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Briefly describe the technique employed in DNA fingerprinting. - ISC (Science) Class 12 - Biology (Theory)

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Question

Briefly describe the technique employed in DNA fingerprinting.

Solution

The technique employed in DNA fingerprinting.

  • Extraction of DNA from the sample cells.
  • Amplification : Making many copies of DNA is called amplification. It is done by a technique called polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
  • Restriction digestion : DNA is then cut into sections by using restriction endonucleases.
  • Separation of DNA sequences : In this process, DNA fragments are separated by using gel electrophoresis.
  • Southern blotting (named after its inventor E. M. Southern). In this process, separated DNA sequences are transferred from gel onto a nylon membrane.
  • Hybridisation using labelled VNTR probe : In this process, radiactive DNA probes are attached to specific portions of the DNA fragments. Thereafter any DNA not attached to the probes is washed off.
  • Detection of hybridised DNA fragments by autoradiography : The remaining DNA is then exposed to X-ray film. The radioactive probes on the DNA are allowed to expose the film, which, when developed reveals a unique pattern of dark and light bands. These bands give a characteristic pattern for an individual DNA. It differs from individual to individual in a population except in the case of monozygotic (identical) twins. The sensitivity of the  technique can be increased by use of polymerase chain reaction. Consequently, DNA from a single cell is enough to perform DNA fingerprinting analysis. Currently many different probes are used to generate DNA fingerprints.
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APPEARS IN

 2014-2015 (March) (with solutions)
Question 8.2 | 4.00 marks

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Solution Briefly describe the technique employed in DNA fingerprinting. Concept: DNA Fingerprinting.
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