Answer the following question.
"Series of changes affected the pattern of industrialization in India by the early twentieth century." Analyze the statement.
The pattern of industrialization changed in the 20th century due to various reasons. They are:
The growth of Nationalism in the first decade of the 20th century resulted in Indians shifting towards Swadeshi goods and boycotting foreign goods especially cloth. Industrialists lobbied and pressurized the government to safeguard their interests through concessions and tariff protection.
Indian yarn exports to China decreased the Chinese shift from Indian yarn to Chinese and Japanese yarn. So, Indian industries shifted from yarn production to piece-cloth production.
The World Wars increased the number of Indian industries. During the wars, the mills and factories in Britain were busy producing for the war and imports into India decreased. So, Indian industries were now left to supply to the Indian markets. New industries were established.
With the Second World War and the prolonged war, Indian industries also started supplying for the war. For instance, uniforms, bags, leather goods were produced. Industrial production boomed during the Wars.
After the World Wars, Britain could not compete with the emerging economies like the USA and Japan. With the collapse of the British economy, Indian exports to Britain also fell. The newly established Indian industries now had to look for newer domestic and international markets and consolidate their position.