Answer in Brief
Answer the following question with the help of given points.
Write about the characteristics of Harappan cities with the help of given points.
- Town planning
- Social organisation
(a) Town planning :
- The town planning of Harappan cities was very systematic.
- Houses were of baked bricks, which included bathrooms, toilets, wells.
- Granaries existed, with impressive public monuments.
- The excellent drainage system, public baths, and independent fortification walls are highlights.
- The grid pattern was used, where streets crossed each other in right angles, and the resulted blocks were used for building houses.
- The English bond masonry method was used with two headers and two stretchers to build a wall, which was especially useful for earthquake-prone areas.
(b) Social organisation:
- Social hierarchy was based on the position of power.
- Classes of skilled artisans and individuals were based on craft specialisation.
- Belief systems existed, with evidence of burials indicating rituals after death.
- Artifacts and architecture also indicate belief systems.
- Administrative control existed over the distribution of water and other resources.
- The size of bricks indicates the use of standardisation and ratio.
- Weights set the style of shapes and painted designs of pottery, majestic, and non-residential buildings for public administrative offices are also seen.
(d) Economy :
- Harappan civilisation practised mass production of goods for trade purposes.
- The concentration of factories and residences of artisans in a particular area of the city indicates the purpose of convenience of production, flourishing internal and distant trade, and administrative control over trade transactions.
- Well-shaped, beautiful earthen pots, statues, metal objects of gold, silver, copper, and bronze were made.
- Various types of beads were prepared, indicating a sound economy.
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