Explain some of the challenges in establishing psychology as a science.
Explain any two challenges in establishing psychology as a science.
Many criticisms of psychology as a science have been made on practical, philosophical, and ethical grounds. The challenges in establishing psychology as science are:
- It is in a pre-paradigmatic state - According to American philosopher, Thomas Kuhn, psychology is still in a preparadigmatic state as it has not succeeded in producing a cumulative body of knowledge that has a clear conceptual core.
- Issues related to objectivity and validity - Methods used in psychology such as introspection, surveys, and questionnaires are subjective. Due to this, psychology lacks two criteria of science, i.e., objectivity and validity.
- Issues related to predictability and replicability - In psychology, it is difficult to make exact predictions as people respond differently in different situations. Test results are more varied and hence difficult to replicate.
- Objectifying humans - According to some psychologists, subjecting human behaviour to experimentation amounts to objectifying individuals.