Answer the following question in detail :
Explain divisions of Central Highlands in detail.
i. The region extending from the southern rim of North Indian plains up to the Narmada valley is called the Central Highlands.
ii. The Aravali mountains, East Rajasthan Upland, Malwa plateau, Bundelkhand Baghelkhaand, Chota Nagpur plateau, and the Vindhya range form the sub-divisions of Central Highlands.
a. Aravalli Mountains :
- The Aravallias form a chain of hills and stretch in the Southwest-Northeast direction.
- It is broad in the southwestern parts and narrows towards the northeast.
- The hills between Mount Abu and Ajmer represent the main block of Aravallis.
- The entire chain of hills in the Aravallis appears dumb-bell shaped die to narrowing of Aravalli range in the central part.
b. East Rajasthan Uplands:
- The East Rajasthan Uplands extend eastward from the foot of Aravalli hills.
- This region is characterised by low narrow hills trending in the Southwest - Northeast ( SW-NE) direction.
- These uplands are drained by Banas, a tributary of River Chambal.
- The area of East Rajasthan Upland near river Chambal has undergone severe down cutting by river channels and are known as Bihands (ravines).
- Bundelkhand region lies to the northeast of the Malwa plateau.
- It spreads across the northern part of Madhya Pradesh and the adjoining portion of south Uttar Pradesh.
- The topography of the Bundelkhand region is described as smooth undulating terrain having few isolated hills.
- It forms a part of the Yamuna river basin.
d. Malwa plateau:
- The Malwa plateau is located in the southwestern part of the Central Highlands
- It is characterised by low relief and undulating topography.
- It is located between the Aravalli range in the west and the Vindhya range in the south.
- It serves as a source region for rivers like Maahi which flow into Gujarat, and Chambal and Batwa rivers which flow towards the north.
- This region lies to the southeast of Bundllekhand and east of Malwa Plateau.
- This area is mostly drained by River Tons, River Son and its tributaries.
- Vindhyanchal forms a chain of scraps running in a Southwest-Northeast direction.
- Its eastward extension forms a small part of eastern Uttar Pradesh.
- Baghelkhand lies to the east of the Vindhyanchal and spreads across eastern Madhya Pradesh and the northern part of Chhattisgarh.
- Son-Narmada is generally taken as a physical boundary between Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau.
f. Chota Nagpur Plateau
- Chota Nagpur Plateau Spreads in Jharkhand and extends into the adjoining states like West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, and Odisha.
- Granitic gneiss is found in large tracts in the central part of this region.
- The rocks of Gondwana formation bearing high-grade coal seams, have made Chota Nagpur a mineral-rich region.
- The surfaces of all the plateaus are flat and are studded with low rounded hills.
g. Vindhya Range:
- The Vindhya range forms a boundary between North and South India.
- It spreads from the eastern part of Gujarat up to Bihar in the east covering a distance of about 1100 km.
- The southern slopes of the Vindhya range are quite steep.
- The northern slopes of the Vindhya range are quite gentle and extend northwards.