Maharashtra State BoardHSC Commerce 12th Board Exam
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Answer the following. What are the techniques of scientific management? Explain in detail. - Organisation of Commerce and Management

Answer in Brief

Answer the following.

What are the techniques of scientific management? Explain in detail?

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Solution

  1. Work Study:
    Before assigning the work to the available workforce, proper work-study should be done by management. Work-study consists of an organized, systematic, and critical assessment of the various activities or functions. Work-study is based on techniques such as time study, motion study, method study, and fatigue study.
    A) Time Study:
    It is the technique of observing and recording the time taken by an employee to complete a given task. With the help of time study, the precise time required for each element of work is determined.
    B) Method Study:
    There are always various methods of completing the task. For best quality and cost-effectiveness, identifying the best method of doing a particular job is a very important but challenging task for a manager.
    C) Motion Study:
    The study of required motion means the movement of an employee as well as of machine while completing a particular task is very important. It is helpful in eliminating unnecessary motions and finding the best method of doing a particular job.
    D) Fatigue Study:
    Generally long working hours without sufficient breaks, target pressure, heavy working tools, and poor working conditions result into physical and mental stress i.e. fatigue. The study of fatigue and steps to reduce the level of fatigue is very important to maintain the operational efficiency of the employees.
  2. Standardization of Tools and Equipments:
    With the result of experiments conducted at the workplace, Taylor advocated the standardization of tools and equipment. Standardized working environment and methods of production help to reduce spoilage and wastage of material, cost of production, fatigue among the workers and it improves the quality of work.
  3. Scientific Task Setting:
    Taylor emphasized the need for fixing a fair day's work. Scientific work setting is important to prevent the employees from doing work much below their capacity. By using this technique, employees will complete the task according to standards given and management can keep proper control on optimum utilization of the workforce.
  4. Scientific Selection and Training:
    Management can select the right persons for the right jobs by using scientific selection procedures.
    It needs to fix job specifications as per requirement. Employees are selected according to predetermined standards in an impartial way. After selection, management should provide the proper training programs to increase their efficiency.
  5. Functional Organization:
    In this concept of Taylor, planning is separated from implementation. That means, planning is done by different people and actual work is supervised by different people.
    They are categorized as follows:
    A) At Planning Level:
    1. Route Clerk- tells how work moves from one machine to another.
    2. Instruction Clerk- records instructions to complete the work.
    3. Time and Cost Clerk- determines the time in which work should be completed and work out the cost
    4. Discipline- ensures that the workers are working as per factory rules.
    B) At Implementation Level:
    1. Gang Boss-actually gets the work done.
    2. Speed Boss- ensures that the work is completed in a specified time.
    3. Repair Boss- handles the security and maintenance of the mechanism
    4. Inspector- ensures that the work is done as per the specified standards.
  6. Differential Piece-Rate Wage Plan:
    Remuneration should be fixed in such a way that the average worker is motivated to attain a standard output. Taylor suggested the differential piece-wage system. Higher rates are offered to employees who complete the work more than the standard quantity under this system. On the other hand, if an employee is performing below the standard; he shall be given a lower rate of wages. This technique motivates the employees to attain higher standard performance and earn wages.
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