Are these sentence TRUE or FALSE The poet tells the child to think of friends after it is dark. - English

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True or False

Are these sentence TRUE or FALSE

The poet tells the child to think of friends after it is dark.

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  • True 

  • False 

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Solution

The poet tells the child to think of friends after it is dark- True 

Concept: Reading Skills
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Chapter 5.1: Don’t be Afraid of the Dark - Don’t be Afraid of the Dark [Page 75]

APPEARS IN

NCERT English - Marigold Class 4 Cbse
Chapter 5.1 Don’t be Afraid of the Dark
Don’t be Afraid of the Dark | Q 5. 3. | Page 75

RELATED QUESTIONS

A1. True or False
State whether the following statements are true or false:
(i) A new research suggests that eating healthy food and getting proper sleep helps children to succeed in school.
(ii) Kids in the age group of 6-12 years should get an average sleep of little less than 7 hours.
(iii) Kids should start their day with yogurt, fruits and veggies.
(iv) Children should have consistent sleeping habit.

A new research suggests that eating healthy food and getting proper sleep can help children succeed in school. According to research, when kids go to school without eating breakfast, their cognitive function can be affected.
According to study, kids should start the day with fruits, proteins and whole grains and they should avoid sugary cereals because they cause a sugar high. If the kids do need to eat something prior to dinner, parents should offer healthy choices like yogurt, fruits and veggies or baked chips. Children have also been advised to drink water instead of soda as-it lacks nutritional value. Moreover, research suggests that children need a good night's sleep for theiroverall school performance. It is said that. lack of sleep can lead to problems with attention and memory in the classroom, affect impulse control and mood regulation lead to.
anxiety and even depression.
While kids aged 6-12 years should get nine hours sleep nightly, adolescents from the age of 13 to 18 years should get an average sleep of little more than seven hours per night. However, the research suggests that catching up on lost sleep on the weekend can make matters worse and recommended a consistent bedtime seven days a week.

A2. Find
Fill in the blocks with the following given in the passage:

(i) Two things to be avoided by children:

(ii) Lack of sleep due to mood regulation leads to:

A3. Select
Select the correct word from the brackets and complete the statements given below:
(anxiety, consistent, impulse, attention)
(i) Last minutes study causes......... to the students.
(ii) Stress affects the.............. for a quick action.
(iii) Saina has shown ........... improvement in her performance.
(iv) Students should pay ..............in class.

A4. Language study
(i) Pick out anyone sentence from the passage where a modal auxiliary indicating advice is used.
(ii) Pick out the correct conjunctions from the given sentences: 
(a) Kids should avoid sugary cereals because they cause a sugar high.
(b) It is said that lack of sleep can lead to problems.

A5. Personal response
We should eat healthy food. Explain..


A1. (i) Two activities that mother was free to do:
(a)...........................................
(b)............................................
(ii)Two activities that children avoided doing because of television:
(a) .....................................
(b) ...................................

Oh yes, we know it keeps them still,
They don't climb out the window sill,
They never fight or kick or punch,
They leave you free to cook the lunch
And wash thedishes in the sink
But did you ever stop to think,
To wonder just exactly what
This does to your beloved tot?
It rots the sense in the head!
It kills imagination dead!
It clogs and clutters up the mind!
It makes a child so dull and blind
He can no longer understand
A fantasy, a fairyland!
His brain becomes as soft as cheese!
His power of thinking rust and freeze!
He cannot think - He only sees!
'All right!' you'll cry. 'All right!' you'll say,
'But if we take the set away,
What shall-we do to entertain
Our darling children? Please explain!'
We'll answer this by asking you,
'What used the darling ones to do?'
'How used they keep themselves contented
Before this monster was invented?'
Have you forgotten? Don't you know?

A2. According to the poem, why is excessive watching of TV harmful?

A3. His brain became as soft as cheese. The figure of speech is ..........because............


He asked. Boy, did he ask! First he asked me for a chance, then he asked nearly all the people he came across if they wanted to buy a telephone system from him. And his asking paid off. As he likes to put it, “Even a blind hog finds an acorn every once in a while.” That simply means that if you ask enough, eventually someone will say ‘yes’.

He cared. He cared about me and his customers. He discovered that when he cared more about taking care of his customers than he cared about taking care of himself, it wasn’t long before he didn’t have to worry about taking care of himself.
Most of all, Cowboy started every day as a winner! He hit the front door expecting something good to happen. He believed that things were going to go his way regardless of what happened. He had no expectation of failure, only an expectation of success. And I’ve found that when you expect success and take action on that expectation, you almost always get success.
Cowboy has made millions of dollars. He has also lost it all, only to get it all back again. In his life as in mine, it has been that once you know and practice the principles of success, they will work for you again and again.
He can also be an inspiration to you. He is proof that it’s not environment or education or technical skills and ability that make you success. He proves that it takes more: it takes the principles we so often overlook or take for granted. These are the principles of that Ya Gotta’s for success.

Question:
(1) What was the cowboy’s motto?
(2) What did the cowboy learn after he lost millions of dollars?
(3) Why did the cowboy firmly believe that asking would pay off?
(4) When you expect success and take action on that expectation you almost always succeed. [Name the part of speech of the underlined words]
(5)
(a) He cared about me and his customers. [Rewrite using ‘not only ……………….but also’’]
(b) Cowboy has made millions of dollars [Add a question tag]

(6) In what way is the cowboy a source of inspiration for you?

 


Maggu’s achievements are particularly noteworthy because – as is well known – academic institutions in India are less than sold on the idea of inclusive education. In fact, when Maggu lost her sight in class IV, her school (which she declines to name) expelled her while suggesting she attend a “blind school”. Though shocked, Maggu rejected the advice. “Attending a special school would have tarred me with a handicap forever, which was not how I saw my future. Therefore I did the rounds of other public schools with my father, a small – time merchant, explaining that my case was different Since I had vision till the age of ten,” she recalls.
Impressed by her persistence and ambition, Delhi’s Bluebells School not only admitted her but pulled out all the stops to support her in academics sporting events and also notched up a respectable 73 percent average in the class XII exam with the help of Braille, interactive textbooks and extra coaching.
The respectable average in her CBSE exam paved the way for admission into LSR where again she proved her mettle by winning medals in a slew of inter – collage events (100 200 and 400 metre sprints) high jump, long jump, javelin and discuss throw: resulting in her being declared ‘Athlete of the year’ 2003’ at a sports meet for 100 physically challenged athletes. And the cherry on the cake was the selection to the IBSA Games last year. “It was a tough regimen,” recalls Maggu. “I had to attend sports camps manage my studies and officiates as sports president. But I managed.”

Questions:
(1) What qualities of Maggu are highlighted in this passage?
(2) Why did Maggu refuse to attend a ‘blind school’?
(3) Quote the lines that show that Jyoti Maggu was good in academics as well as in sports.
(4) Use any two phrases in sentences of your own :
(a) To win laurels
(b) To pave the way
(c) To prove one’s mettle
(d) A tough regimen
(5)
(a) I did the rounds of other public schools with my father [Change the voice]
(b) though shocked Maggu rejected the advice [Rewrite as a simple sentence]
(6) Should the physically challenged be sent to special schools? Express your views.

 


We sang our school fight song dozens of times – en route to Arlington National cemetery, and even on an afternoon cruise down the Potomac River. We visited the Lincoln Memorial twice, once in day – light, the second time at dusk. My classmates and I fell silent as we walked in the shadows of those 36 marble columns, one for every state in the Union that Lincoln laboured to preserve. I stood next to Frank at the base of the 19 foot seated statue. Spotlights made the white Georgian marble seem to glow. Together we read famous words from Lincoln’s speech at Gettysburg remembering the most bloody battle in the war between the status : “………….we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom………..”
As Frank motioned me into place to take my picture, I took one last look at Lincoln’s face. He seemed alive and so terribly sad.
The next morning I understand a little better why he wasn’t smiling. “Clifton,” a chaperone said, “could I see you for a moment?”

(1) When did the boys visit Lincoln Memorial?
(2) What made the Georgian marble glow?
(3) What did the words: “………. We here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain – that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom …………” remind them?
(4) Do you believe in building memorials? What kind should they be, if your answer is ‘yes’? If no, give reasons why you do not believe in memorials?


How did the air raids disrupt the Dutch public life?


Attempt a character sketch of Mr Gilman as a teacher.


It was her determination that helped Helen Keller get admission to Radcliffe College. Comment.


Read the passage carefully.

1. I remember my childhood as being generally happy and can recall experiencing some of the most carefree times of my life. But I can also remember, even more vividly, moments of being deeply frightened. As a child, I was truly terrified of the dark and getting lost. These fears were very real and caused me some extremely uncomfortable moments.

2. Maybe it was the strange way things looked and sounded in my familiar room at night that scared me so much. There was never total darkness, but a street light or passing car lights made clothes hung over a chair take on the shape of an unknown beast. Out of the corner of my eye, I saw curtains move when there was no breeze. A tiny creak in the floor would sound a hundred times louder than in the daylight and my imagination would take over, creating burglars and monsters. Darkness always made me feel helpless. My heart would pound and I would lie very still so that 'the enemy' wouldn't discover me.

3. Another childhood fear of mine was that I would get lost, especially on the way home from school. Every morning, I got on the school bus right near my home ‒ that was no problem. After school, though, when all the buses were lined up along the curve, I was terrified that I would get on the wrong one and be taken to some unfamiliar neighbourhood. I would scan the bus for the faces of my friends, make sure that the bus driver was the same one that had been there in the morning, and even then ask the others over and over again to be sure I was in the right bus. On school or family trips to an amusement park or a museum, I wouldn't  let the leaders out of my sight. And of course, I was never very adventurous when it came to taking walks or hikes because I would go only where I was sure I would never get lost.

4. Perhaps, one of the worst fears I had as a child was that of not being liked or accepted by others. First of all, I was quite shy. Secondly, I worried constantly about my looks, thinking people wouldn't like me because I was too fat or wore braces. I tried to wear 'the right clothes' and had intense arguments with my mother over the importance of wearing flats instead of saddled shoes to school. Being popular was very important to me then and the fear of not being liked was a powerful one.

5. One of the processes of evolving from a child to an adult is  being able to recognise and overcome our fears. I have learnt that darkness does not have to take on a life of its own, that others can help me when I am lost and that friendliness and sincerity will encourage people to like me. Understanding the things that scared us as children helps to cope with our lives as adults.

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage, make notes using headings and subheadings. Use recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary.

(b) Make a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.


Answer any two of the following questions in about 3040 words:
(a) How does Kamala Das try to put away the thoughts of her ageing mother?

(b) Which is the exotic moment that the poet refers to in 'Keeping Quiet'?

(c) What are the difficulties that aunt Jennifer faced in her life?


Answer any six of the following questions in 3040 words:

(a) Why did Gandhiji feel that taking the Champaran case to the court was useless?

(b) Why did the peddler derive pleasure from his idea of the world as a rattrap?

(c) How is Mukesh different from the other bangle makers of Firozabad?

(d) What tempted Franz to stay away from school?

(e) Why did the maharaja ban tiger hunting in the state?

(f) How was the skunk's story different from the other stories narrated by Jack?

(g) Which words of her brother made a deep impression on Bama?


Write a character sketch of Mr. Barrymore in about 125 words


Describe Miss Stapleton's first encounter with Sir Henry in about 125 words


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 

The term dietary fibres refers collectively to indigestible carbohydrates present in plant foods. The importance of these dietary fibres came into the picture when it was observed that the people having diet rich in these fibres, had low incidence of coronary heart disease, irritable bowel syndrome, dental caries and gall stones.

The foodstuffs rich in these dietary fibres are cereals and grains, legumes, fruits with seeds, citrus fruits, carrots, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, apples, melons, peaches, pears etc.

These dietary fibres are not digested by the enzymes of the stomach and the small intestine whereas most of other carbohydrates like starch and sugar are digested and absorbed. The dietary fibres have the property of holding water and because of it, these get swollen and behave like a sponge as these pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The fibres add bulk to the diet and increase transit time in the gut. Some of these fibres may undergo fermentation in the colon.

In recent years, it has been considered essential to have some amount of fibres in the diet. Their beneficial effects lie in preventing coronary heart disease, and decreasing cholesterol level. The fibres like gums and pectin are reported to decrease postprandial (after meals) glucose level in blood. These types of dietary fibres are recommended for the management of certain types of diabetes. Recent studies have shown that the fenugreek (Methi) seeds, which contain 40 per cent gum, are effective in decreasing blood glucose and cholesterol levels as compared to other gum containing vegetables.

Some dietary fibres increase transit time and decrease the time of release of ingested food in colon. The diet having less fibres is associated with colon cancer and the dietary fibres may play a role in decreasing the risk of it.

The dietary fibres hold water so that stools are soft, bulky and readily eliminated. Therefore high fibre intake prevents or relieves constipation.

The fibres increase motility of the small intestine and the colon and by decreasing the transit time there is less time for exposure of the mucosa to harmful toxic substances. Therefore, there is a less desire to eat and the energy intake can be maintained within the range of requirement. This phenomenon helps in keeping a check on obesity. Another reason in helping to decrease obesity is that the high-fibre diets have somewhat lower coefficients of digestibility.

The dietary fibres may have some adverse effects on nutrition by binding some trace metals like calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and others and therefore preventing their proper absorption. This may pose a possibility of nutritional deficiency especially when diets contain marginal levels of mineral elements. This may become important constraints on increasing dietary fibres. It is suggested that an intake of 40 grams dietary fibres per day is desirable.

(Extracted from ‘The Tribune’)

(a) On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes on it in points only, using recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Also suggest a suitable title. (5)

(b) Write a summary of the above in about 80 words. (3)


Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each:

(a) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to the ‘late winter’s moon’?

(b) The poet says, ‘And yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is inaccessible to them?

(c) What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?

(d) What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers when she is dead?


Anne's father was close to her. What did she like about him? Why?


How did Helen Keller enjoy her visit to the World fair? (120‒150 words)


What role did Mr. Gilman play in Helen Keller's life? (120‒150 words)


How did a story book, 'Little Lord Fauntleroy' open a window of knowledge to Helen and help to shape her career?


Attempt the following in 150-200 words.

Why does Anne call herself 'a bundle of contradictions'?


How did Helen benefit when Dr. Graham Bell accompanied her to the World Fair?


How did Helen display her passion for Radcliffe College?


Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:    

...........On their slag heap, these children
Wear skins peeped through by bones and spectacles of steel
With mended glass, life bottle bits on stones. 
(a) Name the poem and the poet.
(b) Explain: 'slag heap'.
(c) What future awaits these children?
(d) Name the figure of speech used in the third line.

Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:        
Far far from gusty waves these children's faces.  
Like rootless weeds, the hair torn round their pallor;
The tall girl with her weighed-down head.
(a) Who are these children?
(b) Which figure of speech has been used in the first two lines?
(c) Why is the tall girl's head weighed down?
(d) What does the word, 'pallor' mean? 


Aunt Jennifer's tigers prance across a screen,
Bright topaz denizens of a world of green.
They do not fear the men beneath the tree;
They pace in sleek chivalric certainty.
(a) Why are the tigers called Aunt Jennifer's tigers?
(b) How are they described here?
(c) How are they different from Aunt Jennifer?
(d) What does the word, 'chivalric' mean? 


Answer any four of the following in 30–40 words each :

(a) Describe the irony in Saheb's name.

(b) Why was Gandhiji opposed to C.F. Andrews helping him in Champaran?

(c) Aunt Jennifer's efforts to get rid of her fear proved to be futile. Comment.

(d) What does Stephen Spender want to be done for the children of the school in a slum?

(e) When he was only ten days old, a prediction was made about the future of the Tiger King. What was ironic about it?

(f) What was his father's chief concern about Dr. Sadao? 


Answer any four of the following in 30−40 words each:

(a) What did garbage mean to the children of Seemapuri and to their parents?

(b) How did Rajkumar Shukla establish that he was resolute?

(c) 'Life is what it is all about;...' How is keeping quiet related to life?

(d) Mention any four things of beauty that add joy to our life.

(e) The manner of his (the Tiger King's) death is a matter of extraordinary interest. Comment.

(f) In what condition did Dr. Sadao find the American soldier at the seashore?


Answer any three of the following in 30-40 words each: 

(a) Why has the poet’s mother been compared to the ‘late winter’s moon’?

(b) The poet says, ‘And yet, for these Children, these windows, not this map, their world.’ Which world do these children belong to? Which world is inaccessible to them?

(c) What was the plea of the folk who had put up the roadside stand?

(d) What will happen to Aunt Jennifer’s tigers when she is dead?


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

If you do not get lowered in your own eyes
While you raise yourself in those of others,
If you do not give in to gossips and lies
Rather heed them not, saying, 'who bothers?'
You may be the person I am looking for.
If you crave not for praise when you win
And look not for sympathy while you lose,
If cheers let not your head toss or spin
And after a set-back, you offer no excuse,
You may be the person I and looking for.

(1) What should be your reaction towards gossips and lies?
(2) Who are your role models? Why?
(3) Give the rhyming pairs of words from the first stanza.
(4) Which line is repeated in this extract and what is its effect?


Read the follow ing extract and answer the questions given below:

Not gold but only men can make
A people great and strong;
Men who for truth and honor's sake
Stand fast and suffer long.

Brave men who work while others sleep,
Who dare while others fly...

They build a nation's pillars deep
And lift them to the sky.

(1) What makes a nation strong?
(2) According to you, what makes India a strong and powerful nation?.
(3) Write down the rhyme scheme used in the extract.
(4) What does the phrase 'others fly ... ' mean?


Read the following extract and answer the questions given below:

How do you know
Peace is a woman?
 I know, for
I met her yesterday
on my winding way 
to the world's fare.
She had such a wonderful face
just like a golden flower faded
before her prime.

(1) How does the poet describe the face of peace?
(2) Do you think there is a way out of the war-ridden world? What is it?.
(3) Name and explain the figure of speech in the following line:
"I met her yesterday 
on my winding way."
(4) The poet asks the question and herself answers it. What effect does it create in the extract?


Complete the flow-chart : 


Complete the following table :


(i) The interest of Maharashtra and that of India should be one for the progress of Maharashtra state, because ................

 


Complete the following statements :

(ii) Maharashtra depends on India, because ................

 


Read the following extract and then do all the activities that follow :

I rain into a stranger as he passed by
“Oh, excuse me please” was my reply.
He said, “please excuse me too; wasn't even watching for you.”
We were very polite, this stranger and I.
We went on out way and we said good-bye.
But at home a different story is told.
How we treat out loved ones, young and old.
Later that day, cooking the evening meal,
My daughter stood beside me very still.
When I turned, I nearly knoked her down.
“Move out of the way,” I said with a frown.
She walked away, her little heart broken.
I didn't realize how harshly I'd spoken.
While I lay awake in bed,
God's still small voice came to me and said,
“While Dealing with a stranger, common courtesy you use,
But children you love, you seem to abuse.”

A1. Order- 
The incidents narrated in the extract are arranged in a jumbled manner here, Rearrange them in a proper order as they occur in the extract:
(i) The poet and the stranger went on their way saying good-bye.
(ii) Seeking excuse politely from the stranger, she went her way.
(iii) The poet ran into a stranger on the road.
(iv) The poet yelled at her daughter.

A2. Poetic device:
Make a list of rhyming pairs from the second stanza and note down the rhyme scheme of the same stanza.

A3. Personal Response:
Understanding and politeness are the essentials of out everyday life. Explain your views in brief.

A4. Creativity -
Frame two poetic lines on the following situation using a rhyming pattern with the help of clues given:
“While introducing great personalities, we praise them highly and talk about their qualities, but while speaking
about our friends we may not follow the same trend.”
While introducing great personalities, — a
------------------------------------ — a
But while speaking about our friends, — b
------------------------------------ — b


Read the extract and do the activities that follow:
The duke senior and his follower were sitting down to a meal one day when Orlando rushed out from among the trees, his sword in his hand. ‘Stop, and cat no more!’ he cried. The Duke and his friends asked him what he wanted.
‘Food,’ said Orlando. ‘I am almost dying of hunger’. They asked him to sit down and eat, but he would not do so. He told them that his old servant was in the woods, dying of hunger. ‘I will not eat a bite until he has been fed,’ Orlando said.
So the good Duke and his followers helped him to bring Adam to their hiding-place, and Orlando and the old man were fed and taken care of. When the Duke learned that Orlando was a son of his old friend sir Rowland de Boys, he welcomed him gladly to his forest court.
Orlando lived happily with the Duke and his friends, but he had not forgotten the lovely Rosalind. She was always in his thoughts andevery day he wrote poetry about her pinning it on the trees in the forest. ‘These trees shall be my books,’ he said, ‘so that everyone who looks in the forest will be able to read how sweet and good Rosalind is’.
Rosalind and Celia found some of these poems pinned on the trees. At first they were puzzled, wondering who could have written them; but one day Celia came in from a walk with the news that she had seen Orlando sleeping under a tree, and she and Rosalind guessed that he must be the poet. Rosalind was happy to think that Orlando had not forggoten her, because she loved him as much as he loved her.

A1. Complete - (2)
Complete the following sentences:
(i) Rosalind was happy to think _______
(ii) The Duke and his followers helped Orlando to bring _________
(iii) Orlando pinned the poems written about Rosalind on ______
(iv) When the Duke cam to know that Orlando was a son of his old friend, he _________

A2. Write a gist: (2)
Write a gist of the above given extract in about 50 words.


After the convocation, Mrs. Mini, Rahul’s mother and Rahul have a conversation. Write the conversation and present it to the class in groups of three.


Attempt a character sketch of Margot Frank as shown in ‘The Diary of a Young Girl’. 


With reference to ‘The Story of My Life’, describe how a teacher can positively impact a child’s life ? 


Chimps making their own fishing rods is an indication that 


The black kite may start a fire because


Big male elephants throw logs at electric fences because 


Why are animals considered as intelligent as humans ? 


What caused a blow to man’s ego ?


To what end have humans used their superior intelligence ?


Write a summary of the above passage in about 100 words. 


Attempt a character sketch of Squire Cass. 


Dolly Winthrop has a very noble nature. Comment.


Read the passage and complete the activities given below :
B1 Pick out 
The correct answers from the statements given below:

(i) All parts of the human body receive blood from the:
(a) lungs (b) heart (c) stomach (d) liver
 
(ii) The portion of the heart which doesn’t receive proper blood supply becomes:
(a) strong (b) dead (c) weak (d) diseased
 
(iii) Angina results from the weakening of the:
(a) heart (b) liver (c) stomach (d) lungs

(iv) The heart receives its own blood supply through the:
(a) veins (b) lumen (c) fat (d) coronary arteries

Coronary bypass surgery is undoubtedly a very significant achievement of modern medical science. But one ponders over certain pertinent questions such as the cost involved and the ultimate benefit.
The human heart is nothing but a four-chambered muscular pump that supplies blood to all parts of the body. Being an active pump, the heart itself requires a lot of energy and receives its own blood supply via certain vessels called coronary arteries. By a process called “atherosclerosis”, fat particles are deposited on the inner wall of the lumen of the coronary arteries which eventually reduce the size of the lumen and produce obstruction to the free flow of blood. The portion of the heart which suffers from lack of blood supply becomes weaker as a pump and gives rise to a typical chest pain called “angina”. When such blockage is total, the corresponding heart muscle dies and then one suffers a “heart attack”. In all these circumstances, heart surgeons perform a special type of operation known as “coronary bypass surgery”.
In this surgery, a blood vessel is taken (usually from the leg of the patient) and then grafted on the heart in such a way that when blood flows through, it bypasses the narrow segment of the diseased coronary artery. The concept is to divert the flow from the narrow artery, inside which there is already a ‘traffic congestion’ and in this respect, it is synonymous with road bypass.

B2 Fill in the gaps with the information given in the passage :
(i) The number of chambers of the human heart is _______.
 
(ii) Name the process by which fat particles are deposited within coronary arteries
_______.
 
(iii) When a heart muscle dies, due to total blockage one suffers from a _______.
 
(iv) To prevent heart attack Surgeons perform _______.
 
B3  Find meanings
Which words in the passage have the following meanings?
(i) think over
 
(ii) relevant
 
(iii) turn in another direction
 
(iv) a tube carrying fluid.
 
B4 
(i) Coronary bypass surgery is undoubtedly a very significant achievement of modern science. (Use ‘which’ and rewrite the sentence.)
 
(ii) The heart surgeons perform a special type of operation.
(Begin your sentence with ‘A special type of operation _______’)

B5 Personal Response
What do you do to keep your heart healthy?

Read the extract and do the following activities :
B1 Likes and dislikes :
(i)
The child likes eating _______
(ii)
The child dislikes eating _______ 

They won’t eat peas, don’t like your bread -
For something in it crunches;
They gag on fat, the gravy’s gross,
They won’t eat grapes in bunches.
Tomatoes, onions, peppers, fish
Garlic nor cottage cheese;
Oh, it’s a dish uncommon rare
That truly seems to please.
No red sauce may the ice cream have,
“It’s bleeding,” they will say;
And gravely hand it to their mum
To take it to clean away
But let us speak of chocolate cake,
It must be frosted o’er;
They’ll devour three full slabs,
And calmly ask for more.
Oh, I do so always love to eat
With picky little pests,
Whose parents joy to make them
The most undesirable guests! 

B2 What message does the poem convey for children? 

B3 Pick out two pairs of rhyming words from the poem. 


Read the following passage carefully and complete the activities given below :
A.1) Complete the web :
Write the words from the passage on the web. 

          We saw small bits of grass peeping through the small cracks in concrete pavement. It left us thinking: however impossible things may look, there is always an opening…………
             We saw a tree bare of all leaves in the cold winter months. We thought its chapter was over. But three months passed, spring set in and the tree was back to its green majesty once again, full of leaves, flowers, birds, and life. What if we too had the conviction that, however difficult things are right now, it will not remain so forever. Remember, this too shall pass.
             We saw an army of ants lugging a fly which was at least ten times the ant’s size. The ants organized themselves around the fly, lifted it on frail feelers and carried it to quite a distance. Their teamwork and perseverance were impressive. What if we too are consistent, organized, focused ……… Spider webs are delicate, yet very strong. A rainbow colors the entire sky. Oysters take in a grain of sand they open up with a pearl. Innumerable stars shine across the infinite sky. Clouds take new shapes with every passing moment. The wind makes trees dance with unhindered passion. Water, without a hint of ego, changes its form according to the dictates of the sun and the wind. When we see a caterpillar turn into a butterfly, a flower turns into a fruit, we experience the alchemy of nature ………. We touch it and become gold ourselves.

A.2)  Finding meanings :
Write what you mean by :
(i) _______ there is always an opening.
(ii) _______ its chapter was over.
(iii) _______ the tree was back to its green majesty.
(iv) _______ this too shall pass. 

A.3) Matching :
Match the words in Column ‘A’ with their synonyms in Column ‘B’: 

  Column 'A'   Column'B"
(i) conviction  (a) strong feeling 
(ii) alchemy (b) delicate
(iii) frail  (c) mysterious/magical power 
(iv) passion  (d) strong belief 


A.4) Language study : 
Rewrite the sentence using the correct question tag given in the brackets :
(i)
Water changes its form. (does it?, do it?, do they?, doesn’t it)
(ii) However impossible things may look, there is always an opening. (Rewrite using ‘but’) 

A.5)  Personal Response :
Nature is the best teacher. Explain. 


Read the following passage carefully and complete the activities given below: 
B.1)  Order :
Rearrange the following sentences in proper order:
(i)
Hanmant joined engineering.
(ii) Hanmant got his Diploma and secured a job in Philips.
(iii) Hanmant migrated to Pune when he was in class VI.
(iv) Hanmant took up a painting job to earn. 

            Hanmant Gaikwad was born in Koregaon in Satara district.
            “My native place is Rahimatpur, around 10 km from Koregaon. My father was a clerk in the court and we lived in a small, rented house.”
            Hanmant was a brilliant student especially good in mathematics. When he was in class six, the family shifted to Pune. They lived in Phugewadi near Dapodi in a tiny one-room house-10 by 10 feet. At this point, Hanmant realized the difference between himself and those who had money.
            Hanmant was then studying at Modern High School. He needed one rupee to buy a bus ticket to and from the everyday. Even that was hard to come by.
           Despite the hardships, Hanmant secured 88% in class 10. Hanmant completed his diploma and joined Philips as a trainee. But he wasn’t happy with the work he got there.
           The natural choice for a diploma engineer is to go for a B.Tech. But engineering colleges charge hefty fees. At the time, the family’s only source of income was a teacher’s salary of Rs. 2,300 a month……….
           And then I decided to also do some earning. “Khud Ka Kamana Chalu Kiya”.
          Hanmant took up painting jobs and quickly discovered it was excellent business.
          The young engineering student paid his own fees from the third year onwards. But his lifestyle remained frugal.
         Life was getting better, but Hanmant had his sights set higher. In the final year of engineering, he was attracted to the writings of Swami Vivekananda.
         “I felt Ki Kuch Alag Karna hai. What should I do, I did not know but in 1993 I formed an organization-Bharat Vikas Pratisthan.”

B.2) Complete : 

Hardships faced by Hanmant Gaikwad 



B.3)  Rewrite the following sentence choosing the appropriate word/s for the underlined word/s : 
(i)
His lifestyle remained frugal:
(a) simple
(b) meager
(c) extravagant

(ii) Despite hardships, Hanmant secured 88% in class X:
(a) In spite of
(b) Regarding
(c) Affected

(iii) Hanmant took up painting jobs:
(a) assumed
(b) to continue
(c) accepted

(iv) Hanmant had his sights set higher:
(a) looked ahead
(b) lofty ambitions
(c) looked above 

B.4)  Do as Directed
(i) Hanmant secured 88% in class X.                                   ( Begin the sentence as-88%....................)
(ii) In the final year of engineering, he was attracted towards the writings of Swami Vivekananda.       (Frame a ‘Wh-question’ to get the underlined part as the answer.) 

B.5) “Today’s hardships lead to tomorrow’s success”-Justify.


Read the following extract and do the given activities: 
B.1) Fill in the Balloons with suitable ideas from the poem: 

“Oh, the value of the elderly! How could anyone not know?
They hold so many keys, so many things they can show.
We all will read the other side this I firmly believe
And the elderly are closest oh what clues we could retrieve.
For their characters are closest to how we’ll be on high.
They are the ones most developed, you can see it if you try.
They’ve let go of the frivolous and kept things that are dear
The memories of so sweet, of loved ones that were near.
As a nation, we are missing our greatest true resource,
To get to know our elders and let them guide our course.”

B.2) Find Evidence:
Pick out the line from the extract which supports the given ideas:
(i) The elders have many things to share.
(ii) Everybody knows the value of elderly people.
(iii) The elderly people have vast experience.
(iv) The elderly people are a boon to the nation. 

B.3) Write a pair from the extract that rhymes with the given word: 

Fear  ........................... ..........................

Answer the following in 200-250 words :
What are Helen's opinions about examinations?


Answer the following question in 30-40 words.
“The sight of the food maddened him.” What does this suggest? (His First Fight)


Attempt the following question in 100 – 150 words.
What do you think about Anne’s talent for writing essays which she wrote convincingly when punished by the teacher?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
What is the main theme of 'The Diary of a Young Girl'?


Answer the following question in 200-250 words:
Helen had a great love for animals and birds. Write about this aspect of her character.


Mention the three phases of the author’s relationship with his grandmother before he left the country to study abroad.


Mention the odd way in which the author’s grandmother behaved just before she died.


Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

  • honing our seafaring skills

  • ominous silence

  • Mayday calls

  • pinpricks in the vast ocean

  • a tousled head


List the steps taken by the captain

(i) to protect the ship when rough weather began.

(ii) to check the flooding of the water in the ship.


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
billowed


Notice these expression in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.
swathe


Briefly comment on:
The author’s physical condition in Darchen.


Guess the meaning of the following word:
Kora
In which language are these word found? 


Guess the meaning of the following word:
Kyang
In which language are these word found? 


Combine related points.


Read the text below and summarise it.

Green Sahara

The Great Desert Where Hippos Once Wallowed

The Sahara sets a standard for dry land. It’s the world’s largest desert. Relative humidity can drop into the low single digits. There are places where it rains only about once a century. There are people who reach the end of their lives without ever seeing water come from the sky.

Yet beneath the Sahara are vast aquifers of fresh water, enough liquid to fill a small sea. It is fossil water, a treasure laid down in prehistoric times, some of it possibly a million years old. Just 6,000 years ago, the Sahara was a much different place.

It was green. Prehistoric rock art in the Sahara shows something surprising: hippopotamuses, which need year-round water.

“We don’t have much evidence of a tropical paradise out there, but we had something perfectly liveable,” says Jennifer Smith, a geologist at Washington University in St Louis.

The green Sahara was the product of the migration of the paleo-monsoon. In the same way that ice ages come and go, so too do monsoons migrate north and south. The dynamics of earth’s motion are responsible. The tilt of the earth’s axis varies in a regular cycle — sometimes the planet is more tilted towards the sun, sometimes less so. The axis also wobbles like a spinning top. The date of the earth’s perihelion — its closest approach to the sun — varies in cycle as well.

At times when the Northern Hemisphere tilts sharply towards the sun and the planet makes its closest approach, the increased blast of sunlight during the north’s summer months can cause the African monsoon (which currently occurs between the Equator and roughly 17°N latitude) to shift to the north as it did 10,000 years ago, inundating North Africa.

Around 5,000 years ago the monsoon shifted dramatically southward again. The prehistoric inhabitants of the Sahara discovered that their relatively green surroundings were undergoing something worse than a drought (and perhaps they migrated towards the Nile Valley, where Egyptian culture began to flourish at around the same time).

“We’re learning, and only in recent years, that some climate changes in the past have been as rapid as anything underway today,” says Robert Giegengack, a University of Pennsylvania geologist.

As the land dried out and vegetation decreased, the soil lost its ability to hold water when it did rain. Fewer clouds formed from evaporation. When it rained, the water washed away and evaporated quickly. There was a kind of runaway drying effect. By 4,000 years ago the Sahara had become what it is today.

No one knows how human-driven climate change may alter the Sahara in the future. It’s something scientists can ponder while sipping bottled fossil water pumped from underground.

“It’s the best water in Egypt,” Giegengack said — clean, refreshing mineral water. If you want to drink something good, try the ancient buried treasure of the Sahara.

JOEL ACHENBACK
Staff Writer, Washington Post

Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context.

  • blow-by-blow account

  • morale booster

  • relegated to

  • political acumen

  • de facto

  • astute

  • doctored accounts

  • gave vent to


Tick the statement that is true.

The story hinges on a particular historical event.


Tick the statement that is true.

The places mentioned in the story are all imaginary.


Briefly explain the following statement from the text.

You neither travelled to the past nor the future. You were in the present experiencing a different world.”


Briefly explain the following statement from the text.

Gangadharpant could not help comparing the country he knew with what he was witnessing around him.


In which language do you think Bhausahebanchi Bakhar was written?


The story is divided into pre-war and post-war times. What hardships do you think the girl underwent during these times?


Astrologers' perceptions are based more on hearsay and conjecture than what they learn from the study of the stars. Comment with reference to the story.


Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrase.

to give vent to


Tick the item that is closest in meaning to the following phrase.

to meet one's match


The school system often curbs individual talents. Discuss.


You will probably agree that this story does not have breathless adventure and exciting action. Then what in your opinion makes it interesting?


Did the boys return the horse because they were conscience-stricken or because they were afraid?


Comment on the indifference that meets Iona's attempts to share his grief with his fellow human beings.


Comment on the graphic detail with which the various passengers who took Iona's cab are described.


This play, written in the 1950s, is a humorous and satirical depiction of the status of the mother in the family.
Do you think it caricatures these issues or do you think that the problems it raises are genuine? How does the play resolve the issues? Do you agree with the resolution?


Is drama a good medium for conveying a social message? Discuss.


Read the play out in parts. Enact the play on a suitable occasion.


How do Shahid and the writer react to the knowledge that Shahid is going to die?


Look up the dictionary for the meaning of the word ‘diaspora’. What do you understand of the Indian diaspora from this piece?


Locate expressions in the text reflect the Indian idiom, for example, the pride of the generations of his ancestors.


'Luck is necessary for success in life'.


How, according to you, can peace and liberty be maintained in a state?


What was Uncle Williams' comment on the 'tinkerers' of the world?


How is humour employed to comment on the pains that the author took to get his watch set right.


'The author's treatment of the subject matter makes the readers identify themselves with the experience.' Comment on the statement.


Identify some of the improbable images the author has used to effect greater humour.


Why does Russell call the three passions 'simple'?


Why is the quality of pity earth-bound while the other two passions are elevating?


'It is not an accident that the most discrimination literary criticism of Shelley's thought and work is by a distinguished scientist, Desmond King-Hele.' How does this statement bring out the meeting point of poetry and science?


While tribal communities may not seem to possess the scientific temper,there are many ideas from tribal conventions that could enrich modern societies.


What are the cues that signal the presence of the peacock in the vicinity?


The peacock is a colourful bird. How does the poem capture the various colours that its plumage displays?


Adi Song for the Recovery of Lost Health' is in Miri Agom while Adi Agom is the Adi community's language for routine conversation. How does this reflect upon the high level of language sensitivity of the Adi? Can you think of other parallels in modern languages between the literary variety and the colloquial variety?


'Constancy' is the theme of the poem. Indicate the words, phrases, and images that suggest the theme.


Love is presented as the subject or the doer of actions in the poem. Why do you think the poet has used this form rather than involving human agents?


What is the central argument of the speaker?


What does the bird in the poem announce? How is this related to the title, ‘Coming’?


Discuss in pairs
Ruskin's insistence on looking intensely at words, and assuring oneself of meaning, syllable by syllable – nay, letter by letter.


The text is an excerpt from Sesame and Lilies which consists of two essays, primarily, written for delivery as public lectures in 1864. Identify the features that fit the speech mode. Notice the sentence patterns.


Which are the lines in the poem that impressed you the most and why?


What do you understand of the three voices in response to the question 'What does a novel do' ?


The quill is the central element of the poem – what does it symbolise?


Discuss in pairs or in small groups
What does a novel do?


Study the Note to Aspects of the Novel given at the end. Discuss the features that mark the piece as a talk as distinguished from a critical essay.


Discuss the following in pairs or in small groups.
Kumudini Lakhia's life is an inspiring illustration of the emancipation of women.


How does the poet tossed back from ecstasy into despair?


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I make friends easily.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a large group of friends but no best buddy.


Read the following statement and mark those that apply to you.

I have a small group of close friends and have no wish to interact with anyone else.


Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

To Jo the fine house seemed like ___________________.


Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

Jo swept a path around the garden for ________________.


Read the extract 'Being Neighborly' and complete the following statement:

Jo entered the old stone house carrying _______________.


Read the extract and state whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

The author did not succeed in finding Kasbai.


Read the extract and state whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

The aroma of the ‘desi’ rice would spread around the village.


Read the extract and state whether the following statement is true or false. Correct the false statement.

The author is an example of ‘reverse migration’.


Fill in the blank.

The author wanted to grow ______________.


Fill in the blank.

“Hybrids need more _____________”, said Devu Handa.


Answer in your own words.

What helped Revathi to claim her plants - her belief in magic or the belief in her convictions? Explain your choice.


Think and answer in your own words.

Does the poet really wish to become a hawker/gardener/watchman? Justify your response.


Discuss with your partner and describe the atmosphere in the woods when Mrs. Adis didn’t hand over Peter Crouch to the keepers because - 

  1. _________________
  2. _________________
  3. _________________

Find evidence from the lesson and write in your own words.

It is time to see ourselves as a developed nation.


State whether the following statement is True or False. Correct the false statement by finding evidence from the poem to support your remark.

The poet repents planting the cherry tree.


Discuss in groups, reasons/ consequences/ effects:

The life of the cherry tree was threatened.


Discuss in groups, reasons/ consequences/ effects:

The cherry blossomed.


A small thought, put in action, led to a great achievement. Pick out the lines from the beginning and end of the poem and explain their significance.


The cherry tree has inspired the poet to compose the poem. Such poems, describing Nature or aspects of Nature are called ‘Nature poems’. Find out some expressions from the poem that bring out the elements of the beauty of Nature.


Answer the given questions in your own words.

Why did the swallow decide to stay under the statue of the Happy Prince at night?


Make a list of words related to agriculture.


When we look at the sky, we find several objects. They stand for something or the other. Complete the following table by finding the significance of the given objects. One example is given to you.

Celestial Bodies Association
The Sun Power, Heat, Energy, Commitment, etc.
The Moon  
The Rainbow  
The Stars  

The poet encourages her brother in the second part of the poem by telling him about the brighter side of life. Discuss with your partner and make a list of the expressions in the poem that mean encouragement.

  1. Brighter garden
  2. ________________
  3. ________________

‘Never mind faded forests, Austin’. The word ‘faded’ means to become dim or faint. The word describes the forests that have become faint or dim in appearance. Now go through the poem again and complete the table.

Describing word Object Explanation
1. faded forests The forests have become faint or dim in appearance.
2. silent    
3. unfading    
4. bright    

A bridge connects people on either side of a river or valleys in cities or villages. Discuss with your partner the importance of a bridge to both the cities and the villages and complete the table.

Cities Villages
   
   
   

Building a bridge needs careful planning. Think about what goes on before the actual construction begins.

  • Proper planning
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________
  • ________________

Say whether the following statement is right or wrong.

Behrman did not know anything about the last leaf on the ivy.


‘Dull would he be of soul who could pass by.’

This line of the poem can be rewritten as:
'He would be of a dull soul.'

The figure of speech is known as ‘Inversion’.

Find out one more example of Inversion from the poem.


The poem is a Petrarchan Sonnet. The poem is divided into two parts -

  1. An Octave
    The first part comprising eight lines.
  2. A sestet
    The second part comprising six lines.

Read the first four lines of the poem. The rhyme scheme is a b b a. Read the rhyme scheme for the next four lines. It is a b b a. Now read the first three lines of the sestet and note the rhyme scheme. It is c d c. The rhyme scheme of the last three lines is d c d. This is the common design of a Petrarchan Sonnet.

This is a Petrarchan Sonnet. Complete the given table by giving examples from the poem.

Features Examples / Lines
Objects used  
Praise/blames  
Metaphor  
Simile  
Personification  
Number of lines  
Rhyme scheme  

Discuss in groups and share with one another.

The daily routine of your mother and father on working days.


Read the poem and complete the web about the activities the planners do.


Think deeply and write. Is the poet really discouraging the youth from becoming vets? Explain your response.


Go through the poem and state whether the following statement is true or false.

Planners take public consent for the alterations they make in the old structures of the city.


Read the expression:

‘the blueprint of our past’s tomorrow’. Consider in a group why the poet has not mentioned ‘the present’. It is because of the planners who have possessed our ‘present’ in order to change ‘our past’ into the ‘future’ they desire. Go through the poem and write the lines which support this thought.

  1. The buildings are in alignment with the roads which meet at desired points.
  2. ____________________________________________
  3. ____________________________________________
  4. ____________________________________________
  5. ____________________________________________
  6. ____________________________________________.

Read the first and second stanza of the poem. We understand that the poet wants to suggest the powerful dominance of the planners who shape the town according to their selfish desires. Make a list of such expressions. You may begin with -

  1. All the spaces are gridded, filled with permutations of possibilities.
  2. ________________________________
  3. ________________________________
  4. ________________________________

Select a season of your choice and give the following details:

  1. Time of the year -
  2. Characteristics- crops, festivals, etc.
  3. Features/changes - climate/weather/temperature etc.
  4. Advantages/Disadvantages -

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

If winter comes, can spring be far behind? - Shelley


Expansion of Idea:

Expand the following idea in about 100-150 words by using the points.

'Beauty is truth, truth beauty'.

  • Meaning of the proverb
  • Significance of the proverb
  • Add your own points.

Expand the idea inherent in the following proverb :

Fools rush in where angels fear to tread - Alexander Pope.


Join the sentences using appropriate Co-ordinators. (but, or, so, and)

He places his fingers into the master controls. He operates all four arms of the Da Vinci.


Complete the following choosing the appropriate option.

The emperor-bee supervises the building of


We all know that blogs can be written on many topics. Your teacher will divide the class into groups and assign a task to every group to make a list of various topics on which blogs are normally written. One is given to you.

  • Social Awareness
  • _________________
  • _________________
  • ________________

Underline the verb in the following sentence and state whether the sentence in Active or Passive voice.

England gave Ramanujan great honours.


Suggest what you would do in the following situation:

One particular friend of yours is always late for college, social functions, movies, etc. and delays everyone.


Form groups and discuss the following statements, in the context of the extract.

‘If he is indeed wise, he does not bid you to enter the house of his wisdom, but rather leads you to the threshold of your own mind’ Kahlil Gibran.


The word 'Review' is different from summarizing and appeal writing. Choose the correct statements of the following.


Go through the following web that highlights the essential qualities of a compere. Discuss with your partner the essential qualities and also the precautions that a compere should take while compering a program.

Precautions to be taken :

  1. __________________________
  2. __________________________
  3. __________________________
  4. __________________________

Make a list of functions/events/programs/activities organized in your junior college. Choose three events and plan a program schedule of your own. Prepare a script as well to show the associating role of the compere for a particular event. Make your own sequence and design a template for the same.


Wash your handkerchief clean. Hang it with a peg to dry in the wind. Watch how it flutters.


Name any four periods of History of British Drama.


Compare the features of a comedy and tragedy.


State the difference between poetry and drama.


Explain the term plot.


There are some dialogues that are short, but quite effective. They give us enjoyment and add beauty to the main story. Find some more from the text.


Find sentences from the play related to the given points.

The tension between different loyalties

  1. It’s little we get but abuse from the people, and no choice but to obey our orders.
  2. ________________________________
  3. ________________________________
  4. ________________________________

India is famous for its handloom fabrics. Write the story of a handloom kurta in your own words.


What changes in the stage setting would you suggest.


State whether the following statement is True or False:

Lysander and Demetrius fall in love with Helena as a result of the love potion.


State whether the following statement is True or False:

Both Demetrius and Lysander fight for Hermia.


Find 2/4 expressions of humour from the extract.


Read aloud with the leader: Form groups of five. Read the passage aloud in groups. The leader begins every sentence and stops after a few words. The other members complete the sentence, reading it aloud in the chorus.


“A Midsummer-Night’s Dream” is one of the best examples of Shakespeare’s Comedy of Errors. Comment.


Shakespeare is acknowledged as the greatest writer because he understood human nature better than anyone else. Explain the statement in the context of the play.


Explain the following statement with reference to the context.

You ought to be ashamed of yourself.


Write a short speech for the State of Maharashtra.


Expand the following ideas in a paragraph or two:- Courage and resourcefulness are the keys to overcome problems.


Say whether the following statement is true or false.

The merchant ships brought spices and other treasures from India and other countries to Italy.


Say whether the following statement is true or false.

Portia’s suitors chose the gold and silver caskets.


Answer the following question:

What two basic rules were followed in the Science Fair?


Choose a ‘question’ through your own observation. Try to follow the scientific method to find the answer to that question. Take the help of your teacher/parents to set up the experiment.


Write a short note on the following:

The message in the vision.


What characteristics of Mr. Nobody do we learn about from this poem?


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Look, here’s something for you.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Why, the dress you go to the theatre in !”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“I would rather not go to the party.”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“Would you lend me this, just this?”


Read the following sentence aloud. Write who said it and to whom.

“What! ... how ! ... That’s impossible! ”


Complete the following table.

No. Utterance Who said it To whom When
(a) I touched it in the hall at the ministry. ___________ ___________ ___________
(b) It will give us time to look some more. ___________ ___________ ___________
(c) I might have needed it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(d) You must have made a mistake ___________ ___________ ___________
(e) Well, I lost it. ___________ ___________ ___________
(f) Mine was an imitation. ___________ ___________  ___________

Read the following proverb that has a biblical reference.

‘Do unto others as you would have others do unto you.’ Now find at least 5 other proverbs/ axioms/quotations which convey the same message. Search the internet/dictionary of proverbs.


Think and answer:

Is the poet talking about heavy rains in the rainy season or rain that has come after a long time?


Read the passage and name the following.

He composed the Illiad and Odyssey.


Find pairs of rhyming words from the poem.


Identify one example of a main clause and one example of a dependent clause from the content below:

        Troy was filled with the sight of leaping flames and the sound of shouting and the noise of weapons and the cries of weeping women. The sleeping Trojans sprang out of their beds, but they were taken by surprise. Their enemies were right inside their walls, and many of the Trojans were killed before they could put on their armour and seize their weapons.

        A bright light lit up the night sky as palaces and houses, temples and towers, went up in flames. The Trojans fought as well as they could, but it was all in vain. Old King Priam was killed with all his brave sons. Hector’s wife and his old mother and sister were carried off as slaves by the conquerors. Their fate was in contrast to Helen’s when King Menelaus rushed through the city, looking for her, and found her in her palace. She hung her head in shame and sorrow as she faced her former husband. Her voice was choked with emotion and she could not speak. But Menelaus forgave her and she went back with him, for it was only Aphrodite who had turned her heart away from her home and her husband and her child.

       When morning came, nothing was left of the proud, rich city that had resisted attack for ten years.


Say whether the following statement is right or wrong.

Sayali did not understand the mistake she had made.


Find one example of the following given below from the poem: Simile.


Read the ode ‘To Autumn’ by the famous poet John Keats. ‘Season of mists and mellow fruitfulness...’


Note that most of the time well-known works are parodied, because people can enjoy the parody better when they know the original. Try to find more examples of parodies in English or other languages.


Find the different units of measurement mentioned in the passage and get more information about them from the internet.


Colour, sound, and images from nature add to the beauty of a poem: ‘Tartary’ is a perfect example of the above.
Pick outlines that contain-

  • Colour
  • Sound 
  • Images from nature

Spot and write any three alliterative phrases or sentences from the poem.
(Alliterative phrases/sentences are those in which the same sound is repeated.)


Write in your own word.

Who does the poet invite to join him?


Make adjectives from the following.

  • harm
  • continue
  • believe
  • fear
  • thought
  • wish
  • question
  • courage

Form groups of 6-8. One person (leader) chooses one item - a picture, a paragraph, or a lesson from any one of the 9th standard textbooks and writes the reference on a slip of paper, and folds it. Others ask him/her questions and try to guess what it is, from his/her answers. Follow the rules given below.

  • The maximum number of questions the rest of the group can ask is 20.
  • You cannot ask a direct question like ‘What do you have in mind?’
  • You can ask ‘Wh-’ questions or ‘Yes/no’ questions.
  • The leader has to give truthful answers.

Write in your own words.

How does the poet describe his home in the second stanza?


Bertha was very good but very proud too.


Read: ‘The Open Window’ by H. H. Munro (Saki).


Fill in the blank choosing the appropriate word/idiom from the lesson.

The sight of a snake ______.


Using the following points frame a character sketch of the narrator. Support each character trait with instances from the lesson.

  1. Diffident and timid
  2. Unusual behavior
  3. Ignorant about banking
  4. Nervous and careless
  5. Economical.

Why did Marouckla’s stepmother hate her?


Read the poem aloud using proper intonation.


Write other meaningful words that begin/end with - footprint

  • the first word begins with foot
  • the second word ends with print

Write some more expressions like ‘hundreds of’. Expand each expression.

Example, ‘Hundreds of children in the school.’


What did Ahmad tell Kasim when he dug a channel and began to draw water?


What did the Judge tell Ahmad?


WWW is a short form of World Wide Web.
Find ten other short forms related to ICT (Information and Communication Technology).


Find a word that has a similar meaning.

Whole-


Find a word that has a similar meaning.

happily-


Guess the meaning of:

dreary-


Guess the meaning of:

on the wing-


Give an instance that shows the pathetic condition of the young bird.


Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Ibn Battuta, Amerigo Vespucci, Xuanzang, Ferdinand Magellan, Bartolomeu Dias, Herodotus, Captain James Cook, Vasco De Gama.

What is common among these individuals? Browse Internet or refer books and share some information about them.


Answer the following question in about 80 – 100 word.

Describe the journey of life as depicted in the poem by Henry Van Dyke.


Who were on the ship? How were they related to Prospero?


Answer the following question in about 100-150 word.

Narrate the extensive search operation made by the policemen in the house.


Who is wise according to you?


Answer the following question in about 80-120 word.

From the poem ‘The Grumble Family’ what kind of behavior does the poet want the readers to possess?


Mention at least two expressions which shows that Mrs. Krishnan was not willing to have Zigzag at home?


What did Aravind confess?


What do Tamil Nadu folk dances and folk arts represent?


How were offerings carried during the ancient period?


Bring out a few differences between the two art forms: Therukoothu and Bommalattam.


Answer the following question based on the reading of the story. Do not forget to go back to the passage whenever necessary to find and confirm the answer.

Action Effect
While you warm yourself I will prepare the best tea.
I saved enough money  
  Six hundred and two villages were destroyed.
It was a terrible earthquake and it was felt  
I ran back to the village  
They lifted the door  
I went to thank the Army Officer  

He decided to find his cousins’ home without their help. He asked the policeman for information in Italian because he.


What made John Shepherd-Barron to come up with the idea of ATM?


When and where was the first ATM installed?


Who was the first person to withdraw cash from the ATM?


Why did Shepherd-Barron reduce the PIN number from six digits to four?


What game did Anne choose to play?


Write the name of the toys against each picture.


Hamid’s heart sank because the price of the tongs was______for him.


How should you speak with old people?


Read the lines and answer the questions.

And in fighting for their country, faith and king
noble impressions on people’s minds would ring

  1. What does ‘noble impression’ mean?
  2. Who can leave a noble impression?

Why can’t Alice get through the little door into the garden?


Why does Alice drink from the bottle that says ‘DRINK ME’ and why does she eat from the cake that says ‘EAT ME’?


Have you ever had a strange dream? Share your dream in the class.


He woke up very late in the morning.


ashen – pale

His face was ashen.


drenched – thoroughly wet

He is drenched to the skin. ______


Identify the speaker/character.

Stop ship. Drop anchor. Quick!


Rearrange the following jumbled sentences in the correct order.

  • Payal’s house was a home for abandoned animals. 
  • It was a small ball of brown and grey.
  • She found an owlet in one corner.
  • Payal’s mother picked her up gently.
  • Payal’s mother opened the carton.
  • One day they got a carton.

Why does the writer think that the peepul tree is a great show off?


According to the author the tendril was moving towards grandfather because it______.


Amma bought the vegetables from the______.


Mithali’s mother tongue is Telugu.


One of the Lilliputians gave a ten minutes talk in Gulliver’s language.


Discuss in groups. Retell the story in your own words. Each one should say one sentence.

You can begin like this:

Gulliver was travelling in a ship. One stormy night, the ship was wrecked...


Is the brother boastful? What makes you think so?


The man didn’t want to get up because he was tired as he wcoas thrown into the ditch.


Why did the girl reply haughtily?


The aliens gave a new shuttle to them.


How do we work?


The second daughter ________ the milet to a flock of birds.


The Chinese troops attacked the lonely Indian post located in ______.


Where was the old man sleeping?


His father wanted him to do well in ______.


Akilan learnt Judo for ______.


Some words sound the same but their spelling and meaning are different. Such words are called homophones. There are many homophones.


Match the words with the pictures.

Robinson
cannibals
Friday
footprint

Why did he grow crops?


People ran off when the seawater receded.


Parents help us to overcome our______.


Why relationships are more important than wealth?


Read the advertisement and answer the question given below.

When does the offer end?


Which quality makes 'world is one and human is one'?


Try your own.


Read the passage three times and colour a dustbin each time.

I am Mani. I had to take a bus to nearby city. I crossed the road to reach the bus stand. I got the bus, sat down, and read a book. Before I started to read, I just looked at the people around me. The two men sitting next to me were talking loudly. Some were listening to music on their phone. I was unable to focus on reading. The men were talking about cleaning the city. As they were talking, they opened a pack of biscuits to eat. After some time I dozed off. When I opened my eyes, the bus had reached the city. The two men were not there but pieces of the biscuits and wrappers were there. I cleaned the wrappers and put them in the dustbin.

  1. What did Mani take out?
  2. What did Mani find on the seat when he woke up?
  3. If you were Mani, what would you do?

In which season is ice cream popular?


Whose word are these? Name the character.

“We do not have money to buy anything.”


Match the following rhyming words.

1. earn glow
2. fend day
3. slow learn
4. play end

Why did everyone support Megala?


What do you think birds say to each other in the morning?


Who are already awake?


The pretty little fir tree was happy with gold leaves but______.


What would you have done if your grandmother would have slipped?


Replace the bold word/words with a word from the quiver and re-write the sentence –

In no time she hit the object she aimed at.


Replace the bold word/words with a word from the quiver and re-write the sentence –

Nasruddin was surely not a good archer.


Name a few things that sink.


Who fell down and down and down?


What does the earth do when the day is over?


Where did they go to buy books?


Write the related words as shown in the example:


Write the related words as shown in the example.


Read the passage carefully and complete the activities: 

1. Complete the following sentences. (2)

  1. Female sparrows lay ____________
  2. Sparrows build their nest out of __________.
  3. The eggs are ________.
  4. In cities, sparrows build their nest in ______

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.

2. How do sparrows take bathe? (2)

3. Find out adjectives for the following nouns from the passage. (2)

  1. ________ Song
  2. ________ Water
  3. ________ Bird
  4. ________ species

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world.
    (Underline the subordinate clause)
  2. Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time.
    (Frame a ‘wh’ type question to get the underlined part as an answer.)

5. ‘We have to save the birds.’ Do you agree with this statement? Why? (2)


Read the passage and write a summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to the summary

A sparrow is a small bird which is found throughout the world. There are many different species of sparrows. Sparrows are only about four to six inches in length. Many people appreciate their beautiful songs. Sparrows prefer to build their nests in low places-usually on the ground clumps of grass low trees and low bushes. In cities, they build their nests in building nooks or holes. They rarely build their nests in high places. They build their nests out of twigs grasses and plant fibers. Their nests are usually small and well-built structures.

Female sparrows lay four to six eggs at a time. The eggs are white with reddish-brown spots. They hatch within eleven to fourteen days. Both the male and female parents care for the young. Insects are fed to the young after hatching. The large feet of the sparrows are used for scratching seeds. Adult sparrows mainly eat seeds. Sparrows can be found almost everywhere where there are humans. Many people throughout the world enjoy these delightful birds.

The sparrows are some of the few birds that engage in dust bathing. Sparrows will first scratch a hole in the ground with their feet then lie in it and fling dirt or sand over their bodies with flicks of their wings. They will also bathe in water or in dry or melting snow. Water bathing is similar to dust bathing with the sparrow standing in shallow water and flicking water over its back with its wings also ducking its head under the water. Both activities are social with up to a hundred birds participating at once and are followed by preening and sometimes group singing.


Read the following passage and do the activities.

1. State whether the following sentences are True or false. (2)

  1. The king’s temperament also changed.
  2. The king was happy with prediction of the astrologer.
  3. The courtiers sought an audience with Tenali Raman.
  4. Courtiers advised the king to regulate his diet.

2. Complete the web (2)

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising.

He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.

3. Find out describing words from the passage for the words given below. (2)

  1. exercise - ________
  2. lifestyle - ________
  3. ride - _________
  4. physician - __________

4. Do as directed. (2)

  1. King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning.
    (Use 'used to)
  2. They advised the king to regulate his diet. (Pick out the infinitive)

5. What are the benefits of daily exercise? (2)


Read the passage and write the summary of it. Suggest a suitable title to your summary.

King Krishnadeva Raya would perform heavy exercises every morning. He regularly applied oil on his body and thereafter worked out till all the oil came out with the sweat. This was followed by a long ride on his horse. Once the king started leading a sedentary lifestyle, and he stopped exercising. He no longer went horse-riding either. The king overate and as a result grew fat and heavy. The king‟s temperament also underwent a sea change.

Noticing this, the royal physicians cautioned the king against the ill effects of overeating and explained to him the risks posed by obesity. They advised the king to regulate his diet, exercise, and take care of his health. The repeated advice he got from the physicians to eat less made him so angry that one day he announced a reward for anyone who could find him an easy cure. But there was one condition: those who failed would have their heads off. None dared to advise the king in this regard. The situation became precarious and as usual Tenali Raman was approached by the courtiers for a remedy. Tenali heard the problem and assured the courtiers of a viable solution. The next day, an astrologer predicted that the king had only a month left to live. When the king came to know of this, he was furious. The astrologer was ordered by the king to be imprisoned for a month so that his prediction could be put to test and so the hapless forecaster was sent to prison.


Read the poem.

For Want of a Nail
For want of a nail, the shoe was lost,
For want of a shoe the horse was lost,
For want of a horse, the rider was lost,
For want of a rider, the battle was lost,
For want of a battle, the kingdom was lost,
And all for the want of a horseshoe nail!
[traditional rhyme]

Now form questions for the answers given in the speech bubbles.


Say Aloud

dash bash splash cash trash
steer tear clear deer dear
shower power tower flower mower
poked croaked soaked stroked joked
wept kept crept leapt slept

Circle the words where you get a zzzzz sound. One is done for you.

honeybees
price prize maze face
rice rise blaze fizz
lazy lacy busy racy
raise rays race ace
chase this these frosty

Now, read the following passage on “Laughter Therapy” and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Laughing is an excellent way to reduce stress in our lives; it can help you to cope with and survive a stressful life. Laughter provides full-scale support for your muscles and unleashes a rush of stress-busting endorphins. Since our bodies cannot distinguish between real and fake laughter, anything that makes you giggle will have a positive impact.
  2. Laughter Therapy aims to get people laughing, in groups and individual sessions and can help reduce stress, make people and employees happier and more committed, as well as improve their interpersonal skills. This laughter comes from the body and not the mind.
  3. Laughter Yoga (Hasya yoga) is a practice involving prolonged voluntary laughter. It aims to get people laughing in groups. It is practiced in the early mornings in open-parks. It has been made popular as an exercise routine developed by Indian physician Madan Kataria, who writes about the practice in his 2002 book ‘Laugh for no reason'. Laughter Yoga is based on the belief that voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter.
  4. Laughter yoga session may start with gentle warm-up techniques which include stretching, chanting, clapping, eye contact and body movements to help break down inhibitions and encourage a sense of playfulness. Moreover, laughter is the best medicine. Breathing exercises are used to prepare the lungs for laughter followed by a series of laughter exercises that combine a method of acting and visualization techniques. Twenty minutes of laughter is sufficient to augment physiological development.
  5. A handful of small-scale scientific studies have indicated that laughter yoga has some medically beneficial effects, including cardiovascular health and mood. This therapy has proved to be good for depressed patients. This laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding.

Answer the following.

a. How does laughter help one to cope with stress?

b. Which word in the text (para 2) means the same as ‘dedicated'?

c. Why do you think voluntary laughter provides the same physiological as well as psychological benefits as spontaneous laughter?

d. ‘Laughter is the best medicine’. Explain.

e. Given below is a set of activities. Which of these are followed in the ‘Laughter Yoga’ technique?

  • sitting on the ground with legs crossed 
  • body movements
  • clapping
  • closed eyes 
  • breathing exercises 
  • chanting
  • stretching of arms and legs
  • bending backwards 
  • running/jogging
  • eye contact

f. ‘Laughter therapy also plays a crucial role in social bonding’. How?


The passage given below is on Kabbadi. Read the passage and complete the activities that follow.

Kabbadi (கபடி - in Tamil) is a contact team sport that originated in Tamil Nadu, India. It is the national sport of Bangladesh. It is also popular in South Asia and is the state game of the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Telangana.

Kabbadi is played between two teams of seven players: the objective of the game is for a single player on offence referred to as a 'raider', to run in to the opposing teams half of a court, tag out as many of their defenders as possible, and return to their own half of the court–all without being tackled by the defenders. Points are scored for each player tagged by the raider, while the opposing team earns a point for stopping the raider. Players are taken out of the game if they are tagged or tackled, but can be 'revived' for each point scored by their team from a tag or tackle. The raider should hold his breath and utter the words like 'kabbadi kabbadi, hututu hututu, chadu kudu' etc. while the opponents try to catch him. If he stops uttering these words, he is considered out.

The game is known by its regional names in different parts of the subcontinent, such as Kabbadi or Chedugudu in Andhra Pradesh, Kabbadi in Kerala and Telangana, Hadudu in Bangladesh, Bhavatik in Maldives, Kauddi or Kabbadi in the Punjab Region, Hu-Tu-Tu in Western India and Hu-Do-Do in Eastern India and Chadakudu in South India. The highest governing body of Kabbadi is the International Kabbadi Federation.

Given below is the visual presentation of the first paragraph.

i) Represent the other paragraphs in a visual form of your choice(flow chart, mind-map, pie-chart, etc.).

ii) Choose the correct option.

1. A contact sport usually involves a ______contact between players.

  1. violent
  2. gentle
  3. physical

2. Kabbadi is a game played between ______.

  1. seven teams of two players
  2. two teams of seven players
  3. four teams of seven players

3. A single ______.

  1. player on offence is referred to as a raider
  2. offence is referred to as a raider
  3. raider is an offence by the player

iii) Answer the following.

  1. How does a raider score points for his team?
  2. When does a raider concede a point to the opponent team?
  3. Can a player be revived when he/she is out of the game? Explain your answer.
  4. Kabbadi is called by different names in different parts of India. Do you know how Pallankuzhi is called in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala?

Now, read the following biographical extract on Sujatha Rangarajan, a Sciencefiction writer, and answer the questions that follow.

  1. Sujatha is the allonym of the Tamil author S. Rangarajan and it is this name that is recognised at once by the Tamil SciFi reading community. You might have seen the Tamil movie ‘Endiran’ where the robot Chitti exhibits extraordinary talents in an incredible manner. The robot could excel a human being in any act, beyond one’s imagination. Jeeno, a robotic dog which appeared in Sujatha’s science fiction novel “En Iniya Iyandhira” (My Dear Robot) formed the basis of Chitti’s character. Like Chitti, Jeeno was an allrounder who could cook, clean and fight. High-tech computer technology terms are used in the story. Jeeno, a pet robot, plays an important role throughout the story. As the story proceeds, it behaves and starts to think on its own like a human and instructs Nila, a human being, on how to proceed further in her crises.
  2. In the preface of ‘En Iniya Iyandhira’, the writer states the reason for his attraction to the genre: “Science gives us the wonderful freedom to analyse thousands and thousands of alternative possibilities. While using it, and while playing with its new games, a writer needs to be cautious only about one thing. The story should draw some parallels or association from the emotions and desires of the present humankind. Only then it becomes interesting. Jeeno, the robot dog, was intelligent. But the character became popular only because of the robot’s frequently displayed human tendencies.” It is no wonder that all his works echo these words and will remain etched in the minds of the readers who enjoy reading his novels to have a wonderful lifetime experience.
  3. It was Sujatha, who set the trend for sci-fi stories. He had tracked the origin from Mary Shelly’s Frankenstein to his short stories. He has written 50 sci-fi short stories and these were published in various Tamil magazines. His stories have inspired many readers to extend their reading to English sci-fi writers like Isaac Asimov. The themes were bold, even if there was a dependence on a very well-established characterization of English fiction. Sujatha opened up a new world to us with his writings on holograms, computers and works like ‘En Iniya Iyanthira’ inspire many to study computer science.
  4. He has been one of the greatest writers for more than four decades. He combined reasoning and science in his writings. Being a multifaceted hi-fi and sci-fi humanistic author, he expressed his views distinctively. He was the one who took Tamil novels to the next level. As an MIT alumnus and an engineer at BHEL, he was very good at technology. He could narrate sci-fi stories impressively. His readers always enjoyed reading all his detective and sci-fi novels which featured the most famous duo ‘Ganesh’ and ‘Vasanth’.
  5. Sujatha has played a crucial role as a playwright for various Tamil movies which have fascinated movie lovers. Hence, it is fathomable that the writer’s perspective of future India enthuses every reader and paves a new way to reading sci-fi stories in English.

A. Answer the following questions in a sentence or two.

  1. How was Jeeno different from other robots?
  2. What precaution should one take while writing Science fiction stories?
  3. What inspired Sujatha’s themes?
  4. Why were Sujatha’s sci-fi stories impressive?

B. Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. difficult to believe (para 1)
  2. a style or category of art, music or literature (para 2)
  3. having many sides (para 4)
  4. capable of being understood (para 5)

Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:

The Stationmaster’s Supreme Sacrifice by Sanchari Pal (Adapted)

  1. Thirty-three years ago, on the night of December 2, 1984, Bhopal was hit by a catastrophe that had no parallel in the world’s industrial history. An accident at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal had released almost 30 tons of a highly toxic gas called methyl isocyanate, turning the city into a vast gas chamber. The result was a nightmare; more than 600,000 people were exposed to the deadly gas cloud that left thousands dead and many more breathless, blind and in agonizing pain. Few people know that during the Bhopal gas tragedy a heroic stationmaster risked his own life to save others.
  2. On the evening of December 3, 1984, Ghulam Dastagir was settling down in his office to complete some pending paperwork. This work kept him in his office till 1am in the night, when he emerged to check the arrival of the Gorakhpur Mumbai Express. As he stepped on to the platform, the deputy stationmaster felt his eyes burn and a queer itching sensation in his throat. He did not know that poisonous fumes leaking from Union Carbide’s pesticide factory were stealthily enveloping the railway station.
  3. Beginning to choke, Dastagir did not know then that twenty-three of his railway colleagues, including his boss, station superintendent Harish Dhurve, had already died. It was later reported that Dhurve had heard about the deadly gas and had immediately tried stopping the movement of trains passing through Bhopal before collapsing in his office chamber. His suddenly worsening health and years of experience told Dastagir that something was very wrong. Though he did not fully comprehend what was happening, he decided to act immediately when he did not get any response from the station master. He alerted the senior staff at nearby stations, like Vidisha and Itarsi, to suspend all train traffic to Bhopal.
  4. However, the jam-packed GorakhpurKanpur Express was already standing at the platform and its departure time was 20 minutes away. Listening to his gut instinct, Dastagir summoned his staff and told them to immediately clear the train for departure. When they asked if they should wait until the order to do so came from the head office, Dastagir replied that he would take complete responsibility for the train’s early departure. He wanted to ensure that the train left immediately, without any delay. His colleagues later recalled that Dastagir could barely stand and breathe as he spoke to them. Breaking all rules and without taking permission from anyone, he and his brave staff personally flagged off the train.
  5. But Dastagir’s work was not done. The railway station was filling up with people, desperate to flee the fumes. Some were gasping, others were vomiting, and most were weeping. Dastagir chose to remain on duty, running from one platform to another, attending, helping and consoling victims. He also sent an SOS to all the nearby railway offices, asking for immediate medical help. As a result, four ambulances with paramedics and railway doctors arrived at the station. It was winter and the gas was staying low to the ground, a thick haze poisoning everything in its path. Besieged by hordes of suffering people, the station soon resembled the emergency room of a large hospital. Dastagir stayed at the station, steadfastly doing his duty, knowing that his family was out there in the ill-fated city. That day all he had for his protection was a wet handkerchief on his mouth.
  6. Ghulam Dastagir’s devotion to duty saved the lives of hundreds of people. However, the catastrophe didn’t leave him unscathed. One of his sons died on the night of the tragedy and another developed a lifelong skin infection. Dastagir himself spent his last 19 years shuttling in and out of hospitals; he developed a painful growth in the throat due to prolonged exposure to toxic fumes. When he passed away in 2003, his death certificate mentioned that he was suffering from diseases caused as a direct result of exposure to MIC (Methyl Isocyanate) gas. A memorial has been built at platform No.1 to pay tribute to those who sacrificed their lives in the line of duty on the fateful night of December 3, 1984. However, Ghulam Dastagir, who died later, is not one of them. A forgotten hero whose sense of duty and commitment saved countless lives, Dastagir’s story deserves to be recognized and remembered by our fellow countrymen.
  1. Why was the accident at Union Carbide unparalleled in the world’s industrial history?
  2. How was Dastagir affected by the poisonous gas?
  3. What was the action taken by the station superintendent?
  4. How did Dastagir and his staff break rules?
  5. What was the cause of Dastagir’s death?
  6. Find words from the passage which mean the opposite of the following.
  1. safeguard (para 1)
  2. common or familiar (para 2)
  3. prompt (para 4)
  4. cause (para 6)

Who according to Gandhi, can fight against evil and how?


What is Gandhiji’s ideal?


According to Tagore, when will India get the opportunity to win the gift of freedom?


How does Tagore acknowledge Gandhi’s noble work?


Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following.

  1. a malevolent desire for revenge (para 1)
  2. tactful (para 2)
  3. despise (para 3)

Find words from the passage which are antonyms of the following. 

  1. artificially (para 1)
  2. strength (para 2)

Here is an amazing news item on how the qualities of duty and devotion is not restricted to humans alone but shared by animals. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.

Caesar, the Hero of Mumbai on 26/11 

  1. Mumbai: Caesar, the last surviving hero of his kind, died of a heart attack on Thursday. Caesar, a Labrador Retriever, was covered with tri-color and given an emotional farewell from the city Police Force. The Mumbai Police Commissioner too marked the passing of the hero with a tweet.
  2. Caesar, who was 11 years old was the sole survivor among the dogs of Mumbai Police who took part in bomb detection operations during the terrorist attack on Mumbai that began on November 26, 2008. He died of a heart attack at a farm in Virar where he and his three canine buddies had been sent after retirement. During the terror attack in Mumbai, Caesar saved several lives when he sniffed out the hand grenades left by the terrorists at the busy CST railway station.
  3. Caesar was also a part of the search team at Nariman House, where terrorists were holed up for three days. Earlier he was also pressed into service for bomb search operation after the 2006 serial train blasts and July 2017 blast in Mumbai. The Mumbai police officials also tweeted their grief saying, “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable. We will remember our heroes forever.”

Answer the following questions.

  1. The Labrador Retriever was covered with tri-color. What does this signify?
  2. How did Caesar save several lives at the CST railway station?
  3. Which word in the third paragraph of the passage means the same as ‘forced’? 
  4. “Services of retired members of Dog Squad during 26/11 will be unforgettable”. Mention three services rendered by Caesar.
  5. Caesar is a Labrador breed of dogs. Name a few other native breeds that are used by the Police Force.
  6. Try to rewrite the news item in your mother tongue without losing the spirit and flavour of the text. Give a suitable title to the translated version.

Read the passage given below and make notes.

To match the best cities across the world, the Government of India initiated ‘smart cities’ to drive economic growth and improve the quality of life of people. The agenda under smart city promises to resolve urban sustainability problems. Urban forests provide a range of important ecosystem services that are critical for the sustainability of cities. Urban forestry, which is defined more as ‘Management of Trees’ contributes to the physiological, sociological and economic well-being of the society. Mangroves, lakes, grasslands, and forests in and around our cities, act as sponges that absorb the air and noise pollution and they present themselves as our cultural and recreational hotspots. However, these spots are rapidly being reclaimed and replaced in the name of development. Presence of urban green has shown to increase the economic value of the place.

Urban forests contribute to reduce the cost of building storm water drain systems for municipalities and neutralizing urban heat island effect. Plants not only provide shade but also help in regulating the micro-climate. They help regulate energy budgets, improve air quality, and curtail noise pollution. Trees, herbs, shrubs, and grasses arrest sedimentation and prevent other pollutants from entering our water systems. This will give a chance for our urban lakes and rivers to recover and help improve aquatic ecosystems. Biodiversity also gets a boost through the urban forestsand helps create corridors connecting the forest areas. High biodiversity areas can also help to build resilient ecosystems. Availability of forests within our urban areas gives an opportunity for children to connect to the natural environment and learn about native species.


Look at the following non-verbal representation. Based on your understanding and inference, write a paragraph on career trends in the next decade.


Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow

Humans have long been fascinated by fiction. We experience excitement in assigning supernatural power to imaginary characters in fictional stories – and so we have Spider man, Batman, He–man, Titans and many more. The ‘Cyborg’ was an offshoot of such wild imagination of humans to invest our species with superhuman powers. Today, the Cyborg is no more an imaginary organism. We are living in a world where a sizeable population of humans have merged their bodies with technological implants. The term ‘Cyborg’, short for ‘cybernetic organism’, was coined to describe a man, whose body is implanted with technological devices to supplement and substitute body functions.

Cyborgs include people with cardiac pacemakers, contact lenses, bionic ears and eyes, prosthetics and so on. In other words, a cyborg is partly human and partly machine. The technological innovations in the field of medicine and healthcare augment humans with machines, producing a beta version of the human body. The advent of brain machine interfaces is certain to blur the boundary between humans and machines. Scientists are working hard to find a technique for age reversal too. People do not want to die, so mankind is striving to get to the final frontier, which is development of machines and devices that would accord man immortality.

The needs of humans are not limited. As time passes, food habits change, thinking patterns change, and even appearances change. We are about to travel by driverless, fully automated vehicles. Computers and smart phones have become our masters. The more we depend and merge with technological advancements, the more the humanness in us slowly erodes. Intelligence is sought to be infused into machines and robotics are designed in such a way to give man a virtual human companion. The field of artificial intelligence is overtaking the human brain and many fear that it could even harm the human race. Despite certain limitations and potential threats, many believe that cyborgs will be the next step in the evolution of mankind. The amalgamation of man and machine is sure to add a new dimension to the life of mankind and this will prove to be the ‘biggest evolution in Biology’ since the emergence of life, four billion years ago.

Questions:

a) Account for the popularity of characters with supernatural powers.

b) Who is referred to as a ‘Cyborg’?

c) What is expected to happen with the advent of the brain machine interface?

d) The needs of humans are not limited. How is this statement elaborated in the passage?

e) How can a machine turn into a virtual companion for humans?

f) Explain the flipside of the rapid technological advancement.

g) Identify the word in para 1 which means ‘everlasting life’.

h) Which of the following words is synonymous with ‘amalgamation’?

  1. recreation
  2. integration
  3. exploration
  4. proposition

i) Which of the following options is the antonym of the word ‘advent’?

  1. drawback
  2. dispute
  3. departure
  4. danger

j) Find out the word which is the antonym of ‘natural’ in para 3.


Read the following passage carefully and answer the following questions.

Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the environment that cause harm to the ecosystem. The different kinds of pollution are air pollution, water pollution and land pollution. The release of various gases, finely divided solid particles, or liquid droplets that escape into the atmosphere to disperse and dilute in the environment is called air pollution. Modern society is also concerned about specific types of pollutants, such as noise pollution, light pollution, and plastic pollution.

Particulate Matter (PM), also known as particle pollution, is a complex mixture of extremely small particles and liquid droplets that get into the air. These particles if inhaled can affect health. The impact of PM 2.5 is particularly high in South Asia. Outdoor pollution is caused by a variety of pollutants like public and private vehicles, waste burning in the open, power production industries and construction and even cigarette smoking in public places.

Presently, air pollution is a major and growing risk factor for ill health in India. Delhi is one of the most air polluted cities in India. The air in the city as well as areas surrounding it has worsened to extremely hazardous levels in the recent years. This year’s pollution level is the worst in four years. Several studies have shown that poor air quality is a cause for many health issues among people with lower respiratory disorders with symptoms like dry cough, breathlessness, wheezing, chest discomfort, serious lung infections and cardio vascular diseases. Some studies throw light on the fact that about 16 per cent of the deaths worldwide in 2015 were due to pollution.

Air Masks are an option to protect oneself outdoor. Air masks can be used while commuting or while one is exposed to a polluted area. Some of these masks also include a layer of Activated carbon to filter the air. They protect us from suspended air particles and particulate matter up to the size of 2.5 microns and above. Their usage is limited to some days and should be disposed off after their prescribed duration of usage. The price for air masks starts from Rs 100 and can go up to Rs 500 and more.

We have to take active measures to control pollution and protect ourselves to lead a healthy and pollution free life.

  1. What is meant by pollution? Mention the different kinds of pollution.
  2. How does Particulate Matter cause air pollution?
  3. Identify three major causes of pollution in air
  4. Name the types of pollution we encounter now.
  5. What sort of health issues do people face due to air pollution?
  6. How can we protect ourselves outdoor from air pollution?
  7. Suggest a suitable title to the passage.
  8. Identify the meaning of the word similar to the one used in the fourth para:
  1. emerging
  2. filtering
  3. floating
  4. falling

Read the following information given in the table below and answer the questions.

A nice choice from Chennai to the National capital
RAJADHANI EXPRESS TIMETABLE
Shortest Route between Chennai and Hazrat Nizamuddin 8 Halts & 324 intermediate stations in between
Station Name Departs Day Speed
Chennai Central 06.05 1 75
Vijayawada 11.55 1 76
Warangal 14.40 1 77
Balharshah 18.00 1 78
Nagpur 20.45 1 74
Bhopal 02.10 2 89
Jhansi 05.31 2 99
Gwalior 06.32 2 85
Agra Cantt 07.57 2 76
Hazrat Nizamudin 10.25 2 -

a) The number of stations between Chennai Central and Hazrat Nizamudin is______.

  1. five
  2. ten
  3. eight
  4. eleven

b) The train is expected to reach ______ around 8.45 PM

  1. Warangal
  2. Vijayawada
  3. Bhopal
  4. Nagpur

c) Between ______ the train runs at its maximum speed.

  1. Bhopal and Gwalior 
  2. Bhopal and Jhansi
  3. Bhopal and Hazarat Nizamudin
  4. Bhopal and Agra

d) Almost ______ the train reaches Vijayawada.

  1. the day after
  2. around early morning
  3. late night
  4. around noon

e) People prefer the Rajadhani Express to travel from Chennai to reach the capital because ______.

  1. it reaches the destination on the same day
  2. the charge is reasonable.
  3. the train halts at ten stations.
  4. it is the shortest route from Chennai to New Delhi.

f) The destination of Rajadhani express is______.

  1. Hazarat Nizamudin.
  2. New Delhi junction.
  3. Old Delhi.
  4. Rajkot.

How should teenagers guard against cyber crimes?


What should we do to ensure Safe Surfing?


What should parents do to ensure the safety of children in cyber space?


Should children be discouraged from playing online games?


Which of the following should one avoid while using social media? Tick against the correct options.


How can we identify insecure websites?


Mention any three details that should not be revealed in public domain.


What should parents do to ensure cyber safety for their wards? (Any three points)


Why is it not advisable to play online games?


Pick out word which mean the same as

stop doing something (para 1) 


Pick out word which mean the same as

place or fix (para 2) 


Pick out word which mean the same as

not protected (para 2)


Pick out word which mean the same as

keep a check on (para 3)


Read the given sentence and underline the 'no' word.

Nobody is at home.


Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

"I don't believe in taking the right decisions. I take decisions, I take decisions and then make them right:' One of them make them right. One of Ratan Tata's inspiring words which made me dream beyond shadows. I feel fortunate that I discovered him in the early stage of my life and now I am using his teachings to mould my future the way I want.

Even though Ratan Tata was born into a very posh family in India, he never took money and power for granted. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York, Ratan Tata began his career in the Tata Group working on the shop floor of Tata Steel. After working for almost 10 years he was appointed as the director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited (NELCO) in order to help its struggling finances. He worked hard to build a better consumer electronics division but the economic recession and union strikes prevented him from achieving success and this success helped Tata to be appointed as the chairman of the Tata Group of companies. He started with a very basic job in his father's company and today he owns a billion dollar company.

The tag of greatness does not come without making any sacrifices and this tag on Ratan Tata suits to its best.

Tata group launched its passenger car Tata Indica in the year 1998 but Tata Indica was a failure in its first year and the experiment seemed to be failing. Many people started advising Ratan Tata that he should sell the passenger car business. Ratan Tata also agreed to this and a proposal was given to Ford. they showed interest too. The three-hour meeting at Ford headquarters in Detroit, chairman of Ford (Bill Ford) said to Ratan Tata, "Why did you enter in the passenger car business when you were not knowing of it. It will be a favour if we buy this business from you."

Ratan Tata decided to move back home. Whi le travelling he was very tense as the feeling of being insulted was on his mind. After earlier failures, Tata Motors did well with its business of passenger cars but in the same period, Ford did very bad. In 2008 when Ford was on it way of bankruptcy, Tata Group offered Ford to buy its luxury car brand, Jaguar Land Rover. Ford arrived in Mumbai for the meeting. In the meeting, Bill Ford said to Ratan Tata, you are doing a big favour for us by buying-Jaguar-Land Rover is now owned by Tata Group and is currently making profits.

A1. Rewrite the following sentences as per their occurrence in the extract:   (2)

  1. He was appointed as the Director-in-charge of the National Radio and Electronics Company Limited.
  2. Tata Group launched its passenger car 'Tata Indica in the year 1998.
  3. Billi Ford said to Ratan Tata, "You are doing a big favour for us by buying Jaguar-Land Rover."
  4. He graduated from Riverdale country from New York.

A2. Explain:   (2)

The writer says, "I don't believe in taking right decisions. I take decisions and then make them right."

A3. Give reasons:  (2)

Ratan Tata decided to sell his passenger car business.

A4. Personal Response:  (2)

Right decision at the right time is important success. Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:   (2)

Do as directed:

  1. He worked hard building a better consumer electronics division.
    (Rewrite the sentence using the infinitive form of the underlined word)
  2. Tata Group launched the passenger car Tata Indica.
    (Rewrite it beginning with 'The passenger car Tata Indica......')

A6. Vocabulary:

Give antonyms.

  1. Profit × ______
  2. Prevent × ______

Read the following passage and do the activities:

A1. Fill in the blanks:  (2)

  1. ______ percent of our daily communication is non-verbal.
  2. Eye contact is another type of ______ communication.
  3. Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling ______.
  4. One can readily detect _______.

According to some experts, a staggering 93 percent of our daily communication is non-verbal. Facial expressions are easy to decipher. One can readily detect happiness, sadness, anger. Physicians can tell a patient is doing well (or not) by looking at his/her face.

Eye contact is another type of non-verbal communication, which can tell a lot about the other person. The eyes convey a range of emotions-happiness, sadness, boredom, surprise, confidence .......... even emotional interest. Staring at someone's forehead may intimidate the recipient, staring at the mouth is sometimes interpretated as a sign of emotional interest. In fact, staring into someone's eyes is a sign of lying, and so is looking away. In certain cultures, lack of eye contact is taken as a sign of respect.

If body language is to be defined, it is a combination of facial expression, gestures, eye contact, body movements and posture and voice.

Frequent blinking is a sign of the person feeling distressed or uncomfortable. If the pupils are dilated, it ofter indicates interest, even emotional interest. The lips also reflect our body language, and lip biting indicates worry and/or anxiety; tightening of the lips may be an indication of disapproval. Slightly turned-up lips indicate happiness and slightly turned-down lips indicate sadness.

A2.

A3. Find the antonyms of:    (2)

  1. verbal × ______
  2. entertaining × ______
  3. sender × ______
  4. comfortable × ______

A4. Do as Directed:   (2)

  1. The eyes convey a range of emotions.   (Frame a 'Wh' question in order to get the underlined part as answer).
  2. Physicians can tell about a patient's wellness.  (Rewrite using 'able to')

A5. Personal Response:   (2)

Non-verbal communication plays an important role in our daily life. Comment.


Match the following items from column-A with those column-B:

Column 'A' Column 'Non-Textual'
(a) Geoffrey Chaucer (i) Trinidad
(b) Daniel Defoe (ii) Wuthering Heights
(c) V.S. Naipaul (iii) Robinson Crusoe
(d) Emile Bronte (iv) The Canterbury Tales

Read the extract and complete the activities given below:

The call of the seas has always found an echo in me. Not being rich enough to roam in a private yacht, I have taken the poor man's way out. I swim across them. I have always been fascinated by the Indian ocean, whether at Mumbai, at Puri or at Gopalpur. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill. But the idea of swimming the Palk Strait did not occur to me until after I swam in the English channel. Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered. teaming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me. By the way, for preparation, I continued a strict and rigorous course of training which began in 1960. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea. Neither of these was easy.

Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait, especially about the tides and currents. Everything about the English channel is known-there is the Channel Swimming Association, there are trained pilots there are wants to be hired, accurate weather forecasts, dependable tide tables and every other form of assistance was readily available. All that one needed was money. Here in the Palk Strait one has to find out firstly from where information could be obtained and then decide how much of it could be incorrect or misleading!

A1. Rewrite the following as per their sequence in the extract:    (2)

  1. I also had to collect a comprehensive range of facts and information about this sea.
  2. I have swam in all these places and have felt the thrill.
  3. All that one needed was money.
  4. Despite all the information I had gathered, I soon found that very little was known about the Palk Strait.

A2. Explain:    (2)

What does the writer man by saving, "Steeped in the history and tradition of this nation, practically unconquered, teeming with hair-raising hazards, the sea between India and Sri Lanka had all the elements of challenge, danger and difficulty that tempted me"?

A3. Give reason:   (2)

The narrator had an intense desire to swim in the Palk Strait. Explain the reasons for it.

A4. Personal Response:    (2)

Do you like to have an adventurous life? Express your opinion.

A5. Grammar:

Do as directed:   (2)

  1. Very little was known about the Palk Strait. (Rewrite as a negative sentence)
  2. I had to collect a comprehensive range of facts. (Rewrite the sentence beginning with 'A comprehensive ........)

A6. Vocabulary:   (2)

Give the synonyms of the following words:

  1. rigorous - ______
  2. thrill - ______

Read the passage given below:

1. Very often, we do not take the first step towards a good cause because we say to ourselves, "The task is so big. What can I do alone?" So nothing gets done. There is much talk about environmental protection, air pollution and saving our forests. Do we really care? If we do, here are a few things we can do to make our surroundings more pleasant.
2. It is good to adopt a two-uses-attitude! By putting an article to a second use, we are giving it a longer lease of life and using up less raw material from nature. One of the worst things we do is abuse of paper. The clean sides of envelopes can be used to write small notes, lists and reminders around the house. The more paper we use, the more trees will have to be cut down. For the same reason, we should avoid the use of paper napkins or paper plates. Cloth napkins are just as good, for they can be washed and used over and over again.
3. Another area which needs the most urgent attention is effective garbage disposal. People who are conscious about it follow rules and laws strictly. As a result, their neighbourhoods are clean and beautiful Similarly, each one of us can contribute to a cleaner environment. All kitchen waste should be collected separately. Those of you who have green fingers can turn this into valuable manure. Dig a pit and put the kitchen waste into it. When the pit is a little over half full, cover it up with mud. Let nature do the rest. Within three or six months, we will have a good garden manure. It can also be done as a community project by digging a large pit in the colony. Do take help of all the members, for nothing succeeds like co-operation
4. A lot of people don't care about the environment because they don't understand the adverse effect that society has on it. It is important to convince people to care about the environment. The first step would be to convince people to change by providing simple alternative solutions and ways of doing things. Theintemet is a powerful tool and a group on social media of like-minded people can be formed. People can share environmental stories and issues, as well as pool in solutions and alternatives to educate one another. With the current state that our planet is in, it is imperative that people actively care about the environment and most importantly to act now.

Based on your understanding of the passage, answer any Eight questions from the nine given below:

  1. Why don't we take the first step towards a good cause?
  2. What is a two-uses-attitude?
  3. What can we do to avoid the abuse of paper? (any two points)
  4. What is the result of an effective way of a garbage disposal?
  5. What procedure can one adopt for kitchen waste?
  6. How can making of garden manure be done as community project?
  7. How long does it take to make good garden manure?
  8. Select a suitable word from the passage which means - being concerned or interested. (Paragraph 3)
  9. Pick out the word from the passage which means - completely necessary? (Paragraph 4)

Read the passage below:

1. Our history makes it evident that the Indian Plastics Industry made a vigorous beginning in 1957 but it took more than 30 years for it to pervade Indian lifestyles. In 1979, "the market for plastics' was just being seeded by the state-owned Indian Petro-Chemicals and it was only in 1994 that plastic soft drink bottles became a visible source of annoyance.
2. In the same year, people in other cities were concerned about the state of public sanitation and also urged regulatory bodies to ban the production, distribution and use of plastic bags. However, the challenge was greater than it appeared at first.
3.

The massive generation of plastic waste in India is due to rapid urbanisation, spread of retail chains, plastic packaging from grocery to food and vegetable products, to consumer items and cosmetics. The projected high growth rates of GDP and continuing rapid urbanisation suggest that India's trajectory of plastic consumption and plastic waste is likely to increase.

4. According to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) report of 2018, India stands among few other countries like France, Mongolia and several African countries that have initiated total or partial nationallevel bans on plastics in their jurisdictions. On World Environment Day in 2018, India vowed to phase out single-use plastics by 2022, which gave a much needed impetus to bring this change
5. In this context, thereafter ten states (Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Odisha, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu) are currently sending their collected waste to cement plants for co-processing, twelve other states/UTs are using plastic waste for polymer bitumen road construction and still four other states are using the plastic waste for waste-to-energy plants and oil production. A world of greater possibilities has now opened up to initiate appropriate and concrete actions to build up the necessary institutions and systems before oceans turn, irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic.
6. However there is no one single masterstroke to counter the challenges witnessed by the staggering plastic waste management in the country. The time is now to formulate robust and inclusive National Action Plans and while doing so, the country will establish greater transparency to combat the plastic jeopardy in a more sustainable and holistic way.

Based on your understanding of the passage answer any six out of the seven questions given below:

  1. What does the writer mean by 'visible source of annoyance'?
  2. Why did people demand a ban on plastics?
  3. What created a demand for plastics in India?
  4. With reference to the graph write one conclusion that can be drawn about the production of plastics in 2019 (approximately).
  5. What does the upward trend of the graph indicate?
  6. What does the line, oceans turning 'irreversibly into a thin soup of plastic', suggest?
  7. What step must be taken to combat the challenges of plastic waste management? What will be its impact?

Complete the dialogue.

Anil:  Which is your favourite book?
Sunil: ________________________
Anil: What type of book is it?
Sunil: ________________________

The branch of economics that deals with the allocation of resources. 

  1. Microeconomics 
  2. Macro economics
  3. Economics
  4. None of these

Activity: Live English: Packs, packets, pouches, wrappers

Given above is the picture of an imaginary food item’s packet. Let us see how to ‘read’ the matter on the packet as a vigilant consumer.

  1. Look at the wrapper and complete the sentences.
    1. The name of the food item is ______.
    2. It is made by ______.
    3. It is a ______ food item. (Veg/Non-veg)
    4. The ______ sign indicates whether it is a Veg or Non-veg food item.
    5. The ingredients are ______, ______, ______, ______.
    6. The date of packing is ______ and the expiry date is ______.
    7. It should be consumed before ______ from the date of manufacturing.
  2. Try and obtain more information about the various symbols printed on the packet.
  3. Discuss the following -
    1. Why the ‘recipe’ is given on the packet.
    2. Why the packet tells us to visit the website of the company.
    3. What ideas are used to make the packet attractive.
    4. How you will verify whether something is good for you to eat.

Collect the outer coverings of fast food items. Discuss the following points in groups and then write your observations in your notebook.

  • Ingredients
  • Manufactured by
  • Net weight
  • Veg or Non-veg
  • Recipe
  • Nutrition facts
  • MRP
  • Mfg date
  • Website
  • Other instructions, if any

Based on the poet’s idea of true success, think of four people in your surroundings - your family, neighbours, friends, teachers, classmates, etc. who have achieved true success. Write, in short, what makes them successful.


William Shakespeare was one of the greatest playwrights of all time. He lived in the 16th century. Many Shakespearean plays have been written in the short-story form. Find out the names of at least 5 of Shakespearean plays.

Example: Romeo and Juliet


Form groups of four to six.
Discuss whether and how you can improve English spelling.


Arrange a ‘Jokes’ session in the classroom where each student tells a joke. The jokes must be told in English.


Make groups of 10-15. In this game, each person writes three sentences about himself/herself, two of which are true and the third one is a lie. Read aloud your sentences, while others guess which two are true and which is a lie.

Examples: Hello, everyone! I am Sonali. I have a brother and a sister. I live in Amalner. We have a pet dog at home.

In the game ‘Two Truths, One Lie!’, it is necessary to use details which can be verified to see whether they are true or false. For example, you cannot use sentences like ‘I once had a blue sweater.’


Look up the following entries in the Language Study pages given at the end.

  • stress
  • intonation
  • sound
  • consonant
  • vowel

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