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Answer the Following Question. Explain the Various Steps Involved in the Production of Artificial Insulin. - Biology

Short Note

Answer the following question.
Explain the various steps involved in the production of artificial insulin.

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Solution

Genetically Engineered Insulin:

  • Insulin contains two short polypeptide chains: chain A and chain B linked together by disulphide bridges.
  • In mammals, insulin is synthesized as a pro-hormone. It contains an extra stretch called C-peptide.
  • C-peptide is absent in the mature insulin and is removed during maturation into insulin.
  • Production of insulin by rDNA techniques was achieved by an American company, Eli Lilly in 1983. It prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B, chains of human insulin, and introduced them in plasmids of E. coli for production.
    The A and B chains produced were separated, extracted, and combined, by creating disulfide bonds to form human insulin.
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