Maharashtra State BoardHSC Science (General) 11th
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Answer the following question. One of the effects of a force is to change the momentum. Define the quantity related to this and explain it for a variable force. - Physics

Answer in Brief

Answer the following question.

One of the effects of a force is to change the momentum. Define the quantity related to this and explain it for a variable force. Usually, when do we define it instead of using the force?

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Solution

  1. Impulse is the quantity related to change in momentum.
  2. Impulse is defined as the change of momentum of an object when the object is acted upon by a force for a given time interval.

Need to define impulse:

  1. In cases when time for which an appreciable force acting on an object is extremely small, it becomes difficult to measure the force and time independently.
  2. In such cases, however, the effect of the force i.e, the change in momentum due to the force is noticeable and can be measured.
  3. For such cases, it is convenient to define impulse itself as a physical quantity.
  4. Example: Hitting a ball with a bat, giving a kick to a foot-ball, hammering a nail, bouncing a ball from a hard surface, etc.

Impulse for a variable force:

  1. Consider the collision between a bat and a ball. The variation of the force as a function of time is shown below. The force axis is starting from zero.
  2. From the graph, it can be seen that the force is zero before the impact. It rises to a maximum during the impact and decreases to zero after the impact.
  3. The shaded area or the area under the curve of the force-time graph gives the product of force against the corresponding time (Δt) which is the impulse of the force.
    Area of ABCDE = F. Δt = impulse of force
  4. For a constant force, the area under the curve is a rectangle.
  5. In case of a softer tennis ball, the collision time becomes larger and the maximum force becomes less keeping the area under the curve of the (F - t) graph the same.
    Area of ABCDE = Area of PQRST
  Is there an error in this question or solution?
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APPEARS IN

Balbharati Physics 11th Standard Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 4 Laws of Motion
Exercises | Q 2. (xvii) | Page 75
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