of fish and bread. But he couldn't make it work. It wasn't long before Jonathan Gull was off by himself again, far out at sea, hungry, happy, learning. The subject was speed and in a week's practice he learned more about speed than the fastest gull alive. Time after time it happened. Careful as he was, working at the very peak of his ability, he lost control at a high speed. The key, he thought at last, dripping wet, must be to hold the wings still at high speeds – to flap up to fifty and then hold the wings still.
(4) From two thousand feet he tried again, rolling into his dive, beak straight down, wings full out and stable from the moment he passed fifty miles per hour. It took tremendous strength, but it worked. In ten seconds he had blurred ninety miles per hour. Jonathan had set a world speed record for seagulls! But victory was short-lived. The instant he began his pullout, the instant he changed the angle of his wings, he snapped into the same uncontrollable disaster, and at ninety miles per hour, it hit him like dynamite. Jonathan Seagull exploded in midair and smashed down into a brick-hard sea. As he sank low in the water, a strange hollow voice sounded within him. There's no way around it. I am a seagull. I am limited by my nature. If I were meant to learn so much about flying, I'd have charts for brains. If I were meant to fly at speed, I'd have a falcon's short wings. Short wings. A falcon's short wings! That's the answer! What a fool I've been! All I need is a tiny little wing, all I need is to fold most of my wings and just fly on the tips along. Short wings!

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below:

  1. Complete the sentence by choosing an appropriate option: (1)
    Majority of seagulls fly only short distances as ______.
    1. they are more interested in food than flight
    2. they don't have energy
    3. they are not meant to fly low
    4. food is not available at high speed
  2. Why were Jonathan Livingston's parents' dismayed? (1)
  3. Give two reasons for Jonathan's unconventional behaviour. (1)
    (Clue: think about Jonathan's point of view.)
  4. Select the option that conveys the opposite of 'glory' from the words used in paragraph 1. (1)
    1. disgrace
    2. dishonour
    3. learning
    4. unashamed
  5. The writer would not agree with the given statements based on paragraph 2, EXCEPT (1)
    1. Jonathan could not fly but only glide.
    2. Jonathan wanted to be popular with other birds.
    3. Jonathan realised that even the albatross flew at high altitudes.
    4. The reason seagulls flew was to find food.
  6. Jonathan was different, from other seagulls. Based on your understanding of paragraph 2, list what Jonathan wanted to know. (1)
  7. What was the mother's concern about Jonathan? (1)
  8. Complete the given sentence with an appropriate inference with respect to the following: (1)
    Father reminds Jonathan that he 'can't eat a glide' in order to ______.
  9. It, wasn't long before Jonathan Gull was off by himself again, far out at sea. Which trait of Jonathan does this statement reveal? (1)
    1. practical bird
    2. persistent learner
    3. lonely and sad
    4. carefree and irresponsible
  10. Was it fair to fly like a falcon when he was just a seagull? Why does he say so? (1)

Read the passage given below:

(1) Fast-Moving Consumer Goods (FMCG) are products that sell quickly at relatively low cost. FMCG is the fourth-largest sector in the Indian economy. There are three main segments in the sector – food and beverages, which accounts for 19% of the sector; healthcare, which accounts for 31% of the share; and household and personal care, which accounts for the remaining 50% share. The urban segment contributes to about 55% of the revenue share, while the rural segment accounts for 45%. Rise in rural consumption will drive the FMCG market. The Indian processed food market is projected to expand to US\[\$\] 470 billion by 2025, up from US\[\$\] 263 billion in 2019-20.
(2) The Indian FMCG industry grew by 16% in 2021, a 9-year high, despite nationwide lockdowns, supported by consumption-led growth and value expansion from higher product prices, particularly for staples. Real household spending is projected to increase 9.1% after 2021, after a decrease of 9.3% in 2020 due to the economic impact of the pandemic. Price increases across product categories will offset the impact of rising raw material prices, along with volume growth and a resurgence of demand for discretionary items.
(3) The FMCG sector has received good investments and support from the Government in the recent past. The sector witnessed healthy FDI inflows from April 2000-March 2022. Furthermore, as per the Union Budget 2022-23, a substantial amount has been allocated to the Department of Consumer Affairs, and an increased amount has been allocated to the Department of Food and Public Distribution. In 2021-22, the Government approved the Production-Linked Incentive Scheme for the Food Processing Industry (PLISFPI) with an outlay of a larger amount to help Indian brands of food products in the international markets.
(4) The Government's Production-Linked Incentive (PLI) Scheme gives companies a major opportunity to boost exports. The future outlook of the FMCG rural sector looks on track now. Rural consumption has increased, led by a combination of increasing income and higher aspiration levels. There is an increased demand for branded products in rural India. The growth of the organised sector in FMCG is expected to rise with an increased level of brand consciousness, augmented by the growth in modem retail.
Table. FMCG Products
1. Processed foods: Cheese products, cereals
2. Prepared meals: Ready-to-eat meals
3. Beverages: Bottled water, aerated drinks, and juices
4. Baked goods: Biscuits, bread
5. Fresh foods, frozen foods, and dry goods: Fruits, vegetables, milk, butter, frozen food, and nuts
6. Medicines: Aspirin, pain relievers, and over-the-counter medication that can be purchased without a prescription
7. Cleaning products: Baking soda, washing powder
8. Cosmetics and toiletries: Beauty products, soaps, toothpaste
9. Office supplies: Pens, pencils

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer the questions given below:

  1. Does the following statement agree with the information given in para 1? (1)
    Food and beverages segment dominates the Global FMCG market and is expected to retain its dominance.
    Select from the following:
    1. True - If the statement agrees with the information.
    2. False - If the statement contradicts the information.
    3. Not Given - If there is no information on this.
  2. What do you think gives opportunities to boost exports? (1)
  3. Select the option that displays the most likely reason for FMCG rural sector being on track. (1)
    1. FMCG sector has been unable to get investments from the government.
    2. PLI schemes don't reach the rural sector.
    3. Gross Merchandise Value (GMV) of the online grocery segment in India is expected to double in the next five years.
    4. There is a desire to buy branded products in the villages too.
  4. Complete the sentence based on the following statement: (1)
    The Indian FMCG industry grew by 16% in 2021, a 9-year high, despite nationwide lockdowns because ______.
  5. From the given pie chart, which segment of FMCG accounts for the maximum percentage of the sector? (1)
  6. Complete the given sentence by selecting the most appropriate option: (1)
    The combination of increasing income and higher aspiration levels in the rural areas has led to ______.
    1. the Government taking a direct interest
    2. the demand for branded products
    3. price increases across product categories
    4. the fall of supply in urban areas
  7. How is the Government trying to help Indian brands of food products in the international markets? (1)
  8. Complete the given sentence by selecting the most appropriate option: (1)
    The concluding paragraph of the passage makes a clear case ______.
    1. that the rural people also want branded products
    2. that the FMCG industry will not focus on brand consciousness
    3. for the role of data analytics in the FMCG industry
    4. for the Government's role by providing incentives
  9. What will be the impact of the increased level of brand consciousness? (1)
  10. Based on the reading of the passage, correct the following statement: (1)
    The urban segment contributes to about 45% of the revenue share, while the rural segment accounts for 55%.

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

This is what Camus meant when he said that "what gives value to travel is fear"-disruption, in other words, (or emancipation) from circumstance, and all the habits behind which we hide. And that is why many of us travel not in search of answers, but of better questions. I, like many people, tend to ask questions of the places I visit, and relish most the ones that ask the most searching questions back of me: "The ideal travel book," Christopher Isherwood once said, "should be perhaps a little like a crime story in which you're in search of something." And it's the best kind of something, I would add, if it's one that you can never quite find.

I remember, in fact, after my first trips to Southeast Asia, more than a decade ago, how I would come back to my apartment in New York, and lie in my bed, kept up by something more than jet lag, playing back, in my memory, over and over, all that I had experienced, and paging wistfully through my photographs and reading and re-reading my. diaries, as if to extract some mystery from them. Anyone witnessing this strange scene would have drawn the right conclusion: I was in love.

When we go abroad is that we are objects of scrutiny as much as the people we scrutinize, and we are being consumed by the cultures we consume, as much on the road as when we are at home. At the very least, we are objects of speculation (and even desire) who can seem as exotic to the people around us as they do to us.

All, in that sense, believed in "being moved" as one of the points of taking trips, and "being transported" by private as well as public means; all saw that "ecstasy" ("ex-stasis") tells us that our highest moments come when we're not stationary, and that epiphany can follow movement as much as it precipitates it.

A1. Read and rewrite the following sentences and state whether they are True or False:   (2)

    1. A traveller may sink in love with his travel-memoirs.
    2. One gets inspected as he inspects the world around him.
    3. Quest for something may end in more mystery.
    4. Staying in comfort at home gives one more happiness than travelling.

A2. Match the persons given in column 'A' with opinions/ characteristics given in column 'B':    (2)

Column 'A' Column 'B'
(1) Narrator
a) ideal travel should be like a crime story.
(2) Camus
b) in love with his memoirs.
(3) Isherwood
c) more happy when on move.
(4) Traveller d) fear gives value to travel.

A3. Give reasons:      (2)

"We are objects of scrutiny," because

  1. ______
  2. ______

A4. "Travelling is an interesting teacher." Write your views in 3-4 sentences.     (2)

A5. Do as directed:   (2)

  1. I like to ask questions of the places I visit. (Choose the correct tense form of the above sentence from the following options and rewrite.)
    1. Simple past tense
    2. Simple present tense
    3. Past perfect tense
    4. Present perfect tense
  2. I would come back to my apartment in New York. (Choose the correct option using 'used to' for the given sentence and rewrite.
    1. I use to come back to my apartment in New York.
    2. I have used to come back to my apartment in New York.
    3. I used to come back to my apartment in New York.
    4. I had used to come back to my apartment in New York.

A6. Find out the words from passage which mean:     (2)

  1. reminiscence
  2. exhilaration

Read the following extract and Complete the activities given below:

Love is a great force in Private life; it is indeed the greatest of all things, but love in public affairs does not work. It has been tried again and again; by the people of the Middle Ages, and also by the French Revolution, a secular movement which reasserted the Brotherhood of Man, And it has always failed. The idea that nations should love one another, or that business concerns or marketing boards should love one another or that a man in Portugal should love a man in Peru of whom he has never heard — it is absurd, unreal, dangerous. ‘Love is what is needed,” we chant, and then sit back and the world goes on as before.

The fact is we can only love what we know personally. And we cannot know much. In public affairs, in the rebuilding of civilization, something much less dramatic and emotional is needed, namely tolerance. Tolerance is a very dull virtue. It is boring. It is negative. It merely means putting up with people, being able to stand things. No one has ever written an ode to tolerance, or raised a statute to her. Yet this is the quality which will be most needed after the war. This is the sound state of mind which we are looking for. This is the only force which will enable different races and classes and interests to settle down together to the work of reconstruction. 

The world is very full of people— appallingly full; it has never been so full before and they are all tumbling over each other.

Most of these people one doesn’t know and some of them dosen't like. Well, what is one to do? If you don't like people, put up with them as well as you can. Don't try to love them; you can't. But try to tolerate them. On the basis of that tolerance a civilized future may be built. Certainly I can see no other foundation for the post-war world.

A1. Choose two correct alternatives which define the theme of the extract:     (2)

  1. Love is a greater force in private as well as in public affairs.
  2. To rebuild civilization we need tolerance more than love.
  3. Patience is the solution in any sort of confrontation.
  4. When you do not like people, nations or civilizations, you need to love them to change them.
  1.  

A2. Complete the following table with the help of the extract:     (2)

Give one merit and one demerit of ‘Love’ and ‘Patience.’

Love (i) ______
(ii) ______
Patience (i) ______
(ii) ______

A3. Write how we can build up a civilized society; with the help of the extract:   (2)

A4. ‘Love and tolerance are the true indicators of a civilized person.’ Justify.      (2)

A5. Do as directed:        (2)

  1. It has been tried again and again.
    (Identify the Active Voice of the above sentence from the given options and rewrite.)
    1. They had tried it again and again.
    2. They has tried it again and again.
    3. They tried it again and again.
    4. They have tried it again and again.
  2. It is the sound state of mind which we are looking for.
    (Identify the correct simple sentence from the given options and rewrite.)
    1. It is the sound state of mind and we are looking for it.
    2. We are looking for the sound state of mind.
    3. We are looking for it but it is the sound state of mind.
    4. The sound state of mind is looked for.

A6. Match the words in column ‘A’ with their meanings in column ‘B’.    (2)

Column ‘A’ Column ‘B’
(i) Secular (a) feeling of great friendship and understanding between people.
(ii) Absurd (b) a society which has its own highly developed culture
and ways of life.
(iii) Civilization (c) not connected with any religion.
(iv) Brotherhood (d) not at all logical or sensible.

Read the following passage carefully:

(1) Plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental issues, as rapidly increasing production of disposable plastic products overwhelms the world’s ability to deal with them. Plastic pollution is most visible in developing Asian and African nations, where garbage collection systems are often inefficient or nonexistent. But the developed world, especially in countries with low recycling rates, also has trouble properly collecting discarded plastics. Plastic trash has become so ubiquitous that it has prompted efforts to write a global treaty negotiated by the United Nations.

(2) Plastics made from fossil fuels are just over a century old. Production and development of thousands of new plastic products accelerated after World War II. It transformed the modern age so much that life without plastics is unrecognizable today. Plastics revolutionized medicine with life-saving devices, made space travel possible, lightened cars and jets-saving fuel and pollution- and saved lives with helmets, incubators, and equipment for clean drinking water.

(3) The conveniences plastics offer, however, led to a throw-away culture that reveals the material’s dark side: today, single-use plastics account for 40 percent of the plastic produced every year. Many of these products, such as plastic bags and food wrappers, have a lifespan of mere minutes to hours, yet they may persist in the environment for hundreds of years.

(4) Most of the plastic trash in the oceans, Earth’s last sink, flows from land. Trash is also carried to sea by major rivers, which act as conveyor belts, picking up more and more trash as they move downstream. Once at sea, much of the plastic trash remains in coastal waters. But once caught up in ocean currents, it can be transported around the world.

(5) Millions of animals are killed by plastics every year, from birds to fish to other marine organisms. Nearly 700 species, including endangered ones, are known to have been affected by plastics. Nearly every species of seabirds eats plastics. Most of the deaths of animals are caused by entanglement or starvation. Seals, whales, turtles, and other animals are strangled by abandoned fishing gear or discarded six-pack rings.

(6) The solution is to prevent plastic waste from entering rivers and seas in the first place, many scientists and conservationists – including the National Geographic Society – say. This could be accomplished with improved waste management systems and recycling, better product design that takes into account the short life of disposable packaging, and reduction in manufacturing of unnecessary single-use plastics.

Answer the following questions, based on the above passage:

  1. Which of the following statements best describes the reason why plastic pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental issues?
    1. Plastic trash collection systems have become inefficient or nonexistent.
    2. Rapidly increasing production of disposable plastic products overwhelms the world’s ability to deal with them.
    3. Some plastics have a lifespan of mere minutes to hours, yet they may persist in the environment for hundreds of years.
    4. The developed world, especially in countries with low recycling rates, has trouble properly collecting plastics.
  2. What is the tone of the writer in the given lines from paragraph 2? Rationalise your response in about 40 words.
    ‘It transformed the modern age so much that life without plastics is unrecognizable today.'
  3. The passage includes some words that are opposites of each other. From the sets (A) – (E) below, identify two sets of synonyms.
    1. garbage and trash
    2. starvation and strangled
    3. disposable and reductio
    4. persist and downstream
    5. transformed and revolutionized
  4. Complete the sentence appropriately:
    The writer says that most of the plastic trash is found in the Earth’s last sink and the reason it is transported around the world is _______.
  5. Based on the reading of the passage, examine, in about 40 words, the downside of the convenience that plastic offers.
  6. Complete the sentence appropriately:
    According to conservationists, the two ways in which most of the deaths of animals are caused are _______.
  7. Based on the passage, how can we contribute to the reduction of plastic waste?
    1. by internationalising the waste management system
    2. by minimizing the use of single-use plastics
    3. by not abandoning fishing gear
    4. by not using helmets made of plastic
  8. State one reason why plastic pollution is most visible in developing Asian and African nations.

Read the following passage carefully:

(1) Rotation of crops is a universal phenomenon which is practised by most of the farmers of the tropical and temperate countries. The main objective of rotation of crops is to obtain higher agricultural returns on the one hand, and to maintain the soil fertility on the other.

(2) In other words, the rotation of crops helps in making agriculture more sustainable. The importance of crop rotation is more in the areas where farmers grow two, or more than two crops in the same field in a year. Irrigation facilities have also been appreciably developed in the country during the last three decades. The availability of water to the arable land has helped in the intensification of agriculture.

(3) In the areas such as Punjab and Haryana, where the Green Revolution is a big success, one soil exhaustive crop (rice) is followed by another soil exhaustive crop (wheat). Subsequently, the field vacated by wheat is devoted to either rice or maize or cotton. Thus, in one year, the farmers are harvesting three soil exhaustive crops from the same field. Such a rotation of crops may fetch more income to the farmers, but depletes the soil fertility at a faster pace.

(4) A number of field studies were conducted to assess the traditional crop rotation pattern. One such field study about the changes in the rotation of crops was conducted in the village Banhera (Tanda), Haridwar district. The main rotation of crops of the village is shown in the table below.

 

Traditional Rotation of Crops (1960-65) in Banhera (Tanda)
Year Kharif (mid-June to mid-October) Rabi (mid-October mid-April) Zaid (April to June) No. of days land left fallow
1960 Millet/fodder/rice Gram Fallow 90
1961 Fallow Wheat Fallow 210
1962 Millet/fodder/rice Gram Fallow 90
1963 Fallow Wheat Fallow 210
1964 Millet mixed with urad/fodder/rice Gram Fallow 90
1965 Fallow Wheat Fallow 210

Answer the following questions, based on the above passage:

  1. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate option from those given in brackets, based on your understanding of para 2.
    One of the reasons that there has been an intensification of agriculture in the country is the development of irrigation facilities is a/an ______ (fact/opinion) because it is a/an ______ (subjective judgement/objective detail).
  2. Based on your understanding of paras 1 and 2, state whether the following statement is true or false.
    If proper irrigation facility is provided, higher agricultural returns can be obtained by making crop rotation more sustainable.
  3. Justify the following in about 40 words.
    Crop rotation may fetch more income to the farmers, but depletes the soil fertility at a faster pace.
  4. Based on the table, mention the years when the land was left fallow for maximum number of days.
  5. The study conducted in village Banhera (Tanda) reflects that during the years 1960 to 1965, from April to June, the land was left fallow or uncultivated throughout. State any one inference that can be drawn from this.
  6. Select the option that correctly states the significance of crop rotation as given below:
    1. Crop rotation is done to obtain higher agricultural returns.
    2. Higher agricultural returns can be obtained by harvesting soil-exhaustive crops.
    3. Crop rotation demands that land should be left fallow for a few months to increase the fertility of soil.
    4. Better irrigation facility to the arable land has helped in the intensification of agriculture.
    5. If crops to be harvested are chosen wisely, crop rotation can help in maintaining fertility of soil.
      1. (1), (2) and (4)
      2. (1) only
      3. (3) and (5)
      4. (1) and (5)
  7. Crop rotation is helping in making agriculture more sustainable. Mention one benefit and one drawback of crop rotation. (Answer in about 40 words)
  8. Which of the following is the main takeaway from the study mentioned in the passage?
    1. The study needs to include more valid data to support the practice of crop rotation
    2. Crop rotation is a sustainable practice that can transform the agricultural sector.
    3. The impact of crop rotation on farmer’s upliftment has been thoroughly explained.
    4. Crop rotation is independent of the type of crops harvested and availability of water for irrigation.

Read the following passage and do the activities:

A1. Complete the following sentences from the passage: (2)

  1. Kalam earned a degree in ______ engineering.
  2. DRDO stands for ______.
  3. Kalam was ______ of the SLV-III, the first satellite launch vehicle.
  4. Kalam served as lecturer at ______.

A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, in full Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, (born October 15, 1931, Rameshwaram, India - died July 27, 2015, Shillong), Indian scientist who played a leading role in the development of India's missile and nuclear weapons programmes. He was President of India from 2002 to 2007.

Kalam earned a degree in aeronautical engineering from the Madras Institute of Technology and in 1958 joined the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). In 1969, he moved to the Indian Space Research Organisation, where he was project director of the SLV-III, the first satellite launch vehicle that was both designed and produced in India. Rejoining DRDO in 1982, Kalam planned the programme that produced a number of successful missiles, which helped earn him the nickname “Missile Man”. Among those successes was Agni, India's first intermediate-range ballistic missile, which incorporated aspects of the SLVIII and was launched in 1989.

Kalam remained committed using science and technology to transform India into a developed country and served as lecturer at several universities. Kalam wrote several books, including an autobiography, Wings of Fire (1999). He received the Padma Bhushan (1981), Padma Vibhushan (1990), Indira Gandhi award for National Integration (1997) and the India's highest civilian award Bharat Ratna (1997).

A2. Complete the web diagram: (2)

A3. Fill in the blanks by using the suitable phrases/words from the bracket: (2)
[moved to, served as, launched, autobiography]

  1. Mr. Gunaji has ______ a Principal in this college.
  2. “The Story of My Experiments with Truth” is the ______ of Mahatma Gandhi.
  3. My teacher ______ to England for further studies.
  4. ISRO successfully ______ Chandrayaan-3 mission.

A4. Do as directed: (2)

  1. Kalam wrote several books. (Frame a Wh-type question to get the underlined part as answer)
  2. Kalam earned a degree in aeronautical engineering. (Begin the sentence with “A degree in…….)

A5. Who is your role model? Write few lines about him/her. (2)


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