Answer in Brief
Answer the following in detail with reference to the given points
Elaborate the period of Detente.
(b) initiatives taken by superpower to reduce tensions
- Meaning of detente: Detente refers to efforts to bring about a reduction in tensions between the USA and the USSR. This was an attempt by the two 'superpowers' themselves. The Cuban Missile Crises brought in a realization of a possible nuclear confrontation and the need to deescalate the tensions.
- Initiatives taken by the superpowers to reduce tensions: After the Cuban Missile Crisis, both USA and USSR made several efforts at reducing bilateral tensions (detente). This included - (a) a hotline was set up between main leaders of the two nations (b) signing of agreements such as NNPT, LTBT to reduce nuclear weapons (c) 1972, Moscow Summit between President Nixon (USA) and Brezhnev (USSR). Other initiatives were -
1) Conference at Paris (1973) to bring the Vietnam crisis to an end.
2) Helsinki conference on security in Europe (1975) was attended by 35 nations including USA and USSR. It aimed to reduce the tensions between eastern and western European countries.
3) The first joint US-Soviet space flight was the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (1975)
4) The USA held a conference at Camp David in 1978 to resolve the long-pending Arab-Israel dispute. The 'Framework for Peace in the Middle East' was signed between President Carter (U8A) President Sadat (Egypt) and Prime Minister Begin (Israel).
Concept: Phase 1972 to 1979 (Détente)
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