Answer the following question.
Explain the various steps involved in the production of artificial insulin.
Genetically Engineered Insulin:
- Insulin contains two short polypeptide chains: chain A and chain B linked together by disulphide bridges.
- In mammals, insulin is synthesized as a pro-hormone. It contains an extra stretch called C-peptide.
- C-peptide is absent in the mature insulin and is removed during maturation into insulin.
- Production of insulin by rDNA techniques was achieved by an American company, Eli Lilly in 1983. It prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B, chains of human insulin, and introduced them in plasmids of E. coli for production.
The A and B chains produced were separated, extracted, and combined, by creating disulfide bonds to form human insulin.
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