Are there cultural differences in the conceptualisation of intelligence?
Yes, culture, which is a set of beliefs, customs, attitudes and achievements in art of literature, affects the process of intellectual development.
According to Sternberg, intelligence is a product of culture.
Vyotsky believes that while elementary7 mental operations are common, higher mental activities like problem-solving and thinking are culturally produced.
Technological Intelligence :-
- Promotes an individualistic pattern of action.
- Individuals in technologically educated western societies possess this kind of intelligence.
- They are well versed in skills of attention, observation, analysis, speed, moves abstraction, generalisation, creativity, Minimum moves etc.
Integral Intelligence :-
- Intelligence in the Indian tradition is integral intelligence.
- It views intelligence from a holistic perspective.
- It gives equal attention to cognitive and non-cognitive processes, as well as their integration.
- ‘Buddhi’ is the knowledge of one’s own self based on conscience, will and desire.
- It has effective, motivational as well as cognitive components.
It includes :-
- Cognitive competence (discrimination, problem-solving).
- Social competence (respect for elders, concern for others, respecting opinions of others).
- Emotional competence (self regulation, self monitoring).
- Entrepreneurial competence (commitment, persistence, patience).