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Answer the following in detail: Explain the causes of unemployment in India. - Economics

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Answer in Brief

Answer the following in detail:

Explain the causes of unemployment in India.

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The following are the causes of unemployment in India:

  1. Jobless growth: In India, since independence, the rate of growth of employment has been considerably less than the rate of economic growth. Moreover, the rate of economic growth has not been adequate enough to absorb the increasing labour force in India. As a result, there is widespread unemployment.
  2. Increase in the labour force: In India, the death rate has rapidly declined without a corresponding fall in the birth rate. As its effect, the population of India is increasing day-by-day. This has resulted in an equally large expansion in the labour force leading to unemployment.
  3. Excessive use of machinery: In India, manpower is available in large quantities. Under these circumstances, the country would have a labour intensive technique of production. However, in India, not only in' industries but also in agriculture, the capital-intensive technique of production is being used. This policy results in large scale unemployment.
  4. Lack of skill development programmes: In India, vocational skill development courses Which are compatible with the Indian industry are comparatively less in number. So, there is a dearth of skilled manpower needed by the industry.
  5. Expectations towards employment: Educated youth in India aspire for a white-collar job. There is a lack of innovative and entrepreneurial spirit to organize economic activities Where they can be self-employed. In India, most of the graduates prefer to remain unemployed till they get a job which is up to their expectations in terms of salary and nature of work.
  6. Seasonal nature of agriculture: Agriculture in India is seasonal by nature. It depends on monsoon. Lack of irrigation facilities, poor soil fertility, outdated production techniques, non-availability of certified seeds and fertilizers are the factors that reduce the capacity of agriculture for other gainful employment throughout the year. The labourers are employed only for a few months in a year. For the rest of the year, the labour force remains jobless.
  7. The slow rate of economic development: The overall economic development of India is very slow. Inadequate irrigation facilities, fertilizers. unsatisfactory growth of infrastructure is all due to inadequate industrial expansion. As a result. employment Opportunities have not increased enough in the rural sector to absorb the growing labour force.
  8. Migration of rural population: There has been a continuous migration of people from rural to urban areas in search of jobs. This has increased the problem of unemployment in urban areas.
Concept: Causes for Unemployment
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Balbharati Economics 11th Standard HSC Maharashtra State Board
Chapter 7 Unemployment in India
Exercise Q.6 | Q 2 | Page 49
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