Answer the following question with the help of given points. Write about the characteristics of Harappan cities with the help of given points. Town planning Social organisation Administration Economy - History

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Answer in Brief

Answer the following question with the help of given points.

Write about the characteristics of Harappan cities with the help of given points.

  1. Town planning
  2. Social organisation
  3. Administration
  4. Economy
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Solution

(a) Town planning :

  1. The town planning of Harappan cities was very systematic.
  2. Houses were of baked bricks, which included bathrooms, toilets, wells.
  3. Granaries existed, with impressive public monuments.
  4. The excellent drainage system, public baths, and independent fortification walls are highlights.
  5. The grid pattern was used, where streets crossed each other in right angles, and the resulted blocks were used for building houses.
  6. The English bond masonry method was used with two headers and two stretchers to build a wall, which was especially useful for earthquake-prone areas.

(b) Social organisation:

  1. Social hierarchy was based on the position of power.
  2. Classes of skilled artisans and individuals were based on craft specialisation.
  3. Belief systems existed, with evidence of burials indicating rituals after death.
  4. Artifacts and architecture also indicate belief systems.

(c) Administration:

  1. Administrative control existed over the distribution of water and other resources.
  2. The size of bricks indicates the use of standardisation and ratio.
  3. Weights set the style of shapes and painted designs of pottery, majestic, and non-residential buildings for public administrative offices are also seen.

(d) Economy :

  1. Harappan civilisation practised mass production of goods for trade purposes.
  2. The concentration of factories and residences of artisans in a particular area of the city indicates the purpose of convenience of production, flourishing internal and distant trade, and administrative control over trade transactions.
  3. Well-shaped, beautiful earthen pots, statues, metal objects of gold, silver, copper, and bronze were made.
  4. Various types of beads were prepared, indicating a sound economy.
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Chapter 2: First Cities of India - Exercises [Page 19]

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Balbharati History 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 2 First Cities of India
Exercises | Q Q.5 | Page 19
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