Answer the following questions:
What factors are responsible for the development of various patterns in the settlement? Give examples.
- Patterns of settlements are affected by various physical factors like relief, soils, climate, availability of water supply, etc.
- Physical factors influence the type and spacing of settlements, which results in various patterns of settlements.
- Type of soil and quality of soil are two important factors that affect rural settlements.
- Fertile plains and valleys have thick, rich and fertile alluvial soil, which supports agriculture, so nucleated settlements develop in these areas. For example, most of the villages in Ganga plains have nucleated settlements.
- Settlements develop as per the relief of that area. For example, Foothill settlements develop at the foot of the mountain, hilltop settlements develop at the top of the hill. For example, hilltop settlement at Shimla or Manali.
- In the areas of mountainous or hilly relief, due to inaccessibility, there are dispersed or isolated settlements. For example, dispersed or isolated settlements in the Himalaya mountains.
- Sometimes settlements develop along the coastline, canal, river, road, or railway line. They are in a straight line; they are called linear settlements. For example, settlements along the Konkan coastline and settlements along the Mumbai-Pune road.
- Climate also affects the development of settlements. Areas of extreme climate are avoided by people. Therefore, such areas have dispersed settlements.
- For example, due to the extremely hot climate there are dispersed settlements in Rajasthan and due to extreme cold climate, there are isolated settlements in the polar regions.
- Water is essential for human development. Therefore, many settlements develop around lakes or natural tanks, they are circular settlements.
- Sometimes settlements develop at the confluence of two rivers, the settlements grow in all three sides, they are triangular settlements. For example, Karad town is on the confluence of Krishna and Koyna river.
- Sometimes settlements grow around the mines or any central object. This center point provides a source of livelihood to the people. Thus, the radial pattern of settlement develops. For example, radial settlements around coal mines in the State of Bihar.