Attempt in 120‒150 Words a Character Sketch of Miss Sullivan. - English Communicative

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Attempt in 120‒150 words a character sketch of Miss Sullivan.

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Solution

Miss Sullivan was the teacher and constant companion of Helen. On 3 March 1887, Miss Sullivan arrived at the house of the Kellers. From that day on, Helen’s life took a completely different turn, from darkness to light and from isolation to friendship. Miss Sullivan was an extremely patient and considerate teacher who never failed to understand Helen’s frustration and discontentment. She methodically taught Helen to communicate using her fingers and assisted her in her education through all the institutions that Helen attended.

Miss Sullivan’s method of teaching was very effective. She illustrated everything she taught, using a poem or a story. Besides, she used to take Helen out-of-doors and teach her in the lap of nature. This way, she not only helped Helen learn lessons but also developed the bond between Helen and the world she was deprived of. Helen dedicates her success in articulating speech sounds to Miss Sullivan’s “genius, untiring perseverance and devotion”.

Concept: Reading Skills
  Is there an error in this question or solution?
2013-2014 (March) Delhi Set 1

RELATED QUESTIONS

A1. Order
Arrange the following sentences in the chronological order as they appear in the passage:
(i) On celebrations, parents can invest Rs. 200 and plant a sapling of a tree representing the child’s birth star.
(ii) He wants to create Brihat Panchvati.
(iii) He has been able to increase the areas of the Pavitra VanaVana.
(iv) Plans are afoot to create a Saptaswara forest.

Today, Reddy is one of the most well - known environment specialists in India. With his influence, he has been able to increase the areas of the Pavitra Vana and has plans to bring about awareness of Puranic trees and flowers for the knowledge of the Indian citizen.
He wants to create near the Pavitra Vana, a Brihat Panchavati so that parents can show their children the forest where Shakuntala lived or Sita spent her final days. There will also be a hillock where people can meditate. Plans are also afoot create a Saptaswara forest, pertaining to different ragas in music. Scientists have found that certain plants react in a particular way to different ragas. So in such a forest, when a musician performs certain ragas, the plants will reach in such a manner that it will benefit the audience, the musician and the whole environment. The other idea is an ecopark for children. On celebrations, like birthdays, parents can invest Rs. 200 and plant a sapling of a tree representing the child's birth star. The plant will also carry the child's name. The Pavitra Vana also houses a garden of Prophet Mohammed, which has some plants mentioned in the Holy Quran. There is the date plant - sacred to Islam - and the Mimosops elengi, the latter a highly fragrant variety. There is also the garden of Eden for housing plants sacred to Christianity, but the Pavitra Vana authorities have to procure most of them in the new sections.

A2. Find specialities
Write down the specialities of the following:
(i) Brihat Panchavati: ........................ ..... . .
(ii) Saptaswara Forest: ..................... ..... .............. . .
(iii) Eco-park: ..................................... . .
(iv) A garden of Prophet Mohammed:

A3. Antonyms Find antonyms for the following words from the passage:
(i) same
(ii) decrease
(iii) destroy
(iv) lost

A4. Language study
(i) He wants to create near the Pavitra Vana, a Brihat Panchavati. [Pick out an infinitive from the given line and use it in your own sentence]
(ii) Reddy is one of the most well-known environment specialists in India. [Begin with: Very few ………]

A5. Personal Response
Do you think one person alone can create an awareness towards environment conservation ? Support, your answer with appropriate reasons.


A1. True or False
State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) A new research suggests that eating healthy food and getting proper sleep helps children to succeed in school.
(ii) Kids in the age group of 6-12 years should get an average sleep of little less than 7 hours.
(iii) Kids should start their day with yogurt, fruits and veggies.
(iv) Children should have consistent sleeping habit.

A new research suggests that eating healthy food and getting proper sleep can help children succeed in school. According to research, when kids go to school without eating breakfast, their cognitive function can be affected.
According to study, kids should start the day with fruits, proteins and whole grains and they should avoid sugary cereals because they cause a sugar high. If the kids do need to eat something prior to dinner, parents should offer healthy choices like yogurt, fruits and veggies or baked chips. Children have also been advised to drink water instead of soda as-it lacks nutritional value. Moreover, research suggests that children need a good night's sleep for theiroverall school performance. It is said that. lack of sleep can lead to problems with attention and memory in the classroom, affect impulse control and mood regulation lead to.
anxiety and even depression.
While kids aged 6-12 years should get nine hours sleep nightly, adolescents from the age of 13 to 18 years should get an average sleep of little more than seven hours per night. However, the research suggests that catching up on lost sleep on the weekend can make matters worse and recommended a consistent bedtime seven days a week.

A2. Find
Fill in the blocks with the following given in the passage:

(i) Two things to be avoided by children:

(ii) Lack of sleep due to mood regulation leads to:

A3. Select
Select the correct word from the brackets and complete the statements given below:
(anxiety, consistent, impulse, attention)
(i) Last minutes study causes......... to the students.
(ii) Stress affects the.............. for a quick action.
(iii) Saina has shown ........... improvement in her performance.
(iv) Students should pay ..............in class.

A4. Language study
(i) Pick out anyone sentence from the passage where a modal auxiliary indicating advice is used.
(ii) Pick out the correct conjunctions from the given sentences: 
(a) Kids should avoid sugary cereals because they cause a sugar high.
(b) It is said that lack of sleep can lead to problems.

A5. Personal response
We should eat healthy food. Explain..


India, my India, where the first human eyes awoke to heavenly light! All Asia’s holy place of pilgrimage, great Motherland of might! World – mother, first giver to humankind of philosophy and sacred lore, knowledge thou gav’st to an, God – love, works, art, religion’s opened door.
O even with all that grandeur dwarfed or turned and can vaunt thy mighty name?
Before us still there floats the idea of those splendid days of gold; a new world in our vision wakes, Love’s India we shall rise to mould. India, my India, who dare call thee a thing for pity’s grace today? Mother of wisdom, worship, works nurse of the spirit inward ray!

(1) The poem is a ……………………
    (a) Praise
    (b) Prayer
    (c) Story in the form of poem
    (d) Song of condolence [Choose the correct alternative]
(2) What has India given to the world?
(3) How does the poet visualize New India?
(4) Give the rhyme scheme of the first four lines.
(5) Name and explain the figure of speech that dominates the poem.


How did the air raids disrupt the Dutch public life?


Attempt a character sketch of Otto Frank, Anne's father.


Describe the progress made by Helen Keller during the two years she spent at Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York City.


It was her determination that helped Helen Keller get admission to Radcliffe College. Comment.


Answer any two of the following questions in about 3040 words:
(a) How does Kamala Das try to put away the thoughts of her ageing mother?

(b) Which is the exotic moment that the poet refers to in 'Keeping Quiet'?

(c) What are the difficulties that aunt Jennifer faced in her life?


What were Watson's observations on the stick left behind by Dr. Mortimer? How far did Sherlock Holmes prove him wrong? (in about 125 words)


Who was Selden? Why was he on the moor?


Describe Miss Stapleton's first encounter with Sir Henry in about 125 words


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.

(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5)

(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. (3)


Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to the ‘late winter’s moon’?

(b) The poet says, ‘And yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is inaccessible to them?

(c) What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?

(d) What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers when she is dead?


Answer any three of the following questions in 30-40 words each:

(a) What did M. Hamel tell them about the French language? What did he ask them to do and why?

(b) Why does Asokamitran call Subbu, ‘a charitable and improvident man’?

(c) How did the instructor turn Douglas into a swimmer?

(d) Why did Sophie like her brother, Geoff more than any other person?


Answer the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why do you think the booking clerk refused to accept the money? Why did the narrator get out so fast?

(b) Why could the Russian research vessel, ‘The Akademik Shokaskiy’ not move any further? What did the captain decide then?

(c) What sort of hunts did the Maharaja offer to organize for the high-ranking British officer? What trait of the officer does it reveal?

(d) What did Jo want the wizard to do when Mommy Skunk approached him?


Attempt the following in 150-200 words.

Bring out the importance of the diary in Anne's life.


Attempt the following in 150-200 words.

Why does Anne call herself 'a bundle of contradictions'?


Attempt the following in 150-200 words.

What was the incident of the Frost King? How did it affect Helen?


Anne describes herself as a 'little bundle of contradictions'. Why? Explain in your own words.


How did Helen benefit when Dr. Graham Bell accompanied her to the World Fair?


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:  

 

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods.  The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

 

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

 

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

 

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

 

The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

 

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

 

The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.

 

(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)

 

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title.

 

(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. 


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

If you do not get lowered in your own eyes
While you raise yourself in those of others,
If you do not give in to gossips and lies
Rather heed them not, saying, 'who bothers?'
You may be the person I am looking for.
If you crave not for praise when you win
And look not for sympathy while you lose,
If cheers let not your head toss or spin
And after a set-back, you offer no excuse,
You may be the person I and looking for.

(1) What should be your reaction towards gossips and lies?
(2) Who are your role models? Why?
(3) Give the rhyming pairs of words from the first stanza.
(4) Which line is repeated in this extract and what is its effect?


Read the follow ing extract and answer the questions given below:

Not gold but only men can make
A people great and strong;
Men who for truth and honor's sake
Stand fast and suffer long.

Brave men who work while others sleep,
Who dare while others fly...

They build a nation's pillars deep
And lift them to the sky.

(1) What makes a nation strong?
(2) According to you, what makes India a strong and powerful nation?.
(3) Write down the rhyme scheme used in the extract.
(4) What does the phrase 'others fly ... ' mean?


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

How do you know
Peace is a woman?
 I know, for
I met her yesterday
on my winding way 
to the world's fare.
She had such a wonderful face
just like a golden flower faded
before her prime.

(1) How does the poet describe the face of peace?
(2) Do you think there is a way out of the war-ridden world? What is it?.
(3) Name and explain the figure of speech in the following line:
"I met her yesterday 
on my winding way."
(4) The poet asks the question and herself answers it. What effect does it create in the extract?


Complete the flow-chart : 


Complete the following table :


(i) The interest of Maharashtra and that of India should be one for the progress of Maharashtra state, because ................

 


Complete the following statements :

(ii) Maharashtra depends on India, because ................

 


Read the following extract and then do all the activities that follow :

I rain into a stranger as he passed by
“Oh, excuse me please” was my reply.
He said, “please excuse me too; wasn't even watching for you.”
We were very polite, this stranger and I.
We went on out way and we said good-bye.
But at home a different story is told.
How we treat out loved ones, young and old.
Later that day, cooking the evening meal,
My daughter stood beside me very still.
When I turned, I nearly knoked her down.
“Move out of the way,” I said with a frown.
She walked away, her little heart broken.
I didn't realize how harshly I'd spoken.
While I lay awake in bed,
God's still small voice came to me and said,
“While Dealing with a stranger, common courtesy you use,
But children you love, you seem to abuse.”

A1. Order- 
The incidents narrated in the extract are arranged in a jumbled manner here, Rearrange them in a proper order as they occur in the extract:
(i) The poet and the stranger went on their way saying good-bye.
(ii) Seeking excuse politely from the stranger, she went her way.
(iii) The poet ran into a stranger on the road.
(iv) The poet yelled at her daughter.

A2. Poetic device:
Make a list of rhyming pairs from the second stanza and note down the rhyme scheme of the same stanza.

A3. Personal Response:
Understanding and politeness are the essentials of out everyday life. Explain your views in brief.

A4. Creativity -
Frame two poetic lines on the following situation using a rhyming pattern with the help of clues given:
“While introducing great personalities, we praise them highly and talk about their qualities, but while speaking
about our friends we may not follow the same trend.”
While introducing great personalities, — a
------------------------------------ — a
But while speaking about our friends, — b
------------------------------------ — b


Read the extract and do the activities that follow:
The duke senior and his follower were sitting down to a meal one day when Orlando rushed out from among the trees, his sword in his hand. ‘Stop, and cat no more!’ he cried. The Duke and his friends asked him what he wanted.
‘Food,’ said Orlando. ‘I am almost dying of hunger’. They asked him to sit down and eat, but he would not do so. He told them that his old servant was in the woods, dying of hunger. ‘I will not eat a bite until he has been fed,’ Orlando said.
So the good Duke and his followers helped him to bring Adam to their hiding-place, and Orlando and the old man were fed and taken care of. When the Duke learned that Orlando was a son of his old friend sir Rowland de Boys, he welcomed him gladly to his forest court.
Orlando lived happily with the Duke and his friends, but he had not forgotten the lovely Rosalind. She was always in his thoughts andevery day he wrote poetry about her pinning it on the trees in the forest. ‘These trees shall be my books,’ he said, ‘so that everyone who looks in the forest will be able to read how sweet and good Rosalind is’.
Rosalind and Celia found some of these poems pinned on the trees. At first they were puzzled, wondering who could have written them; but one day Celia came in from a walk with the news that she had seen Orlando sleeping under a tree, and she and Rosalind guessed that he must be the poet. Rosalind was happy to think that Orlando had not forggoten her, because she loved him as much as he loved her.

A1. Complete - (2)
Complete the following sentences:
(i) Rosalind was happy to think _______
(ii) The Duke and his followers helped Orlando to bring _________
(iii) Orlando pinned the poems written about Rosalind on ______
(iv) When the Duke cam to know that Orlando was a son of his old friend, he _________

A2. Write a gist: (2)
Write a gist of the above given extract in about 50 words.


After the convocation, Mrs. Mini, Rahul’s mother and Rahul have a conversation. Write the conversation and present it to the class in groups of three.


Attempt a character sketch of Margot Frank as shown in ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’. 


With reference to ‘The Story of My Life’, describe how a teacher can positively impact a child’s life ? 


Orangutans use big leaves during a downpour because


The black kite may start a fire because


What do elephants do to prevent water from evaporating ? 


How do chimps drink water from the waterholes?


What caused a blow to man’s ego ?


What inference can you draw from the action of the female gorilla described in para 2 ? 


To what end have humans used their superior intelligence ?


Write a summary of the above passage in about 100 words. 


How is the social life at Raveloe different from that at Lantern Yard ? 


Dolly Winthrop has a very noble nature. Comment.


Attempt a character sketch of Mrs. Hall.


Read the passage and complete the activities given below
B1 Complete the table :
A few facts about the Mehendi rituals during marriage ceremonies are given below :
Write them into appropriate columns :
(i) A simple family affair.
(ii) Song and dance performances accompanied by lavish food and entertainment.
(iii) Creative family members, apply Mehendi to the bride.
(iv) Beauticians are appointed to apply Mehendi to the bride.
Fill in the table as :

Yesteryears Present times
(i) (i)
(ii) (ii)

Mehendi enjoys special attention during the wedding. In India, the day before the wedding is devoted exclusively to the elaborate ritual of applying Mehendi on the hands and feet of the bride. This practice is followed in Arab countries as well, except that it is held a few days prior to the wedding day. Songs are woven around the healing properties and lucky omens associated with mehndi are sung by the bride’s family and friends. An age-old belief handed down to generations lays great emphasis on the color of the bride’s Mehendi – a darker color suggests bountiful love and affection from the future in-laws and husband, and for this reason, brides take the pain to ensure that only the best quality henna is used for her wedding day.

The ritual of adorning the bride with henna is a sacred one and in some communities requires the initiation by the mother-in-law. A popular game during marriage function is the search for their names, by the bride and groom hidden within the elaborate pattern on the bride’s hands.

In certain parts of India, the bridegroom has his hands decorated with henna. The Mehendi function during marriages has evolved from simple family affairs of yesteryears to elaborate events of today. A lavish spread of food and entertainment in the form of song and dance performances have transformed it from a small function to a gala prelude. In earlier days, the task of applying Mehendi on the bride was the sole prerogative of creative family members. The demand for intricate and different style now, sees this job outsourced to beauticians skilled in this art. Beauty salons charge according to the style and complexity of pattern desired by the clients.

B2 What is the age-old belief related to the bride’s Mehendi color and its significance?

B3 Find the words :

Find the words from the passage :

The first letter of each word is given as a clue :
(i) Nowadays a lot of e .......... is given to the use of Information Technology in school.
(ii) Temples and mosques exhibit i .......... carving on their walls.
(iii) The minister announced the i .......... of the National Polio Eradication Programme.
(iv) Villages have t .......... to towns.
 
B4 Complete the table : 
Noun Verd Adjectives
(i) attention attend _______________
(ii) creation _________________ creative
Select any one word and use it meaningfully in a sentence of your own.
 
B5 Personal Response :
A lot of money is spent nowadays on marriage ceremonies. What is your opinion about it? 

Read the following extract carefully and complete the activities given below :
A1 Complete the following : 
(i)
Books were found on the _____________ and ____________.
(ii) The tales are described as ______________ and __________.

 

Have you forgotten? Don't you know?
We'll say it very loud and slow:
THEY ... USED ... TO ... READ! They'd READ and READ,
AND READ and READ, and then proceed
To READ some more. Great Scott! Gadzooks!
One-half of their lives was reading books!
The nursery shelves held books galore!
Books cluttered up the nursery floor!
And in the bedroom, by the bed,
More books were waiting to be read!
Such wondrous, fine, fantastic tales
Of dragons, gypsies, queens, and whales
And treasure isles, and distant shores
Where smugglers rowed with muffled oars,
And pirates wearing purple pants,
And sailing ships and elephants,
And cannibals crouching 'round the pot,
Stirring away at something hot.
(It smells so good, what can it be?
Good gracious, it's Penelope.)
 
A2  What kind of books does the poet mention?

A3  Poetic Device :
THEY ... USED ... TO ... READ! They'd READ and READ,
AND READ and READ, and then proceed
Which words are repeated?

The figure of speech is _______________

Read the extract and do the following activities: 
A1 Complete :

Night

Morning

(i)  (i) 
(ii)  (ii) 

There was a roaring in the wind all night;
The rain came heavily and fell in floods;
But now the sun is rising calm and bright,
 The birds are singing in the distant woods;
Over his own sweet voice the Stock-dove broods;
The Jay makes answer as the Magpie chatters;
And all the air is filled with pleasant noise of waters
All things that love the sun are out of doors;
The sky rejoices in the morning’s birth;
 The grass is bright with raindrops-on the moors
The hare is running races in her mirth;
And with her feet she from the plashy earth
Raises a mist; that, glittering in the sun,
Runs with her all the way, wherever she doth run. 

A2 What do the different birds do? Discuss. 

A3 The sky rejoices in the morning’s birth. (Name and explain the figure of speech) 


Read the following passage and do the activities: 
B1  Match: 
Match the areas given in Column ‘A’ with the description of Mehendi design given in Column ‘B’: 

  'A'   'B"
(i) North African (a) A mix of Indo-Pakistani and Arabic design 
(ii) Indian  (b) Delicate loops and curves, paisleys, teardrops
(iii) Arabic  (c) Geometrical images
(iv) South Asian  (d) Local textiles, paintings, and architecture

 

Henna comes from the leaves of the plant Lawsonia inertias. The plant grows in hot and dry climes and is native to North Africa, the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East. The leaves of the plant are dried and crushed to powder. Various additives such as coffee decoction, tea, lime juice, Mehendi and eucalyptus oil are mixed with the henna powder to increase the potency of the dry, this also helps to bind the powder to a paste-like consistency. The mixture is applied through cones in intricate patterns depending on the region of use.
 Album of Patterns
 Four major styles can be found in the vast dictionary of Mehendi designs. Earlier the application was restricted to hand and feet, but the adoption of Mehendi by different cultures throughout the world has seen experimentation on different body parts including the neck naval and back.
 North African patterns rely on geometrical images to trace the shape of hands and feet, Arabic designs borrow heavily from local textiles, paintings, and architecture. These are more spaced out, to allow the design to stand out boldly from the skin parts left untouched by henna. The Indian style comprises of delicate loops and curves, paisleys, teardrops and flowers that give a dainty filigreed glow-like effect. Though intricate patterning is the name of the game today, this trend took off in India only during the 20th century. The patterns preferred by the South Asian countries are mixed with Indo-Pakistani and Arabic design schemes. Chinese and Celtic symbols now find a place in the vast repertoire of Mehendi designs as well. 

B2  Complete:
Complete the following and write:
(i) The procedure before applying henna _______
(ii) The reasons for using additives _______
(iii) The suitable climatic conditions for the henna plant _______
(iv) Mehendi is used on _______

B3  Find words:
Look at the following description and find out proper words from the passage and write:
(i) Existing naturally in the place : - n _______
(ii) Consist of something: - c _______
(iii) Delicate decoration made from gold, silver and copper wire: - f _______
(iv) Substance that is added in small quantity : - a _______ 

B4  Language study:
Fill in the blanks with suitable subordinators given in the box:

as well as, so that, however, which

(i) The mixture is applied through cones in intricate patterns _______ depend on the region of use.
(ii)
The intricate pattern is the name of the game of today _______, this trend took off in India, recently.
(iii)
North African pattern relies on geometrical images ______ they can trace the shape of hands and feet.
(iv)
The patterns preferred by the South Asian countries are mixed with Indo-Pakistani _______ Arabic design schemes. 

B5  Personal Response:
Which Mehendi design do you like? Why?


Complete the call-outs:
A.1)

Our world is an institution
Of environmental pollution
We choose not to care
For our future generations
And I for one am guilty
For buying the hundreds of electronic gadgets
That attracts the industries to produce like maggots
environmental pollution is at the heart of our planet
The forests are dying
Wildlife is crying
Millions of fish are dying
Mother earth is sighing
Tell me is it right
That we sleep well at night
Replenishing ourselves
For tomorrow’s greedy fight
Overcrowded trains
Overloaded brains
Where is the light? What is our plight?
While the river break their banks
And greedy industries play their polluted pranks.

 

A.2) Find the examples that show that we do not care for our future generation

A.3) Match:
Match the lines in Column ‘A’ with the figures of speech in Column ‘B’: 

  Column ‘A’    Column ‘B’ 
(i) Our world is an institution  (a)  Personification 

(ii) Mother earth is sighing (b)  Simile
    (c) Metaphor

Read the following extract and do the given activities: 
B.1) Fill in the Balloons with suitable ideas from the poem: 

“Oh, the value of the elderly! How could anyone not know?
They hold so many keys, so many things they can show.
We all will read the other side this I firmly believe
And the elderly are closest oh what clues we could retrieve.
For their characters are closest to how we’ll be on high.
They are the ones most developed, you can see it if you try.
They’ve let go of the frivolous and kept things that are dear
The memories of so sweet, of loved ones that were near.
As a nation, we are missing our greatest true resource,
To get to know our elders and let them guide our course.”

B.2) Find Evidence:
Pick out the line from the extract which supports the given ideas:
(i) The elders have many things to share.
(ii) Everybody knows the value of elderly people.
(iii) The elderly people have vast experience.
(iv) The elderly people are a boon to the nation. 

B.3) Write a pair from the extract that rhymes with the given word: 

Fear  ........................... ..........................

Answer the following in 200-250 words :
Describe the relationship between Anne and Margot?


Answer the following in 200-250 words :
Describe Ms. Sullivan's teaching methods?


Attempt the following question in 100 – 150 words.
What do you think about Anne’s talent for writing essays which she wrote convincingly when punished by the teacher?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
How did Kitty help Anne overcome her loneliness?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
What is the main theme of 'The Diary of a Young Girl'?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
"The best and most beautiful things in the world can't be seen or even touched. They must be felt with the heart." Justify the famous quote of Helen Keller.


Mention the three phases of the author’s relationship with his grandmother before he left the country to study abroad.


The author’s grandmother was a religious person. What are the different ways in which we come to know this?


Which language do you use to talk to elderly relatives in your family?


How would you say ‘a dilapidated drum’ in your language?


Notice the following uses of the word ‘tell’ in the text.

1. Her fingers were busy telling the beads of her rosary.

2. I would tell her English words and little things about Western science and learning.

3. At her age, one could never tell.

4. She told us that her end was near.


Given below are four different senses of the word ‘tell’. Match the meanings to the uses listed above.

1. make something known to someone in spoken or written words

2. count while reciting

3. be sure

4. give information to somebody


Does the poem talk of an exclusively personal experience or is it fairly universal?


What has not changed over the years? Does this suggest something to you?


The three stanzas depict three different phases. What are they?


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
ducking back


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
manoeuvres


Give reasons for the following statement.
The author’s experience at Hor was in stark contrast to earlier accounts of the place.


Briefly comment on:
The author’s meeting with Norbu.


Briefly comment on:
Tsetan’s support to the author during the journey.


Guess the meaning of the following word:
Drokba
In which language are these word found? 


The narrative has many phrases to describe the scenic beauty of the mountainside like: 
A flawless half-moon flated in a perfect blue sky.
Scan the text to locate other such picturesque phrases.


Tick the statement that is true.

The story is an account of real events.


Discuss the following statement in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view.

The story is called ‘The Adventure’. Compare it with the adventure described in ‘We’re Not Afraid to Die...’


Discuss the following statement in groups of two pairs, each pair in a group taking opposite points of view.

Why do you think Professor Gaitonde decided never to preside over meetings again?


'Have you come back?' said the woman.'I thought that no one had come back.'
Does this statement give some clue about the story? If yes, what is it?


The story is divided into pre-war and post-war times. What hardships do you think the girl underwent during these times?


Comment on the influence of English – the language and the way of life – on Indian life as reflected in the story. What is the narrator's attitude to English?


Do you think that the ruled always adopts the language of the ruler?


Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrase.

to give vent to


Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrase.

to meet one's match


Did the boys return the horse because they were conscience-stricken or because they were afraid?


Look at the following set of words and mention what is common to them both in form and meaning.

Snuffle

snort

sniffle

snore


If you were to write about these issues today what are some of the incidents, examples and problems that you would think of as relevant?


Is drama a good medium for conveying a social message? Discuss.


Read the play out in parts. Enact the play on a suitable occasion.


Look at the words given in the box below

snigger

wriggle

sneak

squeak

squawk

titter

pant

chuckle

giggle

jeer

chortle

guffaw

sigh

sidle

boo

shriek

scramble

croak

straggle

plod

gasp


 


 


 

Now classify them according to their closeness in meaning to the words given below

A

B

C

D

E

snigger

wriggle

squeak

jeer

sigh


What do you understand of the natures of Ramanand and Azam Khan from the episode described?


The episode has been narrated in a light vein. What social mores does the author seem to ridicule?


Do you know of any incident when someone has been brought back to life from the brink of death through medical help. Discuss medical procedures such as organ transplant and organ regeneration that are used to save human life.


We 'draw up a deed'. Complete the following phrase with an appropriate word.

________a deaf ear to


What were the voices that Paul heard? Did they lead him to success in the real sense?


Suggest a few instances in the poem which highlight humour and irony.


Examine the communication channels in the story between Paul and his mother.


‘The Tale of Melon City’ has been narrated in a verse form. This is a unique style which lends extra charm to an ancient tale. Find similar examples in your language. Share them in the class.


What were the attempts made by the author to get his watch repaired?


Why did the author finally give up on his watch?


Why has he compared the three passions to great winds?


How do the patterns of creativity displayed by scientists differ from those displayed by poets?


What distinguishes the tribal imagination from the secular imagination?


List the distinctive features of the tribal arts.


'New Literature' is a misnomer for the wealth of the Indian Literary tradition. How does G. N. Devy explain this?


Comment on the lines that make you visualise the colourful image of the peacock.


How does 'A Munda song' show that the perspective of the tribal mind towards the girl child is different from that of [other ] mainstream communities?


What is the central argument of the speaker?


Why is the speaker’s childhood described as ‘a forgotten boredom’?


The text is an excerpt from Sesame and Lilies which consists of two essays, primarily, written for delivery as public lectures in 1864. Identify the features that fit the speech mode. Notice the sentence patterns.


Certain words in the poem are in capital letters — why?


Discuss in pairs or in small groups
What does a novel do?


Discuss in pairs or in small groups
'Our daily life reflects a double allegiance to 'the life in time' and 'the life by values'.


Why is the poem entitled 'Hawk Roosting'?


Identify the words that help you understand the nature of the poet's father.


What were the concepts that Kumudini Lakhia represent through Duvidha, Atah Kim and panch Paras?


“I can see clear bridges between my life experiences and my work in dance.” How does Kumudini Lakhia weave episodes from the two realms in her account?


Interpret these phrases in the context of the essay

  • Mist of protection
  • At a crossroads
  • It came with strings attached

' Kummi', ' ghumar' and 'dandia' are some dance forms mentioned in the text. Make an inventory of folk dance forms in the different regions of the country.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

Someone has extended a hand of friendship towards me and I have not accepted it.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a small group of close friends and have no wish to interact with anyone else.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a small group of close friends and have no wish to interact with anyone else.


Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

To Jo the fine house seemed like ___________________.


Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

In order to tidy the room, Jo __________________.


Give a brief account of the interaction between Grandpa and Jo.


Read the extract and state whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

The author wanted to grow the desi variety of rice.


Fill in the blank.

Moru Dada wanted to spray __________ on the moong crop.


Make groups and discuss the following:

Name a few scientists/explorers/social reformers/inventors/discoverers, who spent most of their lives to find solutions to some major problems/setbacks, that mankind faced.


Go through the text again and find the reasons that forced Peter to shoot down a person.

  1. The keepers spotted him.
  2. _________________________
  3. _________________________

Discuss with your partner and describe the atmosphere in the woods when Mrs. Adis didn’t hand over Peter Crouch to the keepers because - 

  1. _________________
  2. _________________
  3. _________________

Write the Rhyming word and Scheme of the 2nd stanza.

“Old man,” said a fellow pilgrim near,
“Why waste your time in building here?
Your journey ends with the close of the day You never again will pass this way.
You have crossed the chasm deep and wide Why build ye here at even tide?”


The best punishment is ‘forgiveness’. Discuss the sentence in light of the text you have read. You can make use of the following points.

(a) Forgiveness provides an opportunity to change the behaviour.

(b) Forgiveness leads to repentance.

(c) A person may commit a mistake/crime impulsively or under the force of strong emotions.

(d) ________________________

(e) ________________________


Make a list of the preparations made for an assault on Tiger Hill.

Bofors guns _____________.


Which pictures reflect gender equality? Write their numbers.

A B
1.  1. 
2. 
3.  2. 
4. 

Trees are revered because :

  1. They give us joy.
  2. _________________
  3. _________________
  4. _________________
  5. _________________

A small thought, put in action, led to a great achievement. Pick out the lines from the beginning and end of the poem and explain their significance.


Discuss the activities carried out by a farmer.


Compare and contrast the two opposing human feelings as expressed by the poet.


Suppose you suffer from a long - term illness (one or two weeks), what should you do and what should you avoid? Fill up the table of Dos and Don’ts.

Dos Don’ts
(1) Go to a doctor for diagnosis (1) Do not ____________
(2) __________________ (2) Do not avoid medication on time.
(3) Take a suitable diet (3) Avoid____________
(4) __________________ (4) Avoid physical stress and exertion.
(5) Rest in a properly ventilated room. (5) Do not ____________
(6) Have cheerful thoughts, courage, positive attitude (6) Do not lose ____________ and ____________

Say whether the following statement is right or wrong.

Sue was a rich girl.


For preparing questions based on the poem, an overall understanding of the poem is a must. Discuss with your partner and prepare a set of five questions.

For example:

  1. What is the name of the bridge?
  2. ________________________________
  3. ________________________________
  4. ________________________________
  5. ________________________________
  6. ________________________________

‘The city now, doth, like garment wear’. The poet imagines that the city is wearing a beautiful garment. Hence, the figure of speech is personification. Find out more examples of personification from the poem.


‘Dull would he be of soul who could pass by.’

This line of the poem can be rewritten as:
'He would be of a dull soul.'

The figure of speech is known as ‘Inversion’.

Find out one more example of Inversion from the poem.


Complete the web with the help of adjectives used to describe eyes and nose in all respects. Two are done for you.


You have heard the proverb ‘Plan your work, work your plan’. It means - ________________.


Choose the proper alternatives from the statements given below which would explain why town planning is essential - _______________.

  1. To develop the city according to the guidelines.
  2. To get the ‘Best City Award’.
  3. To attract tourists.
  4. To use and develop the land available in the city for the interest of the citizens.

Read the poem and complete the web about the activities the planners do.


Think deeply and write. Is the poet really discouraging the youth from becoming vets? Explain your response.


How do we help animals and birds?


Go through the poem and state whether the following statement is true or false.

Planners make tactful changes so that citizens do not recognize familiar landmarks.


Discuss in your class.

What are the advantages of learning science?


Read 'The City Planners' by Margaret Atwood.


Write 3 to 4 lines about the following in your own words.

First Neurosurgeon


Select a season of your choice and give the following details:

  1. Time of the year -
  2. Characteristics- crops, festivals, etc.
  3. Features/changes - climate/weather/temperature etc.
  4. Advantages/Disadvantages -

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

A Bad workman blames his tools.


Expansion of Idea:

Expand the following idea in about 100-150 words by using the points.

'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'.

  • Meaning of the proverb
  • Significance of the proverb
  • Add your own points.

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

Fools rush in where angels fear to tread - Alexander Pope.


Go through the text again to understand the important features of blogs. Discuss various blogs and their features with your friends.

A blog helps us to express our - ___________.

  • Feelings
  • _________
  • _________
  • _________

We all know that blogs can be written on many topics. Your teacher will divide the class into groups and assign a task to every group to make a list of various topics on which blogs are normally written. One is given to you.

  • Social Awareness
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • ________________

You will come across many blogs written by famous personalities on different topics and issues. Read and make a list of at least ten blogs available on the internet. Read and summarise a blog and present it before the class.

Sr.No. The topic of the Blog Name of the Blogger
1. Don’t teach kids how to read, teach them why. (https://www.teachthought.com/literacy stop-teaching-kids-how-to-read-reading-practice/) Terry Heick
2.    
3.    
4.    
5.    

Fill in the gap, choosing word from the option to make an appropriate comparison.

as ____________as a fox


Suggest what you would do in the following situation:

Your very close friend has been using a fake social media account to play pranks on others and is not ready to stop in spite of several attempts by you.


Suggest what you would do in the following situation:

One particular friend of yours is always late for college, social functions, movies, etc. and delays everyone.


Discuss with your teacher how/why are ‘stars’ given to a movie.


Read the following sentence carefully and choose the correct meaning.

Fine feathers don’t make fine birds.


Go through the following web that highlights the essential qualities of a compere. Discuss with your partner the essential qualities and also the precautions that a compere should take while compering a program.

Precautions to be taken :

  1. __________________________
  2. __________________________
  3. __________________________
  4. __________________________

Read the poem aloud. Recite any stanza of your choice from memory.


Describe the following with the help of the story.

Thiruvalluvar


Explain the term plot.


Comment on the given statement after reading the given dialogue - 

But when I saw a man in trouble, I could never help trying to set him out of it.

Its human to help others. Here the statement tells us that ____________________________.


The description of the character is given below. Identify the character from the play. Find some sentences which support your choice.

He is a major character. He dominates in the story.


Match the columns :

A B
(1) Theseus (1) Robin Goodfellow
(2) Titania (2) Queen of the Amazons
(3) Puck (3) Duke of Athens
(4) Hippolyta (4) Faeries
(5) Cobweb, Moth (5) Queen of the Faeries

Draw a character sketch of Oberon as an enemy of his wife but a friend of the lovers.


What changes in the stage setting would you suggest.


Give reasons :

Oberon and Titania fight for the custody of the Indian boy because - Titania wants ______________________.


The consequences of Oberon’s jealousy for Titania are comic rather than tragic. Comment.


Prove with the theme of the play/extract that the deeper human emotion which profoundly interested Shakespeare was jealousy.


Shakespeare’s poetry has come to be valued for its own sake on the stage. Comment with reference to the play ‘A Midsummer Night’s Dream.’


Read the given extract (Act III)

Complete the following table.

Sr. No. Character Supportive Character  Incident
1. Dr. Stockmann
  1. _______
  2. _______
  1. _______
  2. _______
2. Peter Stockmann
  1. _______
  2. _______
  3. _______
  1. _______
  2. _______
  3. _______
3. Aslaksen
  1. _______
  2. _______
  1. _______
  2. _______

Explain the use of the following property in the development of the play.

Hat


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

And then, once the ring's broken, we'll get to work and show the public every day just how incompetent the Mayor is!


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

You ought to be ashamed of yourself.


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

Because your father can't do without my help.


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

And it's by no means the small sacrifice the town will have to make.


‘Smart Answers’: Form a large group. Each person asks the next one a question to get him to say ‘yes’ or ‘no’. He/She can use appropriate statements, requests, or even other questions as a response. But if he/she says ‘yes’ or ‘no’, he/she is out. Otherwise, he/she continues the game. Questions cannot be repeated.


Hold a mock trial for any one of the following offences.
There should be a complainant, a defendant, and lawyers to argue the case on behalf of them.
The whole class can vote to pass the judgment. On what occasions will you plead for justice? What punishment will you suggest?
When will you plead for mercy?

A poor man stole some ornaments from a rich girl.


Hold a mock trial for any one of the following offences.
There should be a complainant, a defendant, and lawyers to argue the case on behalf of them.
The whole class can vote to pass the judgment. On what occasions will you plead for justice? What punishment will you suggest? When will you plead for mercy?

A young man was injured in a road accident due to another man’s careless driving.


Answer the following question:

How was the committee formed?


Draw word webs for the following. Begin with the given word and go on writing as many other words associated with it, as you can. Use these words to write other related words to form a word web.


Imagine that there is a Mr Somebody who has to correct all the wrongs that are done by Mr Nobody. Write in the following table, what Mr Somebody will have to do.

Mr Nobody’s Actions Tasks for Mr Somebody
1. The plate is broken/cracked Mend the plate. / Throw it away carefully.
2. The book is torn ____________
3. The door is ajar. ____________
4. The buttons are pulled from the shirt ____________
5. The pins are scattered. ____________
6. The door is still squeaking. ____________
7. There are finger marks upon the door. ____________
8. The ink has spilled over. ____________
9. Boots are lying around. ____________
10. ____________ ____________
11. ____________ ____________

Add a few more things to the list in the above table, using your own ideas and experience.


In the novel, the Lethargarians give a whole day’s time table of their activities. Can you guess what it would be like?
Use your own ideas and prepare their time table.


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Look, here’s something for you.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Why, the dress you go to the theatre in !”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“I would rather not go to the party.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Would you lend me this, just this?”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“What! ... how ! ... That’s impossible! ”


Complete the following table.

No. Utterance Who said it To whom When
(a) I touched it in the hall at the ministry. ___________ ___________ ___________
(b) It will give us time to look some more. ___________ ___________ ___________
(c) I might have needed it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(d) You must have made a mistake ___________ ___________ ___________
(e) Well, I lost it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(f) Mine was an imitation. ___________ ___________  ___________

Explain the idea of ‘Conservation of Nature through Livelihood’ briefly, using the example given here.


Find out the following with the help of your teacher and the internet.

Rain in countries like the UK which experience spring-summer-autumn-winter.


Read the poem: ‘Home they brought her warrior dead’ by Alfred Lord Tennyson.


Gather information about your favourite great historical personality. You may use the internet. You may also gather photographs, pictures, etc. Prepare a collage using the pictures, inspirational quotes, and a brief description of the person’s importance. Hold an exhibition of your collages in the classroom.


Write the following:

The sights mentioned in the third stanza.


List the lines that begin with ‘Here’ or ‘And here’. Also, list the sentences or phrases that begin with ‘And there’. These phrases and sentences tell us about things that appear one after the other as the carriage moves. Can we tell which ones are closer to the train and which ones are at a distance? How?


Explain the use of the following property in the development of the play.

An envelope containing the letter


What changes do we see in the life of human beings when the season changes? Write with reference to their clothes.


Pick out words from the poem that describe the following. List them in Column ‘A’. Substitute each of those describing words with another word/phrase of the same meaning.

  A (Poetic words) B (Your own words)
the ‘Autumn’ a maiden fair  
stars    
moonlight    
cooing of birds    

Find one example of the following given below from the poem: Metaphor


Answer the following question and write in short, why the parody sounds funny.

Why does the crocodile work?


Read the lines of the following poem. Guess and fill in suitable words to make the lines rhyme -

Golden Glow

Soon after dawn, rises the _________________.
It wakes and enlivens every _________________.
It scares away the long, dark _________________.
The shining stars go out of _________________.
From tree to tree birds flit and, _________________.
Searching for food, with a sharp _________________.
The buds that open now show their, _________________
As flowers, they dance with beauty and _________________.
The hill slope wears a grassy green,_________________
The curved sparkling river, it's gold _________________.
The cock then crows to give a loud, _________________
Come on! wake up, folks! One and _________________.
I, then wake up, ‘Good Morning’ to,_________________
Let’s all look forward to a golden _________________.


Choose the appropriate phrase to insert in the gaps, to make the sentence meaningful. Use the appropriate form of the verb.

After I took the medicine, I____________,____________the pain.


These two passages are examples of a short introduction to works of art - a short review. They cover the following points:

  • The creator
  • The theme or subject matter
  • Type of art
  • Individual style
  • Presentation techniques
  • Its effect on viewers
  • Message or interpretation

Compare the points with those you used for a book review and the review of a play. Present the comparison in the form of a chart.

Book Review Review of a play Review of a painting
     
     

Using your imagination, write how the other pets in the house could have objected to Caesar living in their house.


Write in your own word.

What message does the poem convey?


Form groups of 6-8. One person (leader) chooses one item - a picture, a paragraph, or a lesson from any one of the 9th standard textbooks and writes the reference on a slip of paper, and folds it. Others ask him/her questions and try to guess what it is, from his/her answers. Follow the rules given below.

  • The maximum number of questions the rest of the group can ask is 20.
  • You cannot ask a direct question like ‘What do you have in mind?’
  • You can ask ‘Wh-’ questions or ‘Yes/no’ questions.
  • The leader has to give truthful answers.

Write in your own words.

How does the poet describe his home in the second stanza?


Which season would you say is the hardest in your locality? What help would the poor and homeless people need in that season?


Fill in the blank choosing the appropriate word/idiom from the lesson.

The ______ solved the mysterious crime.


Fill in the blank choosing the appropriate word/idiom from the lesson.

As soon as I ______ of my home, I greet my family.


Using the following points frame a character sketch of the narrator. Support each character trait with instances from the lesson.

  1. Diffident and timid
  2. Unusual behavior
  3. Ignorant about banking
  4. Nervous and careless
  5. Economical.

Why did Marouckla’s stepmother hate her?


Name the following.

Captain of the Indian Team


Read the poem aloud using proper intonation.


Read the word. Write the words that combine to make them.

gentle-hearted


Write other meaningful words that begin/end with gentle-hearted

  • the first word begins with gentle
  • the second word ends with hearted

List the polite expressions we use such as ‘Pardon’.


What difficulties do the people in the play face in the morning?


When do the parents feel sorry and become unhappy?


Why did he spill the milk?


What did the Judge tell Ahmad?


What is the ‘Internet’?


Have you ever been on an adventurous journey? If yes, share your experience.


Read the following line from the poem and answer the question that follow.

In the dim past, nor holding back in fear From what the future veils; but with a whole And happy heart, that pays its toll To Youth and Age, and travels on with cheer.

Identify the rhyming words of the given lines.


Identify the character or speaker.

Now pray tell me, sir, your reason for raising this sea-storm?


Answer the question in a paragraph of about 100 – 150 word.

Narrate how Prospero made his enemies repent to restore his dukedom.


What did the Bodwells think when they heard the mother shout.


Answer the following question in about 100-150 word.

Narrate the extensive search operation made by the policemen in the house.


Why did Chulong catch the bird?


What were Chulongs plans for the bird?


Read the story again and write how these character reacted in these situation:

Just wait till zigzag settles down in this new home. Visu………….................………………
Aravind and Maya…….……………….


How were offerings carried during the ancient period?


Bring out a few differences between the two art forms: Therukoothu and Bommalattam.


Answer the following question based on the reading of the story. Do not forget to go back to the passage whenever necessary to find and confirm the answer.

Action Effect
While you warm yourself I will prepare the best tea.
I saved enough money  
  Six hundred and two villages were destroyed.
It was a terrible earthquake and it was felt  
I ran back to the village  
They lifted the door  
I went to thank the Army Officer  

In New York, Mr. Scotti left the plane because he thought he.


Based on your reading, rearrange the following sentences in the correct sequence.

  1. Since all her methods failed, finally she gave him a pain-killer.
  2. He told his aunt that Peter had no aunt, so he gave him the medicine.
  3. The pain-killer triggered adverse reactions on Peter.
  4. It jumped out of the open window.
  5. Tom was dull and depressed.
  6. This incident upset Aunt Polly and she questioned him.
  7. But, Tom gave that painkiller to the cat Peter.
  8. So, Aunt Polly tried different types of remedies on him.

Who was the first person to withdraw cash from the ATM?


Which theory of Ramanujan helps the ATMs to dispense cash?


Why did Anne want to exchange the book ‘Camera Obscura’?


Who baked the homemade cookies?


Which gift did Anne value the most?


Tom lay thinking. Presently it occurred to him that he wished he was sick; then he could stay home from school. He examined himself. He found no symptoms or sickness, and he investigated again. This time he felt he had a stomach ache, but it soon grew feeble, and presently died wholly away. He reflected further.

What was the result of Tom’s self-examination?


Usha went to visit her______ house after shopping in the market.


What kind of learning brings joy to you?


What do you need to learn to live a good life in this world?


What do you infer about speaking with others from this poem?


Pick out the rhyming words from the first stanza of the poem.


Identify the character/speaker.

I must find out why he's in such a hurry!


What do you think is going to happen next?


Look at the number pattern. Fill the blank in the middle of the series or end of the series.

SCD, TEF, UGH, ______, WKL


Read the line and answer the question.

I must go down to the sea again, to the lonely sea and the sky

Where does the poet want to go?


What are the characteristics of a courageous man?


According to the author the tendril was moving towards grandfather because it______.


What is as sharp as a blade?


Discuss in groups and share your views in three or four sentences with others in the class.

What is your favourite dish? Do you know the spices that go into it?


Read the lines and answer the question given below.

And ever again, in the wink of an eye,

Painted stations whistle by

  1. ‘In the wink of an eye’ means very quickly. Explain ‘painted stations whistle by’.

The horses were four and a half inches tall.


The wild boar got up from its daybed because it was disturbed by another boar.


The wild boar settled down scraping the hole into a ______ to have a good sleep.


Read the lines and answer the questions given below.

Autumn is English

in red, yellow and brown

Autumn is Indian

Whenever leaves fell down

  1. How is autumn in India?
  2. Compare the English autumn with the Indian autumn.

A day in Mars is called ______.


The ________ are trying to terraform Mars.


What is the setting of the story?


The girl was badly hurt.


The boy and the girl were taken by the cavalry to explain their action.


______is a Do It Yourself kid.


The old man helped ______ and ______.


Look at the picture and Choose the correct word.


Whose hospitality is described in the poem?


What is the main idea of the story?


Karate makes me brave and bold. Would you like to learn it?


Look at the picture and tick choose the correct word.


Why did Uthaman become angry with the old man?


The official was transferred.


Tenzin’s family first lived in ______.


Where do ants pile their food?


Divya and Rani decided to draw a ________.


In which season is ice cream popular?


Whose word are these? Name the character.

“I am not rich enough to buy this plate. This is a gold plate.”


Who lived in the old house?


What would you like to learn in school? why?


Write the word with same meaning.

queue- ______


Do we worry when the progress is slow?


What do you think birds say to each other in the morning?


What did Nasruddin boast about?


Replace the bold word/words with a word from the quiver and re-write the sentence –

The teacher said something about his good handwriting. He felt very happy.


What sort of a boy is described in the poem?


The garden Alice saw was


What happens when the day is over?


Choose the right word.

This famous tree is in ______.


Why did grandfather give the children money?


What did the carpenter buy?


What did Pinocchio say in the end?


Write the related words as shown in the example:


Write the related words as shown in the example.


Read the passage carefully and complete the activities: 

1. Complete the following sentences. (2)

  1. Female sparrows lay ____________
  2. Sparrows build their nest out of __________.
  3. The eggs are ________.
  4. In cities, sparrows build their nest in ______

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.

2. How do sparrows take bathe? (2)

3. Find out adjectives for the following nouns from the passage. (2)

  1. ________ Song
  2. ________ Water
  3. ________ Bird
  4. ________ species

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world.
    (Underline the subordinate clause)
  2. Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time.
    (Frame a ‘wh’ type question to get the underlined part as an answer.)

5. ‘We have to save the birds.’ Do you agree with this statement? Why? (2)


Read the passage and write a summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to the summary

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.


Read the following passage and do the activities.

1. State whether the following sentences are True or false. (2)

  1. The king’s temperament also changed.
  2. The king was happy with prediction of the astrologer.
  3. The courtiers sought an audience with Tenali Raman.
  4. Courtiers advised the king to regulate his diet.

2. Complete the web (2)

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising.

He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.

3. Find out describing words from the passage for the words given below. (2)

  1. exercise - ________
  2. lifestyle - ________
  3. ride - _________
  4. physician - __________

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning.
    (Use 'used to)
  2. They advised the king to regulate his diet. (Pick out the infinitive)

5. What are the benefits of daily exercise? (2)


Read the passage and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary.

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising. He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.


Read the poem.

For Want of a Nail
For want of a nail, the shoe was lost,
For want of a shoe the horse was lost,
For want of a horse, the rider was lost,
For want of a rider, the battle was lost,
For want of a battle, the kingdom was lost,
And all for the want of a horseshoe nail!
[traditional rhyme]

Now form questions for the answers given in the speech bubbles.


Say Aloud

dash bash splash cash trash
steer tear clear deer dear
shower power tower flower mower
poked croaked soaked stroked joked
wept kept crept leapt slept

Circle the words where you get a zzzzz sound. One is done for you.

honeybees
price prize maze face
rice rise blaze fizz
lazy lacy busy racy
raise rays race ace
chase this these frosty

Now, read the following passage on “Laughter Therapy” and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Laughing is an excellent way to reduce stress in our lives; it can help you to cope with and survive a stressful life. Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress-busting endorphins. Since our bodies cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter, anything that makes you giggle will have a positive impact.
  2. Laughter Therapy aims to get people laughing, in groups and individual sessions and can help reduce stress, make people and employees happier and more committed, as well as improve their interpersonal skills. This laughter comes from the body and not the mind.
  3. Laughter Yoga (Hasya yoga) is a practice involving prolonged voluntary laughter. It aims to get people laughing in groups. It is practiced in the early mornings in open-parks. It has been made popular as an exercise routine developed by Indian physician Madan Kataria, who writes about the practice in his 2002 book ‘Laugh for no reason'. Laughter Yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
  4. Laughter yoga session may start with gentle warm-up techniques which include stretching, chanting, clapping, eye contact and body movements to help break down inhibitions and encourage a sense of playfulness. Moreover, laughter is the best medicine. Breathing exercises are used to prepare the lungs for laughter followed by a series of laughter exercises that combine a method of acting and visualization techniques. Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development.
  5. A handful of small-scale scientific studies have indicated that laughter yoga has some medically beneficial effects, including cardiovascular health and mood. This therapy has proved to be good for depressed patients. This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.

Answer the following.

a. How does laughter help one to cope with stress?

b. Which word in the text (para 2) means the same as ‘dedicated'?

c. Why do you think voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter?

d. ‘Laughter is the best medicine’. Explain.

e. Given below is a set of activities. Which of these are followed in the ‘Laughter Yoga’ technique?

  • sitting on the ground with legs crossed 
  • body movements
  • clapping
  • closed eyes 
  • breathing exercises 
  • chanting
  • stretching of arms and legs
  • bending backwards 
  • running/jogging
  • eye contact

f. ‘Laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding’. How?


The passage given below is on Kabbadi. Read the passage and complete the activities that follow.

Kabbadi (கபடி - in Tamil) is a contact team sport that originated in Tamil Nadu, India. It is the national sport of Bangladesh. It is also popular in South Asia and is the state game of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Telangana.

Kabbadi is played between two teams of seven players: the objective of the game is for a single player on offence referred to as a 'raider', to run in to the opposing teams half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court–all without being tackled by the defenders. Points are scored for each player tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but can be 'revived' for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle. The raider should hold his breath and utter the words like 'kabbadi kabbadi, hututu hututu, chadu kudu' etc. while the opponents try to catch him. If he stops uttering these words, he is considered out.

The game is known by its regional names in different parts of the subcontinent, such as Kabbadi or Chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh, Kabbadi in Kerala and Telangana, Hadudu in Bangladesh, Bhavatik in Maldives, Kauddi or Kabbadi in the Punjab Region, Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India and Hu-Do-Do in Eastern India and Chadakudu in South India. The highest governing body of Kabbadi is the International Kabbadi Federation.

Given below is the visual presentation of the first paragraph.

i) Represent the other paragraphs in a visual form of your choice(flow chart, mind-map, pie-chart, etc.).

ii) Choose the correct option.

1. A contact sport usually involves a ______contact between players.

  1. violent
  2. gentle
  3. physical

2. Kabbadi is a game played between ______.

  1. seven teams of two players
  2. two teams of seven players
  3. four teams of seven players

3. A single ______.

  1. player on offence is referred to as a raider
  2. offence is referred to as a raider
  3. raider is an offence by the player

iii) Answer the following.

  1. How does a raider score points for his team?
  2. When does a raider concede a point to the opponent team?
  3. Can a player be revived when he/she is out of the game? Explain your answer.
  4. Kabbadi is called by different names in different parts of India. Do you know how Pallankuzhi is called in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala?

Now, read the following biographical extract on Sujatha Rangarajan, a Sciencefiction writer, and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Sujatha is the allonym of the Tamil author S. Rangarajan and it is this name that is recognised at once by the Tamil SciFi reading community. You might have seen the Tamil movie ‘Endiran’ where the robot Chitti exhibits extraordinary talents in an incredible manner. The robot could excel a human being in any act, beyond one’s imagination. Jeeno, a robotic dog which appeared in Sujatha’s science fiction novel “En Iniya Iyandhira” (My Dear Robot) formed the basis of Chitti’s character. Like Chitti, Jeeno was an allrounder who could cook, clean and fight. High-tech computer technology terms are used in the story. Jeeno, a pet robot, plays an important role throughout the story. As the story proceeds, it behaves and starts to think on its own like a human and instructs Nila, a human being, on how to proceed further in her crises.
  2. In the preface of ‘En Iniya Iyandhira’, the writer states the reason for his attraction to the genre: “Science gives us the wonderful freedom to analyse thousands and thousands of alternative possibilities. While using it, and while playing with its new games, a writer needs to be cautious only about one thing. The story should draw some parallels or association from the emotions and desires of the present humankind. Only then it becomes interesting. Jeeno, the robot dog, was intelligent. But the character became popular only because of the robot’s frequently displayed human tendencies.” It is no wonder that all his works echo these words and will remain etched in the minds of the readers who enjoy reading his novels to have a wonderful lifetime experience.
  3. It was Sujatha, who set the trend for sci-fi stories. He had tracked the origin from Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein to his short stories. He has written 50 sci-fi short stories and these were published in various Tamil magazines. His stories have inspired many readers to extend their reading to English sci-fi writers like Isaac Asimov. The themes were bold, even if there was a dependence on a very well-established characterization of English fiction. Sujatha opened up a new world to us with his writings on holograms, computers and works like ‘En Iniya Iyanthira’ inspire many to study computer science.
  4. He has been one of the greatest writers for more than four decades. He combined reasoning and science in his writings. Being a multifaceted hi-fi and sci-fi humanistic author, he expressed his views distinctively. He was the one who took Tamil novels to the next level. As an MIT alumnus and an engineer at BHEL, he was very good at technology. He could narrate sci-fi stories impressively. His readers always enjoyed reading all his detective and sci-fi novels which featured the most famous duo ‘Ganesh’ and ‘Vasanth’.
  5. Sujatha has played a crucial role as a playwright for various Tamil movies which have fascinated movie lovers. Hence, it is fathomable that the writer’s perspective of future India enthuses every reader and paves a new way to reading sci-fi stories in English.

A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.

  1. How was Jeeno different from other robots?
  2. What precaution should one take while writing Science fiction stories?
  3. What inspired Sujatha’s themes?
  4. Why were Sujatha’s sci-fi stories impressive?

B. Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. difficult to believe (para 1)
  2. a style or category of art, music or literature (para 2)
  3. having many sides (para 4)
  4. capable of being understood (para 5)

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

The Stationmaster’s Supreme Sacrifice by Sanchari Pal (Adapted)

  1. Thirty-three years ago, on the night of December 2, 1984, Bhopal was hit by a catastrophe that had no parallel in the world’s industrial history. An accident at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal had released almost 30 tons of a highly toxic gas called methyl isocyanate, turning the city into a vast gas chamber. The result was a nightmare; more than 600,000 people were exposed to the deadly gas cloud that left thousands dead and many more breathless, blind and in agonizing pain. Few people know that during the Bhopal gas tragedy a heroic stationmaster risked his own life to save others.
  2. On the evening of December 3, 1984, Ghulam Dastagir was settling down in his office to complete some pending paperwork. This work kept him in his office till 1am in the night, when he emerged to check the arrival of the Gorakhpur Mumbai Express. As he stepped on to the platform, the deputy stationmaster felt his eyes burn and a queer itching sensation in his throat. He did not know that poisonous fumes leaking from Union Carbide’s pesticide factory were stealthily enveloping the railway station.
  3. Beginning to choke, Dastagir did not know then that twenty-three of his railway colleagues, including his boss, station superintendent Harish Dhurve, had already died. It was later reported that Dhurve had heard about the deadly gas and had immediately tried stopping the movement of trains passing through Bhopal before collapsing in his office chamber. His suddenly worsening health and years of experience told Dastagir that something was very wrong. Though he did not fully comprehend what was happening, he decided to act immediately when he did not get any response from the station master. He alerted the senior staff at nearby stations, like Vidisha and Itarsi, to suspend all train traffic to Bhopal.
  4. However, the jam-packed GorakhpurKanpur Express was already standing at the platform and its departure time was 20 minutes away. Listening to his gut instinct, Dastagir summoned his staff and told them to immediately clear the train for departure. When they asked if they should wait until the order to do so came from the head office, Dastagir replied that he would take complete responsibility for the train’s early departure. He wanted to ensure that the train left immediately, without any delay. His colleagues later recalled that Dastagir could barely stand and breathe as he spoke to them. Breaking all rules and without taking permission from anyone, he and his brave staff personally flagged off the train.
  5. But Dastagir’s work was not done. The railway station was filling up with people, desperate to flee the fumes. Some were gasping, others were vomiting, and most were weeping. Dastagir chose to remain on duty, running from one platform to another, attending, helping and consoling victims. He also sent an SOS to all the nearby railway offices, asking for immediate medical help. As a result, four ambulances with paramedics and railway doctors arrived at the station. It was winter and the gas was staying low to the ground, a thick haze poisoning everything in its path. Besieged by hordes of suffering people, the station soon resembled the emergency room of a large hospital. Dastagir stayed at the station, steadfastly doing his duty, knowing that his family was out there in the ill-fated city. That day all he had for his protection was a wet handkerchief on his mouth.
  6. Ghulam Dastagir’s devotion to duty saved the lives of hundreds of people. However, the catastrophe didn’t leave him unscathed. One of his sons died on the night of the tragedy and another developed a lifelong skin infection. Dastagir himself spent his last 19 years shuttling in and out of hospitals; he developed a painful growth in the throat due to prolonged exposure to toxic fumes. When he passed away in 2003, his death certificate mentioned that he was suffering from diseases caused as a direct result of exposure to MIC (Methyl Isocyanate) gas. A memorial has been built at platform No.1 to pay tribute to those who sacrificed their lives in the line of duty on the fateful night of December 3, 1984. However, Ghulam Dastagir, who died later, is not one of them. A forgotten hero whose sense of duty and commitment saved countless lives, Dastagir’s story deserves to be recognized and remembered by our fellow countrymen.
  1. Why was the accident at Union Carbide unparalleled in the world’s industrial history?
  2. How was Dastagir affected by the poisonous gas?
  3. What was the action taken by the station superintendent?
  4. How did Dastagir and his staff break rules?
  5. What was the cause of Dastagir’s death?
  6. Find words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.
  1. safeguard (para 1)
  2. common or familiar (para 2)
  3. prompt (para 4)
  4. cause (para 6)

Who according to Gandhi, can fight against evil and how?


What is Gandhiji’s ideal?


According to Tagore, when will India get the opportunity to win the gift of freedom?


How does Tagore acknowledge Gandhi’s noble work?


Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. a malevolent desire for revenge (para 1)
  2. tactful (para 2)
  3. despise (para 3)

Find words from the passage which are antonyms of the following. 

  1. artificially (para 1)
  2. strength (para 2)

Here is an amazing news item on how the qualities of duty and devotion is not restricted to humans alone but shared by animals. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

Caesar, the Hero of Mumbai on 26/11 

  1. Mumbai: Caesar, the last surviving hero of his kind, died of a heart attack on Thursday. Caesar, a Labrador Retriever, was covered with tri-color and given an emotional farewell from the city Police Force. The Mumbai Police Commissioner too marked the passing of the hero with a tweet.
  2. Caesar, who was 11 years old was the sole survivor among the dogs of Mumbai Police who took part in bomb detection operations during the terrorist attack on Mumbai that began on November 26, 2008. He died of a heart attack at a farm in Virar where he and his three canine buddies had been sent after retirement. During the terror attack in Mumbai, Caesar saved several lives when he sniffed out the hand grenades left by the terrorists at the busy CST railway station.
  3. Caesar was also a part of the search team at Nariman House, where terrorists were holed up for three days. Earlier he was also pressed into service for bomb search operation after the 2006 serial train blasts and July 2017 blast in Mumbai. The Mumbai police officials also tweeted their grief saying, “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable. We will remember our heroes forever.”

Answer the following questions.

  1. The Labrador Retriever was covered with tri-color. What does this signify?
  2. How did Caesar save several lives at the CST railway station?
  3. Which word in the third paragraph of the passage means the same as ‘forced’? 
  4. “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable”. Mention three services rendered by Caesar.
  5. Caesar is a Labrador breed of dogs. Name a few other native breeds that are used by the Police Force.
  6. Try to rewrite the news item in your mother tongue without losing the spirit and flavour of the text. Give a suitable title to the translated version.

Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next decade.


Now read the following article on the emerging career options in the modern era and answer the questions that follow.

The students at the higher secondary level in schools start thinking of suitable courses to take up at the university level based on their aptitude, ability, and interests. While considering the higher education options, they should also plan the career path they wish to take. In today’s complex job scenario, there is a mismatch between demand and supply. On one hand, we have qualified professionals desperately trying to find a job, while on the other hand, there are many professions that need suitable talented employees. But such skilled employees are unavailable. Therefore, the need of the hour is that students have an understanding of the emerging career options. and globalisation has widened the scope of career options in the twenty–first century. Let us consider some popular careers.

Fashion Designing

The current cosmopolitan and fashion–conscious wave that has taken over our country has opened up a huge arena for careers in fashion. These careers encompass designing clothes, costumes, jewellery, footwear, wardrobe, cosmetics, accessories and the like.

Culinary Arts

With food and cookery shows being a major trend across the world, culinary arts, a sub-domain of the hospitality sector, has now become the most sought-after career.

Paramedical sciences

In recent times, there has been a great demand in the health care industry. Paramedical professionals who support medical practitioners in areas such as optometry, pathology, nursing, physiotherapy, and dentistry are much sought after.

Media, Journalism and Advertising

In this information era, print and entertainment media have become a force to reckon with. This arena has become a huge career playground because youngsters are attracted to it as the exposure and reach are greater through such mass media. We notice that radio and TV channels, internet companies, and advertising agencies are increasingly recruiting qualified professionals.

Hotel Management

The hotel industry is the fastest-growing industry in India. The number of international travellers (both for business and leisure) is increasing. The hospitality and service industry offers career options such as house keeping, front-desk executives, tourism management, etc.

Sports Management

With multinational companies supporting sports, careers in sports offer enormous scope. One need not be a player or an athlete to shine in a sports career because the field of sports offers various career options such as technical trainers, commentators, sports journalists, dieticians, referees, etc. Conducting sports events successfully, organizing the event laudably, preparing the ground for the event are all part of sports management.

  1. When do students start thinking about their career path?
  2. How can students build a strong career?
  3. What are the integral aspects of a successful career?
  4. What is meant by ‘culinary art’?
  5. Why is media a popular career option?
  6. Name some paramedical courses mentioned in the passage.
  7. Why is the hotel industry seen as the fastest growing in India?
  8. Does one have to be a player to opt for a career in the field of sports? Answer giving reasons.
  9. Pick one word from the passage which is the opposite of ‘modern’.
  10. Which word in the passage means ‘composed of people from many parts of the country’?

Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

Humans have long been fascinated by fiction. We experience excitement in assigning supernatural power to imaginary characters in fictional stories – and so we have Spider man, Batman, He–man, Titans and many more. The ‘Cyborg’ was an offshoot of such wild imagination of humans to invest our species with superhuman powers. Today, the Cyborg is no more an imaginary organism. We are living in a world where a sizeable population of humans have merged their bodies with technological implants. The term ‘Cyborg’, short for ‘cybernetic organism’, was coined to describe a man, whose body is implanted with technological devices to supplement and substitute body functions.

Cyborgs include people with cardiac pacemakers, contact lenses, bionic ears and eyes, prosthetics and so on. In other words, a cyborg is partly human and partly machine. The technological innovations in the field of medicine and healthcare augment humans with machines, producing a beta version of the human body. The advent of brain machine interfaces is certain to blur the boundary between humans and machines. Scientists are working hard to find a technique for age reversal too. People do not want to die, so mankind is striving to get to the final frontier, which is development of machines and devices that would accord man immortality.

The needs of humans are not limited. As time passes, food habits change, thinking patterns change, and even appearances change. We are about to travel by driverless, fully automated vehicles. Computers and smart phones have become our masters. The more we depend and merge with technological advancements, the more the humanness in us slowly erodes. Intelligence is sought to be infused into machines and robotics are designed in such a way to give man a virtual human companion. The field of artificial intelligence is overtaking the human brain and many fear that it could even harm the human race. Despite certain limitations and potential threats, many believe that cyborgs will be the next step in the evolution of mankind. The amalgamation of man and machine is sure to add a new dimension to the life of mankind and this will prove to be the ‘biggest evolution in Biology’ since the emergence of life, four billion years ago.

Questions:

a) Account for the popularity of characters with supernatural powers.

b) Who is referred to as a ‘Cyborg’?

c) What is expected to happen with the advent of the brain machine interface?

d) The needs of humans are not limited. How is this statement elaborated in the passage?

e) How can a machine turn into a virtual companion for humans?

f) Explain the flipside of the rapid technological advancement.

g) Identify the word in para 1 which means ‘everlasting life’.

h) Which of the following words is synonymous with ‘amalgamation’?

  1. recreation
  2. integration
  3. exploration
  4. proposition

i) Which of the following options is the antonym of the word ‘advent’?

  1. drawback
  2. dispute
  3. departure
  4. danger

j) Find out the word which is the antonym of ‘natural’ in para 3.


On the basis of your understanding of the given passage, make notes in any appropriate format.

The Sherpas were nomadic people who first migrated from Tibet approximately 600 years ago, through the Nangpa La pass and settled in the Solukhumbu District, Nepal. These nomadic people then gradually moved westward along salt trade routes. During 14th century, Sherpa ancestors migrated from Kham. The group of people from the Kham region, east of Tibet, was called “Shyar Khamba”. The inhabitants of Shyar Khamba, were called Sherpa. Sherpa migrants travelled through Ü and Tsang, before crossing the Himalayas. According to Sherpa oral history, four groups migrated out of Solukhumbu at different times, giving rise to the four fundamental Sherpa clans: Minyagpa, Thimmi, Sertawa and Chawa. These four groups have since split into the more than 20 different clans that exist today

Sherpas had little contact with the world beyond the mountains and they spoke their own language. AngDawa, a 76-year-old former mountaineer recalled “My first expedition was to Makalu [the world’s fifth highest mountain] with Sir Edmund Hillary’’. We were not allowed to go to the top. We wore leather boots that got really heavy when wet, and we only got a little salary, but we danced the Sherpa dance, and we were able to buy firewood and make campfires, and we spent a lot of the time dancing and singing and drinking. Today Sherpas get good pay and good equipment, but they don’t have good entertainment. My one regret is that I never got to the top of Everest. I got to the South Summit, but I never got a chance to go for the top.

The transformation began when the Sherpa Tenzing Norgay and the New Zealander Edmund Hillary scaled Everest in 1953. Edmund Hillary took efforts to build schools and health clinics to raise the living standards of the Sherpas. Thus life in Khumbu improved due to the efforts taken by Edmund Hillary and hence he was known as ‘Sherpa King’.

Sherpas working on the Everest generally tend to perish one by one, casualties of crevasse falls, avalanches, and altitude sickness. Some have simply disappeared on the mountain, never to be seen again. Apart from the bad seasons in 1922, 1970 and 2014 they do not die en masse. Sherpas carry the heaviest loads and pay the highest prices on the world’s tallest mountain. In some ways, Sherpas have benefited from the commercialization of the Everest more than any group, earning income from thousands of climbers and trekkers drawn to the mountain. While interest in climbing Everest grew gradually over the decades after the first ascent, it wasn’t until the 1990s that the economic motives of commercial guiding on Everest began. This leads to eclipse the amateur impetus of traditional mountaineering. Climbers looked after each other for the love of adventure and “the brotherhood of the rope” now are tending to mountain businesses. Sherpas have taken up jobs as guides to look after clients for a salary. Commercial guiding agencies promised any reasonably fit person a shot at Everest.


Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm to the ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. The release of various gases, finely divided solid particles, or liquid droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and dilute in the environment is called air pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, light pollution, and plastic pollution.

Particulate Matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. These particles if inhaled can affect health. The impact of PM 2.5 is particularly high in South Asia. Outdoor pollution is caused by a variety of pollutants like public and private vehicles, waste burning in the open, power production industries and construction and even cigarette smoking in public places.

Presently, air pollution is a major and growing risk factor for ill health in India. Delhi is one of the most air polluted cities in India. The air in the city as well as areas surrounding it has worsened to extremely hazardous levels in the recent years. This year’s pollution level is the worst in four years. Several studies have shown that poor air quality is a cause for many health issues among people with lower respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest discomfort, serious lung infections and cardio vascular diseases. Some studies throw light on the fact that about 16 per cent of the deaths worldwide in 2015 were due to pollution.

Air Masks are an option to protect oneself outdoor. Air masks can be used while commuting or while one is exposed to a polluted area. Some of these masks also include a layer of Activated carbon to filter the air. They protect us from suspended air particles and particulate matter up to the size of 2.5 microns and above. Their usage is limited to some days and should be disposed off after their prescribed duration of usage. The price for air masks starts from Rs 100 and can go up to Rs 500 and more.

We have to take active measures to control pollution and protect ourselves to lead a healthy and pollution free life.

  1. What is meant by pollution? Mention the different kinds of pollution.
  2. How does Particulate Matter cause air pollution?
  3. Identify three major causes of pollution in air
  4. Name the types of pollution we encounter now.
  5. What sort of health issues do people face due to air pollution?
  6. How can we protect ourselves outdoor from air pollution?
  7. Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
  8. Identify the meaning of the word similar to the one used in the fourth para:
  1. emerging
  2. filtering
  3. floating
  4. falling

Read the following information given in the table below and answer the questions.

A nice choice from Chennai to the National capital
RAJADHANI EXPRESS TIMETABLE
Shortest Route between Chennai and Hazrat Nizamuddin 8 Halts & 324 intermediate stations in between
Station Name Departs Day Speed
Chennai Central 06.05 1 75
Vijayawada 11.55 1 76
Warangal 14.40 1 77
Balharshah 18.00 1 78
Nagpur 20.45 1 74
Bhopal 02.10 2 89
Jhansi 05.31 2 99
Gwalior 06.32 2 85
Agra Cantt 07.57 2 76
Hazrat Nizamudin 10.25 2 -

a) The number of stations between Chennai Central and Hazrat Nizamudin is______.

  1. five
  2. ten
  3. eight
  4. eleven

b) The train is expected to reach ______ around 8.45 PM

  1. Warangal
  2. Vijayawada
  3. Bhopal
  4. Nagpur

c) Between ______ the train runs at its maximum speed.

  1. Bhopal and Gwalior 
  2. Bhopal and Jhansi
  3. Bhopal and Hazarat Nizamudin
  4. Bhopal and Agra

d) Almost ______ the train reaches Vijayawada.

  1. the day after
  2. around early morning
  3. late night
  4. around noon

e) People prefer the Rajadhani Express to travel from Chennai to reach the capital because ______.

  1. it reaches the destination on the same day
  2. the charge is reasonable.
  3. the train halts at ten stations.
  4. it is the shortest route from Chennai to New Delhi.

f) The destination of Rajadhani express is______.

  1. Hazarat Nizamudin.
  2. New Delhi junction.
  3. Old Delhi.
  4. Rajkot.

How should teenagers guard against cyber crimes?


What should we do to ensure Safe Surfing?


What are the details not to be revealed in public domain?


What should parents do to ensure the safety of children in cyber space?


Which of the following should one avoid while using social media? Tick against the correct options.


How can we identify insecure websites?


Mention any three details that should not be revealed in public domain.


What should parents do to ensure cyber safety for their wards? (Any three points)


Why is it not advisable to play online games?


Pick out word which mean the same as

stop doing something (para 1) 


Pick out word which mean the same as

place or fix (para 2) 


Pick out word which mean the same as

not protected (para 2)


Pick out word which mean the same as

keep a check on (para 3)


Read the given sentence and underline the 'no' word.

Nobody is at home.


Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

"I don't believe in taking the right decisions. I take decisions, I take decisions and then make them right:' One of them make them right. One of Ratan Tata's inspiring words which made me dream beyond shadows. I feel fortunate that I discovered him in the early stage of my life and now I am using his teachings to mould my future the way I want.

Even though Ratan Tata was born into a very posh family in India, he never took money and power for granted. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York, Ratan Tata began his career in the Tata Group working on the shop floor of Tata Steel. After working for almost 10 years he was appointed as the director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited (NELCO) in order to help its struggling finances. He worked hard to build a better consumer electronics division but the economic recession and union strikes prevented him from achieving success and this success helped Tata to be appointed as the chairman of the Tata Group of companies. He started with a very basic job in his father's company and today he owns a billion dollar company.

The tag of greatness does not come without making any sacrifices and this tag on Ratan Tata suits to its best.

Tata group launched its passenger car Tata Indica in the year 1998 but Tata Indica was a failure in its first year and the experiment seemed to be failing. Many people started advising Ratan Tata that he should sell the passenger car business. Ratan Tata also agreed to this and a proposal was given to Ford. they showed interest too. The three-hour meeting at Ford headquarters in Detroit, chairman of Ford (Bill Ford) said to Ratan Tata, "Why did you enter in the passenger car business when you were not knowing of it. It will be a favour if we buy this business from you."

Ratan Tata decided to move back home. Whi le travelling he was very tense as the feeling of being insulted was on his mind. After earlier failures, Tata Motors did well with its business of passenger cars but in the same period, Ford did very bad. In 2008 when Ford was on it way of bankruptcy, Tata Group offered Ford to buy its luxury car brand, Jaguar Land Rover. Ford arrived in Mumbai for the meeting. In the meeting, Bill Ford said to Ratan Tata, you are doing a big favour for us by buying-Jaguar-Land Rover is now owned by Tata Group and is currently making profits.

A1. Rewrite the following sentences as per their occurrence in the extract:   (2)

  1. He was appointed as the Director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited.
  2. Tata Group launched its passenger car 'Tata Indica in the year 1998.
  3. Billi Ford said to Ratan Tata, "You are doing a big favour for us by buying Jaguar-Land Rover."
  4. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York.

A2. Explain:   (2)

The writer says, "I don't believe in taking right decisions. I take decisions and then make them right."

A3. Give reasons:  (2)

Ratan Tata decided to sell his passenger car business.

A4. Personal Response:  (2)

Right decision at the right time is important success. Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:   (2)

Do as directed:

  1. He worked hard building a better consumer electronics division.
    (Rewrite the sentence using the infinitive form of the underlined word)
  2. Tata Group launched the passenger car Tata Indica.
    (Rewrite it beginning with 'The passenger car Tata Indica......')

A6. Vocabulary:

Give antonyms.

  1. Profit × ______
  2. Prevent × ______

Read the following passage and do the activities:

A1. Fill in the blanks:  (2)

  1. ______ percent of our daily communication is non-verbal.
  2. Eye contact is another type of ______ communication.
  3. Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling ______.
  4. One can readily detect _______.

According to some experts, a staggering 93 percent of our daily communication is non-verbal. Facial expressions are easy to decipher. One can readily detect happiness, sadness, anger. Physicians can tell a patient is doing well (or not) by looking at his/her face.

Eye contact is another type of non-verbal communication, which can tell a lot about the other person. The eyes convey a range of emotions-happiness, sadness, boredom, surprise, confidence .......... even emotional interest. Staring at someone's forehead may intimidate the recipient, staring at the mouth is sometimes interpretated as a sign of emotional interest. In fact, staring into someone's eyes is a sign of lying, and so is looking away. In certain cultures, lack of eye contact is taken as a sign of respect.

If body language is to be defined, it is a combination of facial expression, gestures, eye contact, body movements and posture and voice.

Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling distressed or uncomfortable. If the pupils are dilated, it ofter indicates interest, even emotional interest. The lips also reflect our body language, and lip biting indicates worry and/or anxiety; tightening of the lips may be an indication of disapproval. Slightly turned-up lips indicate happiness and slightly turned-down lips indicate sadness.

A2.

A3. Find the antonyms of:    (2)

  1. verbal × ______
  2. entertaining × ______
  3. sender × ______
  4. comfortable × ______

A4. Do as Directed:   (2)

  1. The eyes convey a range of emotions.   (Frame a 'Wh' question in order to get the underlined part as answer).
  2. Physicians can tell about a patient's wellness.  (Rewrite using 'able to')

A5. Personal Response:   (2)

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in our daily life. Comment.


Match the following items from column-A with those column-B:

Column 'A' Column 'Non-Textual'
(a) Geoffrey Chaucer (i) Trinidad
(b) Daniel Defoe (ii) Wuthering Heights
(c) V.S. Naipaul (iii) Robinson Crusoe
(d) Emile Bronte (iv) The Canterbury Tales

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

The call of the seas has always found an echo in me. Not being rich enough to roam in a private yacht, I have taken the poor man's way out. I swim across them. I have always been fascinated by the Indian ocean, whether at Mumbai, at Puri or at Gopalpur. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill. But the idea of swimming the Palk Strait did not occur to me until after I swam in the English channel. Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered. teaming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me. By the way, for preparation, I continued a strict and rigorous course of training which began in 1960. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea. Neither of these was easy.

Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait, especially about the tides and currents. Everything about the English channel is known-there is the Channel Swimming Association, there are trained pilots there are wants to be hired, accurate weather forecasts, dependable tide tables and every other form of assistance was readily available. All that one needed was money. Here in the Palk Strait one has to find out firstly from where information could be obtained and then decide how much of it could be incorrect or misleading!

A1. Rewrite the following as per their sequence in the extract:    (2)

  1. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea.
  2. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill.
  3. All that one needed was money.
  4. Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait.

A2. Explain:    (2)

What does the writer man by saving, "Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered, teeming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me"?

A3. Give reason:   (2)

The narrator had an intense desire to swim in the Palk Strait. Explain the reasons for it.

A4. Personal Response:    (2)

Do you like to have an adventurous life? Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:

Do as directed:   (2)

  1. Very little was known about the Palk Strait. (Rewrite as a negative sentence)
  2. I had to collect a comprehensive range of facts. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with 'A comprehensive ........)

A6. Vocabulary:   (2)

Give the synonyms of the following words:

  1. rigorous - ______
  2. thrill - ______

Read the passage given below:

1. Very often, we do not take the first step towards a good cause because we say to ourselves, "The task is so big. What can I do alone?" So nothing gets done. There is much talk about environmental protection, air pollution and saving our forests. Do we really care? If we do, here are a few things we can do to make our surroundings more pleasant.
2. It is good to adopt a two-uses-attitude! By putting an article to a second use, we are giving it a longer lease of life and using up less raw material from nature. One of the worst things we do is abuse of paper. The clean sides of envelopes can be used to write small notes, lists and reminders around the house. The more paper we use, the more trees will have to be cut down. For the same reason, we should avoid the use of paper napkins or paper plates. Cloth napkins are just as good, for they can be washed and used over and over again.
3. Another area which needs the most urgent attention is effective garbage disposal. People who are conscious about it follow rules and laws strictly. As a result, their neighbourhoods are clean and beautiful Similarly, each one of us can contribute to a cleaner environment. All kitchen waste should be collected separately. Those of you who have green fingers can turn this into valuable manure. Dig a pit and put the kitchen waste into it. When the pit is a little over half full, cover it up with mud. Let nature do the rest. Within three or six months, we will have a good garden manure. It can also be done as a community project by digging a large pit in the colony. Do take help of all the members, for nothing succeeds like co-operation
4. A lot of people don't care about the environment because they don't understand the adverse effect that society has on it. It is important to convince people to care about the environment. The first step would be to convince people to change by providing simple alternative solutions and ways of doing things. Theintemet is a powerful tool and a group on social media of like-minded people can be formed. People can share environmental stories and issues, as well as pool in solutions and alternatives to educate one another. With the current state that our planet is in, it is imperative that people actively care about the environment and most importantly to act now.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any Eight questions from the nine given below:

  1. Why don't we take the first step towards a good cause?
  2. What is a two-uses-attitude?
  3. What can we do to avoid the abuse of paper? (any two points)
  4. What is the result of an effective way of a garbage disposal?
  5. What procedure can one adopt for kitchen waste?
  6. How can making of garden manure be done as community project?
  7. How long does it take to make good garden manure?
  8. Select a suitable word from the passage which means - being concerned or interested. (Paragraph 3)
  9. Pick out the word from the passage which means - completely necessary? (Paragraph 4)

Read the passage below:

1. Our history makes it evident that the Indian Plastics Industry made a vigorous beginning in 1957 but it took more than 30 years for it to pervade Indian lifestyles. In 1979, "the market for plastics' was just being seeded by the state-owned Indian Petro-Chemicals and it was only in 1994 that plastic soft drink bottles became a visible source of annoyance.
2. In the same year, people in other cities were concerned about the state of public sanitation and also urged regulatory bodies to ban the production, distribution and use of plastic bags. However, the challenge was greater than it appeared at first.
3.

The massive generation of plastic waste in India is due to rapid urbanisation, spread of retail chains, plastic packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products, to consumer items and cosmetics. The projected high growth rates of GDP and continuing rapid urbanisation suggest that India's trajectory of plastic consumption and plastic waste is likely to increase.

4. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report of 2018, India stands among few other countries like France, Mongolia and several African countries that have initiated total or partial nationallevel bans on plastics in their jurisdictions. On World Environment Day in 2018, India vowed to phase out single-use plastics by 2022, which gave a much needed impetus to bring this change
5. In this context, thereafter ten states (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu) are currently sending their collected waste to cement plants for co-processing, twelve other states/UTs are using plastic waste for polymer bitumen road construction and still four other states are using the plastic waste for waste-to-energy plants and oil production. A world of greater possibilities has now opened up to initiate appropriate and concrete actions to build up the necessary institutions and systems before oceans turn, irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic.
6. However there is no one single masterstroke to counter the challenges witnessed by the staggering plastic waste management in the country. The time is now to formulate robust and inclusive National Action Plans and while doing so, the country will establish greater transparency to combat the plastic jeopardy in a more sustainable and holistic way.

Based on your understanding of the passage answer any six out of the seven questions given below:

  1. What does the writer mean by 'visible source of annoyance'?
  2. Why did people demand a ban on plastics?
  3. What created a demand for plastics in India?
  4. With reference to the graph write one conclusion that can be drawn about the production of plastics in 2019 (approximately).
  5. What does the upward trend of the graph indicate?
  6. What does the line, oceans turning 'irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic', suggest?
  7. What step must be taken to combat the challenges of plastic waste management? What will be its impact?

Complete the dialogue.

Anil:  Which is your favourite book?
Sunil: ________________________
Anil: What type of book is it?
Sunil: ________________________

The branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources. 

  1. Microeconomics 
  2. Macro economics
  3. Economics
  4. None of these

Read the following sentence.

‘A very wise man once remarked that of the unspoken word, you are a master; of the spoken word, you are a slave.’ The sentence has two pairs of opposites - spoken and unspoken, and master and slave. The contrasting ideas make the sentence more effective. Putting together opposite or contrasting ideas in one sentence is a literary device. It is called antithesis.

Read the following examples of antithesis.

  • Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice.
  • Man proposes and God disposes.
  • Speech is silver, but silence is gold.
  • Patience is bitter, but it has a sweet fruit.

Activity: Live English: Packs, packets, pouches, wrappers

Given above is the picture of an imaginary food item’s packet. Let us see how to ‘read’ the matter on the packet as a vigilant consumer.

  1. Look at the wrapper and complete the sentences.
    1. The name of the food item is ______.
    2. It is made by ______.
    3. It is a ______ food item. (Veg/Non-veg)
    4. The ______ sign indicates whether it is a Veg or Non-veg food item.
    5. The ingredients are ______, ______, ______, ______.
    6. The date of packing is ______ and the expiry date is ______.
    7. It should be consumed before ______ from the date of manufacturing.
  2. Try and obtain more information about the various symbols printed on the packet.
  3. Discuss the following -
    1. Why the ‘recipe’ is given on the packet.
    2. Why the packet tells us to visit the website of the company.
    3. What ideas are used to make the packet attractive.
    4. How you will verify whether something is good for you to eat.

Collect the outer coverings of fast food items. Discuss the following points in groups and then write your observations in your notebook.

  • Ingredients
  • Manufactured by
  • Net weight
  • Veg or Non-veg
  • Recipe
  • Nutrition facts
  • MRP
  • Mfg date
  • Website
  • Other instructions, if any

Based on the poet’s idea of true success, think of four people in your surroundings - your family, neighbours, friends, teachers, classmates, etc. who have achieved true success. Write, in short, what makes them successful.


William Shakespeare was one of the greatest playwrights of all time. He lived in the 16th century. Many Shakespearean plays have been written in the short-story form. Find out the names of at least 5 of Shakespearean plays.

Example: Romeo and Juliet


Enact any one anecdote in the classroom.


Form groups of four to six.
Discuss whether and how you can improve English spelling.


Arrange a ‘Jokes’ session in the classroom where each student tells a joke. The jokes must be told in English.


Make groups of 10-15. In this game, each person writes three sentences about himself/herself, two of which are true and the third one is a lie. Read aloud your sentences, while others guess which two are true and which is a lie.

Examples: Hello, everyone! I am Sonali. I have a brother and a sister. I live in Amalner. We have a pet dog at home.

In the game ‘Two Truths, One Lie!’, it is necessary to use details which can be verified to see whether they are true or false. For example, you cannot use sentences like ‘I once had a blue sweater.’


Look up the following entries in the Language Study pages given at the end.

  • stress
  • intonation
  • sound
  • consonant
  • vowel

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